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See detailBeliefs in the population about cracking sounds produced during spinal manipulation
Demoulin, Christophe ULiege; Baeri, Damien; TOUSSAINT, Geoffrey ULiege et al

in Joint Bone Spine (in press)

Objectives: To examine beliefs about cracking sounds heard during highvelocity lowamplitude (HVLA) thrust spinal manipulation in individuals with and without personal experience of this technique. Methods ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To examine beliefs about cracking sounds heard during highvelocity lowamplitude (HVLA) thrust spinal manipulation in individuals with and without personal experience of this technique. Methods: We included 100 individuals. Among them, 60 had no history of spinal manipulation, including 40whowereasymptomatic with or without a past history of spinal pain and 20whohad nonspecific spinal pain. The remaining 40 patients had a history of spinal manipulation;amongthem, 20 were asymptomatic and 20 had spinal pain. Participants attended a oneonone interview during which they completed a questionnaire about their history of spinal manipulation and their beliefs regarding sounds heard during spinal manipulation. Results: Mean age was 43.5±15.4 years. The sounds were ascribed to vertebral repositioning by 49% of participants and to friction between two vertebras by 23% of participants; only 9% of participants correctly ascribed the sound to the release of gas. The sound was mistakenly considered to indicate successful spinal manipulation by 40% of participants. No differences in beliefs were found between the groups with and without a history of spinal manipulation. Conclusions: Certain beliefs have documented adverse effects. This study showed a high prevalence of unfounded beliefs regarding spinal manipulation. These beliefs deserve greater attention from healthcare providers, particularly those who practice spinal manipulation. [less ▲]

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See detailSteady-State, Nonlinear Analysis of Large Arrays of Electrically Actuated Micromembranes Vibrating in a Fluid
Halbach, Alexandre ULiege; Geuzaine, Christophe ULiege

in Engineering with Computers (in press)

This paper describes a robust and efficient method to obtain the steady-state, nonlinear behaviour of large arrays of electrically actuated micromembranes vibrating in a fluid. The nonlinear ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a robust and efficient method to obtain the steady-state, nonlinear behaviour of large arrays of electrically actuated micromembranes vibrating in a fluid. The nonlinear electromechanical behavior and the multiple vibration harmonics it creates are fully taken into account thanks to a multiharmonic finite element formulation, generated automatically using symbolic calculation. A domain decomposition method allows to consider large arrays of micromembranes by efficiently distributing the computational cost on parallel computers. Two- and three- dimensional examples highlight the main properties of the proposed method. [less ▲]

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See detail‘Quality by Design’ approach for the analysis of impurities in pharmaceutical drug products and drug substances
Dispas, Amandine ULiege; Avohou, Tonakpon Hermane ULiege; Lebrun, Pierre ULiege et al

in Trends in Analytical Chemistry (in press)

The pharmaceutical industry is highly regulated by quality policies. The concept of risk management is strongly integrated into the quality assurance system to ensure pharmaceuticals’ quality and ... [more ▼]

The pharmaceutical industry is highly regulated by quality policies. The concept of risk management is strongly integrated into the quality assurance system to ensure pharmaceuticals’ quality and patients’ safety. In the context of quality control, the detection of impurities in raw materials and finished products is a major concern. It can be challenging for analytical scientists to meet specificity/selectivity and sensitivity requirements. Obviously, separation techniques are widely used for the detection of impurities but the method development required to achieve Analytical Target Profile (ATP) concerns is often challenging. Therefore, to ensure pragmatic and systematic methods development and simultaneously manage the risk associated with analytical methods, the principles of Quality by Design (QbD) should be applied. This paper provides an overview of QbD principles and statistical strategies (mainly DoE-DS approach) which can be applied to impurity detection methods, as well as a review of the literature where QbD has been applied to these types of analytical methods. [less ▲]

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See detailTetrabutyl ammonium salts: cheap catalysts for the facile and selective synthesis of a-alkylidene cyclic carbonates from CO2 and alkynol
Méreau, Raphaël; Grignard, Bruno ULiege; Boyaval, Amélie ULiege et al

in ChemCatChem (in press)

n-tetrabutyl ammonium organic salts are used for the first time as catalysts for the coupling of CO2 with 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol to form α-methylene cyclic carbonate. The final yields could reach 98% in ... [more ▼]

n-tetrabutyl ammonium organic salts are used for the first time as catalysts for the coupling of CO2 with 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol to form α-methylene cyclic carbonate. The final yields could reach 98% in less than 10 hours at 353K and 3MPa under solvent free conditions. A particular synergistic effect between the cation and the anion of the organocatalyst is demonstrated through catalyst screening. Online kinetic studies by ATR-IR spectroscopy correlated to DFT calculations reveal a compelling evolution of the solvation of the catalyst during the reaction that provide an understanding of the underlying reason for the observed unique kinetics and selectivity. Such in-depth fundamental mechanistic and kinetic studies enable determining and comprehending the key parameters favouring the design of novel highly active and selective catalysts for the valorisation [less ▲]

