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See detailExpliciter, ralentir et approfondir la schématisation en recherche qualitative
Lejeune, Christophe ULiege

Conference (2017, June 29)

Les méthodes de recherche qualitative existent depuis la naissance des sciences sociales. Il faut cependant attendre les années 1960 pour que Barney Glaser et Anselm Strauss en proposent une formalisation ... [more ▼]

Les méthodes de recherche qualitative existent depuis la naissance des sciences sociales. Il faut cependant attendre les années 1960 pour que Barney Glaser et Anselm Strauss en proposent une formalisation s'appuyant sur les usages alors en cours. Cette formalisation repose essentiellement sur le codage du matériau empirique (coding), la tenue du journal de recherche (memoing) et le traçage de diagrammes (diagramming). Les diagrammes en question se composent de bulles (nœuds) reliées entre elles par des lignes (arcs). Les graphes résultants ne sont ni hiérarchiques ni orientés (sauf avec certaines techniques spécifiques, comme l'analyse structurale). Dès leur formation, les étudiants en sciences sociales apprennent à penser au moyen de ces diagrammes typiques de l'analyse qualitative. Leur sémantique n'est cependant pas stabilisée. Selon les praticiens, une telle indétermination encourage d'ailleurs la créativité. Mais ces implicites en compliquent également l'appropriation par les étudiants. C'est donc essentiellement à des fins didactiques, que j'ai explicité le mode de construction de ces représentations graphiques dans mon «Manuel d'analyse qualitative. Analyser sans compter ni classer» (2014). J'y explicite une étape intermédiaire entre le codage et la schématisation, étape correspondant bien à la méthode qualitative, mais restée implicite jusqu'ici. Cette étape ralentit délibérément la réflexion de l'analyste au moment crucial de la conceptualisation. Ce faisant, elle l'approfondit... quand elle ne débouche pas sur la circonspection. [less ▲]

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See detailLa déprédation non aléatoire chez les oiseaux granivores du marais de Kagogo-Gisumo au Burundi
Nasasagare, Régine-Pacis; Ndayisaba, Ernest; Libois, Roland ULiege

in Bulletin scientifique sur l'environnement et la biodiversité (2017), 2

This study was conducted in order to show the role of environmental factors in the damage caused by birds on rice. In the Kagogo-Gisumo marsh, 20 plots were chosen randomly for a ornithological inventory ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted in order to show the role of environmental factors in the damage caused by birds on rice. In the Kagogo-Gisumo marsh, 20 plots were chosen randomly for a ornithological inventory and an evaluation of the losses due to the birds. This study revealed that environmental factors play an important role in bird damage to rice [less ▲]

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See detailQuel logiciel pour quelle analyse ?
Lejeune, Christophe ULiege

Learning material (2017)

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See detailDévelopper des logiciels en SHS. Retour réflexif et échange d’expériences
Lejeune, Christophe ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, January 30)

Cette séance sera consacrée aux expériences de la conception d’outil dans le cadre de la recherche en SHS. Christophe Lejeune, chercheur sociologue de l’Université de Liège et auteur de l’ouvrage « ... [more ▼]

Cette séance sera consacrée aux expériences de la conception d’outil dans le cadre de la recherche en SHS. Christophe Lejeune, chercheur sociologue de l’Université de Liège et auteur de l’ouvrage « Démocratie 2.0. Une histoire politique d’Internet » et du « Manuel d’analyse qualitative, sans compter, ni classer » témoignera de son propre retour réflexif sur la conception et le développement de Cassandre, une plateforme libre pour l’analyse qualitative à plusieurs. Initialement centrés sur la construction de registres (sorte d’étiquetage semi-automatique affiché en concordance), ses développements se sont progressivement recentrés sur le journal de bord. Chacun autour de la table pourra témoigner des différents aspects du contexte de développement de son/ses outils, détailler quelques fonctionnalités et présenter les formes de coopération que cela implique plus spécifiquement entre chercheur(s) et ingénieur(s), les effets produits dans cette nouvelle dialectique. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyser des contenus, des discours ou des vécus. Recherches (qualitatives) spécifiques ou conciliables ?
Lejeune, Christophe ULiege

Conference (2017, January 27)

La variété des techniques d’analyse de textes ne peut être comprise en dehors de l’émergence successive de l’analyse de contenu (dans l’entre-deux-guerres), de l’analyse de discours (dont une branche ... [more ▼]

