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See detailDevelopment of new drugs for an old target — the penicillin binding proteins.
Zervosen, Astrid ULg; Sauvage, Eric ULg; Frère, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Molecules (2012), 17(11), 12478-505

The widespread use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to the worldwide appearance of drug-resistant strains. Bacteria have developed resistance to β-lactams by two main mechanisms: the production of β ... [more ▼]

The widespread use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to the worldwide appearance of drug-resistant strains. Bacteria have developed resistance to β-lactams by two main mechanisms: the production of β-lactamases, sometimes accompanied by a decrease of outer membrane permeability, and the production of low-affinity, drug resistant Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBPs). PBPs remain attractive targets for developing new antibiotic agents because they catalyse the last steps of the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, which is unique to bacteria, and lies outside the cytoplasmic membrane. Here we summarize the “current state of the art” of non-β-lactam inhibitors of PBPs, which have being developed in an attempt to counter the emergence of β-lactam resistance. These molecules are not susceptible to hydrolysis by β-lactamases and thus present a real alternative to β-lactams. We present transition state analogs such as boronic acids, which can covalently bind to the active serine residue in the catalytic site. Molecules containing ring structures different from the β-lactam-ring like lactivicin are able to acylate the active serine residue. High throughput screening methods, in combination with virtual screening methods and structure based design, have allowed the development of new molecules. Some of these novel inhibitors are active against major pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and thus open avenues new for the discovery of novel antibiotics. [less ▲]

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See detailPERK IS REQUIRED AT THE ER-TO-MITOCHONDRIA CONTACT SITES TO CONVEY APOPTOSIS FOLLOWING ROS-MEDIATED ER STRESS
VERFAILLIE, T; RUBIO, N; GARG, A et al

in Cell Death & Differentiation (2012), 19

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See detailL'État-providence en Europe. Performance et dumping social
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Pestieau, Pierre ULg

Book published by Editions rue d'Ulm (2012)

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See detailDelayed graft function does not harm the future of donation-after-cardiac death in kidney transplantation.
Le Dinh, Hieu; WEEKERS, Laurent ULg; BONVOISIN, Catherine ULg et al

in Transplantation Proceedings (2012), 44(9), 2795-802

INTRODUCTION: Delayed graft function (DGF) occurs more frequently in kidney transplants from donation after cardiac death (DCD) than from donation after brain death (DBD). We investigated the effect of ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Delayed graft function (DGF) occurs more frequently in kidney transplants from donation after cardiac death (DCD) than from donation after brain death (DBD). We investigated the effect of DGF on posttransplantation outcomes among grafts from controlled DCD kidneys. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This single-center retrospective study recruited 80 controlled DCD kidneys transplanted from January 2005 to December 2011. Mean patient follow-up was 28.5 months. RESULTS: There were no primary nonfunction grafts; the DGF rate was 35.5%. Overall graft survival rates between groups with versus without DGF were 92.4% and 95.2% at 1 year, 92.4% and 87.1% at 3 years, and 84.7% and 87.1% at 5 years, respectively (P = not significant (NS)). Patients with versus without DGF showed the same survival rates at the corresponding time 92.4% vs 97.2%, 92.4% vs 93.9%, and 84.7% vs 93.9% (P = NS). Estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly lower in the DGF compared with the non-DGF group at hospital discharge (29 vs 42 mL/min; P = .00) and at 6 months posttransplantation (46 vs 52 mL/min; P = .04), but the difference disappeared thereafter: 47 vs 52 mL/min at 1 year, 50 vs 48 mL/min at 3 years, and 54 vs 53 mL/min at 5 years (P = NS). DGF did not increase the risk of an acute rejection episode (29.6% vs 30.6%; P = NS) or rate of surgical complications (33.3% vs 26.5%; P = NS). However, DGF prolonged significantly the length of hospitalization in the DGF versus the non- DGF group (18.9 vs 13 days; P = .00). Donor body mass index (BMI) >/= 30 kg/m(2), recipient BMI >/=30 kg/m(2), and pretransplantation dialysis duration increased the risk of DGF upon multivariate logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from the longer hospital stay, DGF had no deleterious impact on the future of kidney allografts from controlled DCD, which showed comparable graft and patient survivals, renal function, rejection rates, and surgical complications as a group without DGF. Therefore, DGF should no longer be considered to be a medical barrier to the use of kidney grafts from controlled DCD. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact fiscal d’un projet touristique sur les pouvoirs locaux et les entités fédérées
Husson, Jean-François ULg; Bayenet, Benoît

