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See detailFaire vivre une expérience d’évaluation mutuelle en formation initiale : quelle transposition vers les pratiques d’enseignement projetées ?
Goffin, Christelle ULg; Fagnant, Annick ULg

in Contextes et Didactiques (2017), 9

Dans une étude préalable menée en Belgique francophone (Fagnant et Goffin, à paraître), nous avons notamment montré que les futurs enseignants du secondaire supérieur (grades 10 - 12) témoignaient ... [more ▼]

Dans une étude préalable menée en Belgique francophone (Fagnant et Goffin, à paraître), nous avons notamment montré que les futurs enseignants du secondaire supérieur (grades 10 - 12) témoignaient d’expériences limitées en matière d’évaluation formative : leur vécu en tant qu’élève faisait davantage état de pratiques d’auto-notation que de réelles expériences d’autoévaluation. Voulant prendre en compte le décalage entre le cadre légal qui prescrit la mise en œuvre d’évaluations formatives et la réalité des classes où ce type d’évaluation semble être peu pratiqué, nous avons tenté d’agir dès la formation initiale. Ainsi, nous avons fait vivre à ces futurs enseignants une expérience d’évaluation mutuelle en tant qu’étudiant universitaire dans un cours pluridisciplinaire tout en les faisant réfléchir à la transposition de ces acquis vers leurs pratiques de stage en tant qu’enseignant d’une discipline donnée. Cet article présente le dispositif mis en place, tout en y portant un regard critique documenté par deux sources d’informations. La première concerne les commentaires rédigés par les étudiants sur ce qu’ils ont retenu du dispositif expérimenté. La seconde porte sur les pratiques d’évaluation que les futurs enseignants ont développées ou pourraient développer en classe avec leurs élèves, en lien avec l’expérience vécue en formation. Les analyses mettent en évidence que cette expérience a pu, dans une certaine mesure, nourrir leurs processus d’apprentissage et leur développement professionnel. [less ▲]

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See detailA diachronic take on the Source–Goal asymmetry: evidence from inner Asia Minor Greek
Georgakopoulos, Athanasios ULg; Karatsareas, Petros

in Luraghi, Silvia; Nikitina, Tatiana; Zanchi, Chiara (Eds.) Space in Diachrony (2017)

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See detailPréserver le bois de structure reste indispensable
Lesire, Cécile; Christiaens, Christophe; Charron, Stéphane et al

in CSTC-Contact (2017), 2017/3

The wood used in our regions as a structural element (Lumber, timber framing) are often made of softwood (spruce, Douglas fir, Scots pine, ...). However, these species of wood do not have sufficient ... [more ▼]

The wood used in our regions as a structural element (Lumber, timber framing) are often made of softwood (spruce, Douglas fir, Scots pine, ...). However, these species of wood do not have sufficient natural durability with respect to biological agents (insects and fungi). However, more and more professionals are wondering if this treatment remains necessary in the case of the presence of a (biodegradable) insulation already treated. In other words, would the treatment of the insulation (eg boron salt), because of its biocidal and volatile nature, also protect the wood structure adjacent to the biological agents ( fungi and insects)? [less ▲]

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See detailChild Safety Reference Frameworks: a Policy Tool for Child Injury Prevention at the Sub-national Level
Scholtes, Béatrice ULg; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; MacKay, Morag et al

in Central European Journal of Public Health (2017), 25(2), 120-128

Objectives: The aim of this paper is to present the Child Safety Reference Frameworks (CSRF), a policy advice tool that places evidence-based child safety interventions, applicable at the sub-national ... [more ▼]

Objectives: The aim of this paper is to present the Child Safety Reference Frameworks (CSRF), a policy advice tool that places evidence-based child safety interventions, applicable at the sub-national level, into a framework resembling the Haddon Matrix. Method: The CSRF is based on work done in previous EU funded projects, which we have adapted to the field of child safety. The CSRF were populated following a literature review. Results: Four CSRF were developed for four domains of child safety: road, water and home safety, and intentional injury prevention. Conclusion: The CSRF can be used as a reference, assessment and comparative tool by child safety practitioners and policy makers working at the sub-national level. [less ▲]