La variété des techniques d’analyse de textes ne peut être comprise en dehors de l’émergence successive de l’analyse de contenu (dans l’entre-deux-guerres), de l’analyse de discours (dont une branche spécifiquement francophone) et de la méthode par théorisation ancrée (Grounded Theory Method). L’histoire de ces traditions méthodologiques permet à la fois de mieux comprendre les différences (géographiques, linguistiques et disciplinaires) entre les outils, de bien cerner la motivation de ces différences et de les mobiliser à meilleur escient. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnoter & Rédiger : développements actuels et potentiels de Cassandre et TXM
Lejeune, Christophe ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, January 23)

Les derniers développements du logiciel d'analyse qualitative Cassandre visent à éviter une focalisation excessive sur la seule tâche d'annotation, en donnant une place centrale au travail de rédaction de ... [more ▼]

Les derniers développements du logiciel d'analyse qualitative Cassandre visent à éviter une focalisation excessive sur la seule tâche d'annotation, en donnant une place centrale au travail de rédaction de la recherche scientifique. Devenu journal de bord collaboratif, Cassandre 3 encourage ses utilisateurs à écrire au quotidien et à publier de manière "agile" (tôt et souvent). En ce qui concerne le logiciel de textométrie TXM, la possibilité d'introduire interactivement des annotations dans le corpus, et de les exploiter, est expérimentée dans le cadre de plusieurs projets en cours (annotation d'entités du référentiel de sémantique historique SyMoGIH dans le projet BHE, intégration des fonctionnalités d'annotation de chaînes de co-référence d'Analec dans le projet ANR Democrat, ajout et correction de propriétés de mots dans le projet ANR-DFG PaLaFra, etc.). Cette séance du séminaire Cactus propose un échange informel et expert autour de ces réalisations et expérimentations actuelles. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyser et publier en recherche qualitative
Lejeune, Christophe ULiege

Learning material (2017)

La recherche qualitative reste mal comprise. Cette journée en rappelle donc les principes : place du chercheur, échantillonnage, saturation, types de codage, traçage de diagrammes & tenue du journal de ... [more ▼]

La recherche qualitative reste mal comprise. Cette journée en rappelle donc les principes : place du chercheur, échantillonnage, saturation, types de codage, traçage de diagrammes & tenue du journal de bord. Un atelier permet ensuite aux participants de s'approprier quelques-unes des ficelles d'étiquetage réflexif du «Manuel d'analyse qualitative. Analyser sans compter ni classer» (De Boeck, 2014). Cet atelier permet à chacun-e d'analyser un court extrait de matériau qualitatif de manière rigoureuse et créative. Christophe Lejeune coordonne ensuite une mise en commun aidant les participants à identifier les apports de chacun et les pièges à éviter. [less ▲]

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See detailTuned protection of aphids by ants against a predatory hoverfly
Detrain, Claire; Fichaux; Verheggen, François ULiege

in Ecological Entomology (2017)

1. Aphid-tending ants that feed on honeydew have evolved strategies against aphidophagous insects and tune their aggressive behaviour according to the level of danger for their trophobionts. Here we ... [more ▼]

1. Aphid-tending ants that feed on honeydew have evolved strategies against aphidophagous insects and tune their aggressive behaviour according to the level of danger for their trophobionts. Here we investigate how Lasius niger Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ants react to different instars of Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae) hoverflies which vary in their voracity and defensive abilities. 2. During pairwise encounters, early syrphid instars (eggs, L1, and L2 larvae) elicited lower aggression scores compared to third larval instars (L3), which was intensively bitten by ants. L3 tried to escape from ants by releasing a sticky and toxic secretion over biting ants that died or underwent severe morbidity. 3. In a standardised system including the host plant, aphid, tending ant, and hoverfly, the ability of ants to protect an Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) colony was evaluated. Early E. balteatus instars placed onto the plant elicited no mobilisation of ants, which often removed the hoverfly successfully. Eggs and early instars appeared as the weak links for integrated pest management by hoverfly auxiliaries. 4. In contrast, L3 induced the number of ant patrollers to increase at a local scale without any further recruitment from inside the ant nest. L3 syrphids were quite efficient at gluing ants with defensive secretions and at resisting to removal attempts by ants. 5. While supporting the assumption that ants tune their defensive response to the aphidophagous predator, the present results also showed a lack of efficient protection of their trophobionts from the most voracious late syrphid instar. [less ▲]

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See detailA machine learning approach for the identification of new biomarkers for knee osteoarthritis development in overweight and obese women
Lazzarini, N.; Runhaar, J.; Bay-Jensen, A. C. et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2017), 25(12), 2014-2021

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See detailRelationship between weight loss in obese knee osteoarthritis patients and serum biomarkers of cartilage breakdown: secondary analyses of a randomised trial
Bartels, E. M.; Henrotin, Yves ULiege; Bliddal, H. et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2017), 25(10), 1641-1646