Report (2012)

Cette étude vise à préciser quels sont les retours fiscaux pour les pouvoirs locaux et les entités fédérées (Wallonie et Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles) d'investissements privés dans le secteur du tourisme ... [more ▼]

Cette étude vise à préciser quels sont les retours fiscaux pour les pouvoirs locaux et les entités fédérées (Wallonie et Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles) d'investissements privés dans le secteur du tourisme. L'approche est économique (présentation des mécanismes, estimation d'ordre de grandeur) et favorise, en général, le recours à des taux implicites. Un Executive summary et un tableur Excel, permettant d'effectuer des simulations, complètent le rapport. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of CO2 activation of carbon xerogels on the adsorption of methylene blue
Páez Martínez, Carlos ULg; Contreras, M. S.; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Adsorption (2012), 18(3-4), 199-211

The effect of physical activation with CO2 of carbon xerogels, synthesized by pyrolysis of a resorcinolformaldehyde aqueous gel, on the adsorption capacities of Methylene Blue (MB) was studied. The ... [more ▼]

The effect of physical activation with CO2 of carbon xerogels, synthesized by pyrolysis of a resorcinolformaldehyde aqueous gel, on the adsorption capacities of Methylene Blue (MB) was studied. The activation with CO2 lead to carbon materials with micropore volumes ranging from 0.28 to 0.98 cm³/g -1 C. MB-adsorption isotherm studies showed that the increase of micropore volume and corresponding surface area led to: (i) a significant improvement in the capacity of MB-adsorption at monolayer coverage, from 212 to 714 mgg -1 C, and (ii) an increase of the binding energy related to Langmuir isotherm constant up to 45 times greater than those of commercial microporous activated carbons used as reference (NORIT R2030, CALGON BPL and CALGON NC35). It is proposed that the increase of the binding energy results from chemical cleaning of the O-groups onto carbon surface as a consequence of CO2-activation, increasing the π-π interaction between MB and graphene layers of the carbon xerogels. Finally, a series of batch kinetics were performed to investigate the effect of CO2-activation conditions on the mechanism of MB-adsorption. Experimental data were fitted using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. From pseudo-second-order kinetic model, one observes an increase in the initial rate of MB-adsorption from 0.019 to 0.0565 min -1, by increasing the specific surface area from 630 to 2180 m²/g -1 C via CO2-activation. Depending on the activation degree of the carbons, two different mechanisms control the MB-adsorption rate: (i) at low activation degree, the intraparticle diffusion is the rate-limiting phenomenon, whereas (ii) at high activation degree, the reactions occurring at the solid/liquid interface are the rate-limiting steps. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. [less ▲]

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See detailBases physiopathologiques de la nutrition de l'enfant
Battisti, Oreste ULg

Learning material (2012)

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See detailLe financement public de l'islam, instrument d'une politique publique ?
Husson, Jean-François ULg

in Maréchal, Brigitte; El Asri, Farid (Eds.) Islam belge au pluriel (2012)

This chapter details the public financing of the muslim community in Belgium and analyzes them in a broader context : is this financing part of a public policy towards religious communities ?

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See detailLa Visitation au fil du temps: regard critique sur un processus d'écriture d'une histoire (XVIIIe-XXIe s.)
Henneau, Marie-Elisabeth ULg

in Henneau, Marie-Elisabeth; Vismara, Paola; Barbiche, Bernard (Eds.) et al Pour Annecy et pour le monde: l'ordre de la Visitation (1610-2010) (2011, December)