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See detailSkeletal health in breast cancer survivors
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Bergmann, Pierre; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg et al

in Maturitas (2017), (In press),

Although some risk factors for breast cancer might be protective for osteoporosis, several cross-sectional studies have reported, nevertheless, that patients with breast cancer have a lower bone mass and ... [more ▼]

Although some risk factors for breast cancer might be protective for osteoporosis, several cross-sectional studies have reported, nevertheless, that patients with breast cancer have a lower bone mass and potentially a higher incidence of fractures than expected. In any case, it appears that patients with breast cancer are not protected from osteoporosis, which provides further support for the recommendation that bone health is assessed after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Most adjuvant therapies will lead to increased bone loss and a higher fracture rate. Among the adjuvant therapy options for premenopausal patients with breast cancer, endocrine therapy (ovarian suppression) and chemotherapy can result in cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) of up to 10% at the lumbar spine after one year. Antiresorptive therapies prevent CTIBL in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Most of the evidence demonstrating the efficacy of bisphosphonates in the prevention of CTIBL is derived from clinical trials with zoledronic acid. The addition of zoledronic acid 4 mg per six months to adjuvant endocrine therapy maintained and even increased bone mass during a 3-year treatment period and significantly improved disease-free survival in a population of young women who underwent menopause due to the adjuvant treatment. The major contributor to bone loss in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women is the use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Oncology trials have underestimated the fracture risk in the setting of AI-induced bone loss. In the ABCSG-18 study, the only trial in which fracture incidence was the primary endpoint, the rate of clinical fractures was close to 10% after 3 years in the placebo group on AIs only. Bisphosphonates and denosumab at osteoporosis treatment doses can counteract AI-induced bone loss. In the ABCSG-18 trial, treatment with denosumab 60 mg injection every 6 months reduced the risk of first clinical fracture relative to placebo by 50%. Current guidelines recommend antiresorptive therapy in patients with a baseline T score of<−2.0 or with two or more clinical risk factors for fracture. These recent guidelines will need to be updated, as similar significant protective effects were seen in women with either normal or low bone mass. Moreover, a formal meta-analysis of individual patient data from more than 18,000 women in 26 randomized trials of adjuvant zoledronic acid or clodronate treatment for early breast cancer revealed that bisphosphonates significantly reduced the risk of first distant recurrence in bone and the risk of breast cancer mortality, at least in postmenopausal women. Even though the increased risk of fracture during adjuvant treatment for breast cancer in postmenopausal women is notable, an enhanced risk of fracture in long-term survivors of breast cancer remains under debate. The most recent studies suggest that Caucasian breast cancer survivors do not have a significantly increased risk of osteoporotic fracture over the long term. [less ▲]

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See detailPhylotranscriptomic consolidation of the jawed vertebrate timetree.
Irisarri, Iker; Baurain, Denis ULg; Brinkmann, Henner et al

in Nature ecology & evolution (2017), 1(9), 1370-1378

Phylogenomics is extremely powerful but introduces new challenges as no agreement exists on "standards" for data selection, curation and tree inference. We use jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) as model ... [more ▼]

Phylogenomics is extremely powerful but introduces new challenges as no agreement exists on "standards" for data selection, curation and tree inference. We use jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) as model to address these issues. Despite considerable efforts in resolving their evolutionary history and macroevolution, few studies have included a full phylogenetic diversity of gnathostomes and some relationships remain controversial. We tested a novel bioinformatic pipeline to assemble large and accurate phylogenomic datasets from RNA sequencing and find this phylotranscriptomic approach successful and highly cost-effective. Increased sequencing effort up to ca. 10Gbp allows recovering more genes, but shallower sequencing (1.5Gbp) is sufficient to obtain thousands of full-length orthologous transcripts. We reconstruct a robust and strongly supported timetree of jawed vertebrates using 7,189 nuclear genes from 100 taxa, including 23 new transcriptomes from previously unsampled key species. Gene jackknifing of genomic data corroborates the robustness of our tree and allows calculating genome-wide divergence times by overcoming gene sampling bias. Mitochondrial genomes prove insufficient to resolve the deepest relationships because of limited signal and among-lineage rate heterogeneity. Our analyses emphasize the importance of large curated nuclear datasets to increase the accuracy of phylogenomics and provide a reference framework for the evolutionary history of jawed vertebrates. [less ▲]