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See detailMeat retail conditions within the establishments of Kigali city (Rwanda): bacteriological quality and risk factors for Salmonella occurrence
Niyonzima, Eugene ULiege; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (in press)

Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within ... [more ▼]

Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within the establishments of Kigali (Rwanda). A questionnaire survey was carried out in 150 retail outlets to characterise meat retail conditions. Additionally, 270 retail meat samples were analysed for the enumeration of hygiene indicator bacteria (total mesophilic bacteria and Escherichia coli) and for the qualitative detection of Salmonella, using conventional culture methods. The results revealed that beef was the predominant meat sold within the retail premises of Kigali city, while meat from non-bovine animal species was mainly sold in large establishments. Salmonella was detected in 19.6% of all the retailed meat samples evaluated, whereas the mean loads for total mesophilic bacteria and E. coli were 7.3 and 3.5 log cfu/g, respectively. Three factors, namely the temperature conditions of the meat under retail, the cleanability of the used meat cutting boards, and the training of personnel in hygienic meat handling practices, were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with the risk of Salmonella occurrence in the retailed meat. The findings from this study highlight the need for improvements in hygienic meat handling practices, particularly, in small and medium meat retail establishments in Kigali. [less ▲]

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See detailDans l’âme d’un libertin : Roger et les jésuites
De Marco, Rosa ULiege

in BLANQUIE, Christophe; TSIMBIDY, Myriam (Eds.) Bussy: Horizons Religieux (in press)

Dans une galerie imaginaire d’hommes illustres, le comte Roger de Bussy Rabutin pourrait paraître à côté du pape Urbain VIII Barberini (1568– 1644), de Gaston-Henri de Bourbon, duc de Verneuil (1601-1682 ... [more ▼]

Dans une galerie imaginaire d’hommes illustres, le comte Roger de Bussy Rabutin pourrait paraître à côté du pape Urbain VIII Barberini (1568– 1644), de Gaston-Henri de Bourbon, duc de Verneuil (1601-1682) demi-frère de Louis XIII, du duc Nicolas-François de Lorraine (1609-1670) ou d’Henri II de Bourbon, prince de Condé (1588-1646). Quel serait le point commun parmi tous ces personnages ? [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of flower traits and hosts on the abundance of parasitoids in perennial multiple species wildflower strips sown within oilseed rape (Brassica napus) crops
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULiege; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (in press)

Reducing the use of insecticides is an important issue for agriculture today. Sowing wildflower strips along field margins or within crops represents a promising tool to support natural enemy populations ... [more ▼]

Reducing the use of insecticides is an important issue for agriculture today. Sowing wildflower strips along field margins or within crops represents a promising tool to support natural enemy populations in agricultural landscapes and, thus, enhance conservation biological control. However, it is important to sow appropriate flower species that attract natural enemies efficiently. The presence of prey and hosts may also guide natural enemies to wildflower strips, potentially preventing them from migrating into adjacent crops. Here, we assessed how seven flower traits, along with the abundance of pollen beetles (Meligethes spp., Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and true weevils (Ceutorhynchus spp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae), affect the density of parasitoids of these two coleopterans in wildflower strips sown in an oilseed rape field in Gembloux (Belgium). Only flower traits, not host (i.e. pollen beetles and true weevils) abundance, significantly affected the density of parasitoids. Flower colour, ultraviolet reflectance and nectar availability were the main drivers affecting parasitoids. These results demonstrate how parasitoids of oilseed rape pests react to flower cues under field conditions. Similar analyses on the pests and natural enemies of other crops are expected to help to develop perennial flower mixtures able to enhance biological control throughout a rotation system. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Questionnaire on lateral elbow tendinopathy for French-speaking patients
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege; Bruyère, Olivier ULiege

in Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (in press)

Introduction: The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient- Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire was specifically designed to ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient- Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire was specifically designed to measure pain and functional limitations in patients with lateral epicondylitis. The aims were to adapt the PRTEE questionnaire into French (PRTEE-F) and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this translated version of the questionnaire . Methods: The PRTEE was translated and cross-culturally adapted into French according to international guidelines. To assess the reliability and validity of the PRTEE-F, 115 participants were asked twice to fill in the PRTEE-F, and once the DASH and the SF-36. Internal consistency (using Cronbach’s alpha), test-retest reliability (using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change), and convergent and divergent validity (using the Spearman’s correlation coefficients respectively with the DASH and with some subscales of the SF-36) were assessed. Results: The PRTEE was translated into French without any problems. PRTEE-F showed a good test-retest reliability for the overall score (ICC 0.86) and for each item (ICC 0.8-0.96) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 1⁄4 0.98). The correlation analyses revealed high correlation coefficients between PRTEE-F and DASH (convergent validity) and, as expected, a low or moderate correlation with the divergent subscales of the SF-36 (discriminant validity). There was no floor or ceiling effect. Discussion and Conclusions: The PRTEE questionnaire was successfully cross-culturally adapted into French. The PRTEE-F is reliable and valid for evaluating French-speaking patients with lateral elbow tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslation and Validation of the VISA-P Questionnaire for French-Speaking Patients
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; DELVAUX, François ULiege; Oppong-Kyei, Julian et al

in Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (in press)