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See detailMicro finance et dévéloppement communautaire au Cameroun: Le cas du réseau des mutuelles communautaires de croissance (MC²)
Lekane Tsobgou, Dieudonné ULg

in these (2011), 1(473),

ABSTRACT Financing the rural economy has always been one of the main preoccupations of the Cameroonian economy which is 80% agricultural. The 1980-1990 decade has been marked in Cameroon by the drastic ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Financing the rural economy has always been one of the main preoccupations of the Cameroonian economy which is 80% agricultural. The 1980-1990 decade has been marked in Cameroon by the drastic fall in the kilogram price of coffee and cocoa; state disengagement from the sector of activities in the rural world and the implementation of the structural adjustment policies. In the context of economic and financial crisis, promoters of microfinance establishments invented new development strategies from the base. These new strategies were based on inclusive co-production, to tackle the financial exclusion and the social security of low income rural populations. Among the microfinance establishments intervening in financing in rural areas, figures the network of MC² (Community Growth Assistance or Village Community Bank), which is a group of agencies whose principal objective is to restore hope to the poor. The research question that has guided this work to progress: are MC² agencies proposing a different approach to financing economic and social projects in the rural world of Cameroon? To answer this question, we set as objective to analyse changes in the social-economic status of promoters of projects in Village Community Bank (MC²). The general hypothesis to be verified is as follows: MC² agencies propose a different approach to financing economic and social projects in the rural world Cameroon. This Doctorate/Ph.D work is organised in three parts: the first part presents the network of MC² agencies in Cameroon. The second one treats the initiatives of MC² in Cameroon. The third part is interested at the outcomes of the initiatives of MC² in Cameroon. The methodology adopted for the realisation of these three parts is based on the exploitation of data from documented sources from libraries, from the MC² network and from seminar and colloquium reports. To complete these data, direct field observations and field, surveys using questionnaires and semi-guided interviews were conducted with resource persons of MC² agencies, the Camccul, Adeac, Nowefor network and administrative sources. According to surveys results carried out from 1992 to 2008, all the 79 agencies and rural development funds MC² distributed in the 10 administrative regions of Cameroon have mobilised funds of about 20 billions CFA francs of savings, representing 18.18% of the total funds collected by EMF in Cameroon. During the same period, they collected and distributed 30 billions CFA francs of loans, representing 22.5% in total loans of the EMF of the country. This sum represented 22.53% of EMF credit of the country. The credits thus collected were directed towards the financing of 29 920 economic and social projects (individual and community). More than 600 000 customers of MC², representing 11.53% of the total EMF customers with 93 410 individual members (82 280 men and women) and 11 130 groups of 50 people on average as against 5 200 000 customers of all the EMF of Cameroon were directly affected and 1000 000 persons indirectly, by a varied gamme of financial and non financial products and services. These banking products comprise of: loans, savings, transfer of funds, training and taking care of the members, advice on householding. This research work has demonstrated that from of the 420 customers surveyed, whose economic projects benefited from MC² financing, 300 of them representing 71.41% witnessed an annual increase in their incomes of at least 150 000 CFA francs. In like manner, 35.71% of agricultural and commercial project promoters, 11% of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and poultry rearing projects, 9.52% promoters of fish rearing projects and 7.14% of promoters of crafts projects became autonomous after reimbursing at 100% the loans to their MC² agencies. The distribution of economic and social projects has been unequal across all the regions of Cameroon. This unequal distribution concerned the different types of projects financed as well as the accumulated amount given out. For example, the MC² agencies of West Cameroon financed in 2008, some 5 300 individual economic projects to the tune of 3 500 000 000 CFA francs against 250 individual economic projects financed by the MC² of South Cameroon to the tune of 20 000 000 CFA francs. The immediate gains of these projects permitted promoters to ameliorate their well being as concerns: access to basic necessities, basic education; access to health care; the construction and the amelioration of dwellings. The different approaches of MC² in the sustainable financing of economic project in the villages of Cameroon, therefore, concern: the availability of credit, provision of consumption loans, availability of investment loans. It also concerns support to the organisation of mini agricultural shows in MC² villages, support to projects and programs of women independence, the democratisation of access to credit using authentic collateral security and the follow up - evaluation of conception, implementation and profit stages of customers projects, by the managers and qualified agronomists. The diversity of non financial services and the financing strategies of social projects have permitted: to creat four solidarity health centres, five multi-media centres, four stores, one school farm training centre, support to the training of householding councellors and the vulgarisation of agricultural innovation. Changes that have resulted from these different approach and strategies put in place by these agencies in MC² villages of Cameroon are: increase in purchasing power has given opportunity to average, big customers and promoters of economic projects to change their social status and to build new social identities. In like manner, increase in the revenue of small customers, promoters of small economic projects has permitted the later to ameliorate their well being. This Doctorate/Ph.D thesis brings out the possibility to reduce the negative effects of poverty on the rural population, on the condition that the microfinance structure associate to their traditional services of micro credit and savings, innovating and complementary micro insurance and solidarity health association. Defeating poverty in rural areas rests on integrating the 3M model to the process of community development, where the formula VP= 3M. The main objective of this study has been achieved. Its general hypothesis confirmed since the MC² agencies have succeeded in proposing in 79 villages a new approach of rural financing based on the solidarity chain in intergrating the rich cultural heritage to financial innovation. Key words: microfinance, financial exclusion, MC² network, inclusive co- production, 3M model. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of a changing size-frequency distribution of landslides in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan, Central Asia
Schlögel, Romy; Torgoev; De Marneffe, Cédric et al