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See detailDétection de l’érosion dans un bassin versant agricole par comparaison d’images multidates acquises par drone
Lisein, Jonahtan; Pineux, Nathalie; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc et al

in Revue française de Photogrammétrie et de Télédétection (2017), 213-214(janvier-avril), 133-141

L’émergence des drones comme outils de cartographie rapide, de par leur capacité à répondre à des besoins très spécifiques, offre de nombreuses opportunités aux scientifiques. Par ailleurs, les récentes ... [more ▼]

L’émergence des drones comme outils de cartographie rapide, de par leur capacité à répondre à des besoins très spécifiques, offre de nombreuses opportunités aux scientifiques. Par ailleurs, les récentes évolutions des techniques de photogrammétrie et de vision par ordinateur permettent, à partir de prises de vues aériennes stéréoscopiques, de fournir aux géomorphologues et aux hydrologues des données topographiques à haute résolution (Tarolli, 2014). En effet, les algorithmes d’orientation externe (structure from motion en anglais, Snavely et al. (2008)) permettent la détermination automatique de la position et de l’orientation des prises de vue d’une collection d’images se recouvrant. La corrélation dense automatique permet ensuite, depuis un bloc d’images orientées, de modéliser finement le relief. L’utilisation en géomorphologie de drones pour la modélisation du relief en est encore à ses premiers souffles, mais montre un potentiel très intéressant. La précision des mesures photogrammétriques rivalise en effet avec les relevés LiDAR, pour un coût d’acquisition significativement moins élevé. Cette recherche se focalise sur deux objectifs. Le premier est de déterminer si la précision des mesures photogrammétriques issues d’images acquises avec un mini-drone permet la détection de changement de relief très fin via la comparaison d’acquisitions multi-dates. Le deuxième objectif, plus spécifique, est de déterminer la manière la plus optimale de paramétrer la compensation par faisceaux avec points d’appui au sein de la suite photogrammétrique open-source MICMAC. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobally Induced Forest: A Prepruning Compression Scheme
Begon, Jean-Michel ULg; Joly, Arnaud; Geurts, Pierre ULg

in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research (2017), 70

Tree-based ensemble models are heavy memory- wise. An undesired state of affairs consider- ing nowadays datasets, memory-constrained environment and fitting/prediction times. In this paper, we propose the ... [more ▼]

Tree-based ensemble models are heavy memory- wise. An undesired state of affairs consider- ing nowadays datasets, memory-constrained environment and fitting/prediction times. In this paper, we propose the Globally Induced Forest (GIF) to remedy this problem. GIF is a fast prepruning approach to build lightweight ensembles by iteratively deepening the current forest. It mixes local and global optimizations to produce accurate predictions under memory constraints in reasonable time. We show that the proposed method is more than competitive with standard tree-based ensembles under corresponding constraints, and can sometimes even surpass much larger models. [less ▲]

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See detailModalités d’acquisition et d'exploitation de la faune par les groupes humains durant le Pléniglaciaire supérieur en Europe orientale
Demay, Laëtitia ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Anatomically modern human groups have been established within a major part of the European continent during the Upper Palaeolithic. Major climatic variations took place during the Upper Pleniglacial (26 ... [more ▼]

Anatomically modern human groups have been established within a major part of the European continent during the Upper Palaeolithic. Major climatic variations took place during the Upper Pleniglacial (26 000 to 10 000 BP). They may have influenced settlements of the territories and modalities of adaptation of the human groups. Gravettian culture was developed between about 30,000 and 21,000 BP. While in Western Europe succeeded the Solutrean and then the Magdalenian traditions, in part of Central, Mediterranean and Eastern Europe some of gravettian characters has persisted through the Epigravetian traditions until the end of the Pleistocene (12,000-10,000 BP). Within the great plain of Eastern Europe, these two great techno-cultural complexes are characterized by numerous facies, the understanding of which is still incomplete. We can retrace the human economic and cultural way of life through their interactions with animals. Data were obtained from the zooarchaeological study of the animal bones in Ukrainian and Russian Paleolithic sites. This method includes paleontological and eco-ethological analysis of species, taphonomic and palethnographic agents. We highlighted that new techniques were developed which demonstrates important hunting activities, an unexpected variety of behaviors) and regional specificities. A critical synthesis was combined to these analyzes, taking in account data about fauna from the main archaeological sites of the Upper Pleniglacial in relation to other factors of variability: types of encampments, site functions, raw materials, cultural traditions . These regional and chronological comparisons make it possible to highlight the evolution of human behavior and the place of different animal species within societies. [less ▲]