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See detailHow did EU Citizens Experience Belgium’s Policy of Expulsion and Removal?
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege; Mescoli, Elsa ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2017)

The issue of experiencing illegality as EU citizens is here explored through analyzing the case study of Italians in Belgium who saw their residence permit removed by state authorities. This example shows ... [more ▼]

The issue of experiencing illegality as EU citizens is here explored through analyzing the case study of Italians in Belgium who saw their residence permit removed by state authorities. This example shows how becoming undocumented is the result of “a legal production of illegality” and that social policies switch from being instruments of protection for groups at risk of social exclusion to being instruments incentivizing individuals to participate in the labour market and consequently rejecting “unproductive migrants” from the social system. EU citizenship and freedom of movement within member states is thus questioned and conditioned to some other socio-economic issues. The notion of “deservingness” highlights that the restriction of the mobility of the poor in general shapes here in terms of “undeserving” the right to freedom of movement and determines further stratifications among migrants. Strategies are developed within an emerging discourse of a “moral economy of deservingness” and they respond to the individuals’ precarious statuses. [less ▲]

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See detailPhase II evaluation of anti-MAdCAM antibody PF-00547659 in the treatment of Crohn's disease: report of the OPERA study.
Sandborn, William J.; Lee, Scott D.; Tarabar, Dino et al

in Gut (2017)

OBJECTIVE: This phase II, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PF-00547659, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to human ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: This phase II, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PF-00547659, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to human mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule (MAdCAM) to selectively reduce lymphocyte homing to the intestinal tract, in patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease (CD). DESIGN: Eligible adults were aged 18-75 years, with active moderate-to-severe CD (Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) 220-450), a history of failure or intolerance to antitumour necrosis factor and/or immunosuppressive agents, high-sensitivity C reactive protein >3.0 mg/L and ulcers on colonoscopy. Patients were randomised to PF-00547659 22.5 mg, 75 mg or 225 mg or placebo. The primary endpoint was CDAI 70-point decrease from baseline (CDAI-70) at week 8 or 12. RESULTS: In all, 265 patients were eligible for study entry. Although CDAI-70 response was not significantly different with placebo versus PF-00547659 treatment at weeks 8 or 12, remission rate was greater in patients with higher baseline C reactive protein (>5 mg/L vs >18.8 mg/L, respectively). Soluble MAdCAM decreased significantly from baseline to week 2 in a dose-related manner and remained low during the study in PF-00547659-treated patients. Circulating beta7+ CD4+ central memory T-lymphocytes increased at weeks 8 and 12 with PF-00547659 treatment. No safety signal was seen. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical endpoint differences between PF-00547659 and placebo did not reach statistical significance in patients with moderate-to-severe CD. PF-00547659 was pharmacologically active, as shown by a sustained dose-related decrease in soluble MAdCAM and a dose-related increase in circulating beta7+ central memory T cells. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01276509; Results. [less ▲]

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See detailEndomicroscopie confocale dans la prise en charge des maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l'intestin.
LOLY, Jean-Philippe ULiege; SOMJA, Joan ULiege; REENAERS, Catherine ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2017), 13(571), 1431-1434

Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic diseases whose long-term evolution depends on the depth of remission. Their clinical and endoscopic evaluation is imperfect. The development of confocal ... [more ▼]

Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic diseases whose long-term evolution depends on the depth of remission. Their clinical and endoscopic evaluation is imperfect. The development of confocal endomicroscopy allows microscopic images to be obtained in vivo. These microscopic data are correlated with the activity of the disease. They predict a possible relapse of the disease and also predict the response to treatment with a biological agent, which allows to modify the therapy before the relapse or to make a rational choice between the different biological agents before introducing a new treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of adalimumab in patients with Crohn's disease and symptomatic small bowel stricture: a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort (CREOLE) study.
Bouhnik, Yoram; Carbonnel, Franck; Laharie, David et al

in Gut (2017)

OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of anti-tumour necrosis factors (anti-TNFs) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and symptomatic small bowel stricture (SSBS) is controversial. The aim of this study was to ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of anti-tumour necrosis factors (anti-TNFs) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and symptomatic small bowel stricture (SSBS) is controversial. The aim of this study was to estimate the efficacy of adalimumab in these patients and to identify the factors predicting success. DESIGN: We performed a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study in patients with CD and SSBS. The included patients underwent magnetic resonance enterography at baseline and subsequently received adalimumab. The primary endpoint was success at week 24, defined as adalimumab continuation without prohibited treatment (corticosteroids after the eight week following inclusion, other anti-TNFs), endoscopic dilation or bowel resection. The baseline factors independently associated with success were identified using a logistic regression model, leading to a simple prognostic score. Secondary endpoints were prolonged success after week 24 (still on adalimumab, without dilation nor surgery) and time to bowel resection in the whole cohort. RESULTS: From January 2010 to December 2011, 105 patients were screened and 97 were included. At week 24, 62/97 (64%) patients had achieved success. The prognostic score defined a good prognosis group with 43/49 successes, an intermediate prognosis group with 17/28 successes and a poor prognosis group with 1/16 successes. After a median follow-up time of 3.8 years, 45.7%+/-6.6% (proportion+/-SE) of patients who were in success at week 24 (ie, 29% of the whole cohort) were still in prolonged success at 4 years. Among the whole cohort, 50.7%+/-5.3% of patients did not undergo bowel resection 4 years after inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: A successful response to adalimumab was observed in about two-thirds of CD patients with SSBS and was prolonged in nearly half of them till the end of follow-up. More than half of the patients were free of surgery 4 years after treatment initiation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01183403; Results. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgium
Husson, Jean-François ULiege

in Yearbook of Muslims in Europe (2017), 8

Developments having taken place in 2015 regarding Muslims in Belgium.

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See detailOne-year and longer dual antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome: a Belgian position paper.
Sinnaeve, Peter R.; Desmet, Walter; Descamps, Olivier et al

in Acta Cardiologica (2017), 72(1), 19-27

Acute coronary syndrome patients receive DAPT up to one year after their initial event. Exceptions to the guideline-recommended one-year rule, however, are not uncommon. The reasoning behind shorter ... [more ▼]

Acute coronary syndrome patients receive DAPT up to one year after their initial event. Exceptions to the guideline-recommended one-year rule, however, are not uncommon. The reasoning behind shorter treatments, such as unacceptable bleeding risk or urgent surgery, should be well documented in the patient's charts and discharge letter. Based on recent evidence, patients at high risk for repetitive events should continue on low-dose ticagrelor without a significant interruption at one year and indefinitely in the absence of excess bleeding risk. As there is currently no reimbursement, policy makers and insurers should be made aware of the continuing risk and unmet clinical need in this patient population. Nevertheless, many unsolved questions need to be answered, both through additional analyses from recent trials such as PEGASUS-TIMI 54 or DAPT, as well as new carefully designed clinical studies. [less ▲]

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See detailInstances for the Multi-Trip Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows
François, Véronique ULiege; Arda, Yasemin ULiege

Software (2017)

Instance generator and instance files for the Multi-Trip Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows: the folder contains an instance generator usable in a web browser (no installation required), instance ... [more ▼]

Instance generator and instance files for the Multi-Trip Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows: the folder contains an instance generator usable in a web browser (no installation required), instance files (.txt) and a description of the problem and instance creation process (.pdf). [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive large neighborhood search for multi-trip vehicle routing with time windows
François, Véronique ULiege; Arda, Yasemin ULiege; Crama, Yves ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2017)

We consider a multi-trip vehicle routing problem with time windows (MTVRPTW), in which each vehicle can perform several trips during its working shift. This problem is especially relevant in the context ... [more ▼]

We consider a multi-trip vehicle routing problem with time windows (MTVRPTW), in which each vehicle can perform several trips during its working shift. This problem is especially relevant in the context of city logistics. Heuristic solution methods for multi-trip vehicle routing problems often separate routing and assignment phases in order to create trips and then assign them to the available vehicles. We show that this approach is outperformed by an integrated solution method in the presence of time windows. We use an automatic configuration tool to obtain efficient and contextualized implementations of our solution methods. We provide suitable instances for the MTVRPTW as well as an instance generator. Also, we discuss the relevance of two objective functions: the total duration and the total travel time. When minimizing the travel time, large increases of waiting time are incurred, which is not realistic in practice. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation of SNP effects for health traits in Holstein-Friesian cow calibration groups: Comparison of random forest methodology with genome wide association studies
Naderi Darbaghshahi, Saeid ULiege; Yin, T.; König, S.

in Vortragstagung der DGfZ und GfT (2016, September 16)

Up to now, only a few studies used RF methodology to discover genetic variants spread over the genome with regard to disease resistance or disease susceptibility in dairy cattle. In consequence, the ... [more ▼]

Up to now, only a few studies used RF methodology to discover genetic variants spread over the genome with regard to disease resistance or disease susceptibility in dairy cattle. In consequence, the objective of our study was to screen the whole genome in order to identify SNP with large effects by applying a classical GWAS approach and RF, and to infer overlaps between identified SNP with genes according to the Ensembl database (www.ensembl.org/biomart/martview). [less ▲]

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