in Earth Surface Processes & Landforms (2011), 36/12

There is a strong possibility that environmental change (whether climate or land use) will be manifest as changes in the size–frequency distribution of landslides. Here, evidence is presented for this ... [more ▼]

There is a strong possibility that environmental change (whether climate or land use) will be manifest as changes in the size–frequency distribution of landslides. Here, evidence is presented for this from western Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Remote sensing and spatial analysis have been applied to map mass movements in the central part of the Maily‐Say Valley and to detect recent landslide activations. The evolution of landslide activity over the past 50 years has been analysed on the basis of pre‐existing landslide maps and new analyses of aerial photographs as well as Quickbird images. Five inventories were produced for the years 1962 (based on the existing map of 1962 and aerial photographs of 1962), 1984 (based on the existing map of 1977 and aerial photographs of 1984), 1996 (based on aerial photographs of 1996), 2002 (based on the existing map of 2003 and Quickbird imagery of 2002) and 2007 (based on Quickbird imagery of 2007). The geomorphologic features contained in the catalogues represent the landslide bodies observed from remote imagery of the corresponding year. Mapped landslides are generally considered as the result of a series of slope failure events. Size–frequency analyses applied to the five landslide inventories show that both the number and size of unstable slopes increased from 1962 (162 objects) to 2007 (208 objects) and the power‐law exponent decreased over time. This changing power‐law exponent may indicate that landslide‐related hazards are increasing. This tendency is documented in more detail for two active landslide zones, one in the main valley and one located to the west of it. Landslide detection methods were used to assist the evolution of slope instabilities. Choosing appropriate thresholds, the image subtraction method based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) allowed accurate detection of new sliding activation in these two zones. This confirmed the results of the more extensive survey that there is a systematic shift in power law exponents and size–frequency distributions for Central Asian landslides. [less ▲]

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See detailPorcine trial validation of model-based cardiovascular monitoring of acute pulmonary embolism
Revie, JA; Stevenson, DJ; Shaw, GM et al

in Proceedings of ANZICS 2011 (2011)

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See detailPulmonary embolism diagnostics from the driver function
Stevenson, DJ; Revie; Chase, JG et al

in Critical Care (2011), 15 (Suppl 1)

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See detailProcessing aortic and pulmonary artery waveforms to derive the ventricle time-varying elastance
Stevenson, D; Chase, JG; Hann, CE et al

in Proceedings of the 18th IFAC World Congress, 2011 (2011)

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See detailNeurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) improves the matching of diaphragmatic electrical activity and tidal volume in comparison to pressure support (PS)
Piquilloud, L; Chiew, YS; Bialais, E et al

in Intensive Care Medicine (2011), 37 (Suppl 1)

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See detailDiagnosing pulmonary embolism from a model-based cardiac driver function
Stevenson, D; Revie, JA; Chase, JG et al

in Proceedings of ANZICS 2011 (2011)

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See detailRespiratory variability in mechanically ventilated patients
Desaive, Thomas ULg; Piquilloud, L.; Moorhead, KT et al

in Critical Care (2011), 15 (Suppl 1)

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See detailModel-based cardiovascular monitoring of large pore hemofiltration during endotoxic shock in pigs
Revie, JA; Stevenson, DJ; Chase, JG et al

in Critical Care (2011), 15 (Suppl 1)

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See detailModel-based cardiovascular monitoring of acute pulmonary embolism in porcine trials
Revie, JA; Stevenson, DJ; Chase, JG et al

in Critical Care (2011), 15 (Suppl 1)

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