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See detailImpaired bone formation in ovariectomized mice reduces implant integration as indicated by longitudinal in vivo micro-computed tomography
Li, Zihui; Kuhn, Gisela; Schirmer, Michael et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(9), 1-22

Although osteoporotic bone, with low bone mass and deteriorated bone architecture, provides a less favorable mechanical environment than healthy bone for implant fixation, there is no general agreement on ... [more ▼]

Although osteoporotic bone, with low bone mass and deteriorated bone architecture, provides a less favorable mechanical environment than healthy bone for implant fixation, there is no general agreement on the impact of osteoporosis on peri-implant bone (re)modeling, which is ultimately responsible for the long term stability of the bone-implant system. Here, we inserted an implant in a mouse model mimicking estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and we monitored with longitudinal in vivo micro-computed tomography the spatio-temporal changes in bone (re)modeling and architecture, considering the separate contributions of trabecular, endocortical and periosteal surfaces. Specifically, 12 week-old C57BL/6J mice underwent OVX/SHM surgery; 9 weeks after we inserted special metal-ceramics implants into the 6th caudal vertebra and we measured bone response with in vivo micro-CT weekly for the following 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ovariectomized mice showed a reduced ability to increase the thickness of the cortical shell close to the implant because of impaired peri-implant bone formation, especially at the periosteal surface. Moreover, we observed that healthy mice had a significantly higher loss of trabecular bone far from the implant than estrogen depleted animals. Such behavior suggests that, in healthy mice, the substantial increase in peri-implant bone formation which rapidly thickened the cortex to secure the implant may raise bone resorption elsewhere and, specifically, in the trabecular network of the same bone but far from the implant. Considering the already deteriorated bone structure of estrogen depleted mice, further bone loss seemed to be hindered. The obtained knowledge on the dynamic response of diseased bone following implant insertion should provide useful guidelines to develop advanced treatments for osteoporotic fracture fixation based on local and selective manipulation of bone turnover in the peri-implant region. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of protein, essential amino acids, B-Hydroxy B-Methylbutyrate, creatine, Dehydroepiandrosterone and fatty acid supplementation on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people aged 60 years and over. A systematic review of the litterature.
Beaudart, Charlotte ULg; Rabenda, Véronique ULg; Simmons, Michael et al

in Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging (2017), (Online First),

Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to investigate the effects protein, essential amino acids (EAA), β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), creatine ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to investigate the effects protein, essential amino acids (EAA), β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), creatine, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and fatty acid supplementation on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance of elderly subjects. Methods: Using the electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE we identified RCTs published until February 2016 which assessed the effects of these nutrient supplementation on muscle strength, muscle mass or physical performance. Study selection and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers. Results: Search strategy allowed us to identify 23 RCTs. Among them, four used proteins as nutritional supplement, seven EAAs, six creatine, four DHEA and finally, two HMB. From our systematic review, it seems that the effects of these supplementations on muscle health are rather limited. Only consistent effects of EAA supplementation on physical performance (3 out of the 4 RCTs using EAA supplementation found significant effect of this supplementation on physical performance) and HMB supplementation on muscle mass (all the 2 identified RCTs using HMB supplementation found significant effect of this supplementation on muscle mass) have been found across studies. No consistent effects were found for the other types of dietary supplementation. Because of the important limitations in study design, inconsistency and lack of directness, the overall quality of the evidence was judged to be low or very low using the GRADE system. Conclusion: This systematic review showed a limited effect of nutritional supplementation on muscle mass, muscle power and physical function. Inconsistent positive effects were observed for some specific supplementations but the results only concerned one aspect of the muscle. Well designed and appropriately powered RCTs are needed to provide evidence for appropriate clinical recommendations. [less ▲]