Background: The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P), originally developed in English, assesses the severity of patellar tendinopathy symptoms. To date, no French version of the ... [more ▼]

Background: The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P), originally developed in English, assesses the severity of patellar tendinopathy symptoms. To date, no French version of the questionnaire exists. Objectives: The aim of our study was to translate the VISA-P into French and verify its psychometric properties. Methods: The translation and cultural adaptation were performed according to international recommendations in 6 steps: initial translation, translation merging, back translation to the original language, use of an expert committee to reach a prefinal version, test of the prefinal version, and expert committee appraisal of a final version. Afterward, the psychometric properties of the final French version (VISA-PF) were assessed in 92 subjects, divided into 3 groups: pathological subjects (n = 28), asymptomatic subjects (n = 22), and sports-risk subjects (n = 42). Results: All members of the expert committee agreed with the final version. On a scale ranging from 0 to 100, with 100 representing an asymptomatic subject, the average SD scores on the VISA-PF were 53 17 for the pathological group, 99 2 for the healthy group, and 86 14 for the sports-risk group. The test-retest reliability of the VISA-PF was excellent, with good internal consistency. Correlations between the VISA-PF and divergent validity of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were low, and the correlation coefficient values measured between the VISA-PF scores and converged items of the SF-36 were higher. Conclusion: The VISA-PF is understandable, valid, and suitable for French-speaking patients with patellar tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailValidity and reliability of the French translation of the VISA-A questionnaire
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege; Bruyère, Olivier ULiege

in Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (in press)

Introduction: The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment – Achilles tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-A) evaluates the clinical severity of Achilles tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to translate ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment – Achilles tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-A) evaluates the clinical severity of Achilles tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to translate the VISA-A into French and to study the reliability and validity of this French version, the VISA-AF.Method: The VISA-A was translated into French to produce the VISA-AF using a validated methodology in six steps. Thereafter, several psychometric properties of this French version such as test–retest reliability, internal consistency, construct validity and floor and ceiling effects were evaluated. Therefore, we recruited 116 subjects, distributed into 3 groups: pathological patients (n=31), at-risk athletes (n=63) and healthy people (n=22). Results: The final version of the VISA-AF was approved by an expert committee. On a scale ranging from 0 to 100, the average scores of the VISA-AF obtained were 59 (± 18) for the pathological group, 99 (± 1) for the healthy group and 94 (± 7) for the at-risk group. The VISA-AF shows excellent reliability, low correlations with the discriminant subscales of the SF-36 and moderate correlations with the convergent subscales of the SF-36. Conclusions: The French version of the VISA-A is equivalent to its original version and is a reliable and valid questionnaire for French- speaking patients with Achilles tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) questionnaire for French-speaking patients
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Buckinx, Fanny ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege et al

in Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (in press)

Introduction: The femoropatellar syndrom is one of the most common knee problem observable. The Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) is a questionnaire used to examine the subjective symptoms, such as ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The femoropatellar syndrom is one of the most common knee problem observable. The Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) is a questionnaire used to examine the subjective symptoms, such as the functional limitations and the anterior knee pain. Objective: The aims of the study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the AKPS questionnaire into French and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this translated version of the questionnaire (AKPS- F). Patients : 101 patients with femoropatellar syndrom. Methods: The translation and the inter-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire has been adopted through the international recommendations highlighting 6 different steps : initial translation, translations synthesis, translation back to the original language, committee of experts, test of the pre-final version and the approval from the expert’s committee. Indeed the French version obtained, the participants have filled twice the AKPS with an interval of 7 days, and the Short Form Health in order to evaluate the psychometric properties (the internal coherence, the test-retest fidelity and the built validity). Results:The AKPS shows a high level of fidelity in the test-retest with a score of 0.97. The French translation also has a high internal coherence score with 0.87. The Kujula shows a great correlation with a part of the converging sub-scales from the SF36. There is a low/average correlation noticeable with the diverging sub-scales. There is no floor/ceiling effect. Discussion and conclusions: This study shows that AKPS-F is reliable and valid for the French patients suffering from a femoropatellar syndrom and can therefore be used. [less ▲]

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See detailMuscle strength profile of patients with patellar tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Libertiaux, Vincent ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege

in Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (in press)

Introduction: Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is commonly observed in jumping sports. Even if its biomechanic is somewhat explored, no information is known about the muscle strength profile of these patients ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is commonly observed in jumping sports. Even if its biomechanic is somewhat explored, no information is known about the muscle strength profile of these patients. Objective: To determine if there exists a specific profile of patients suffering from a PT. Patients: 43 patients (29+/-9.8 y.o) suffering from PT were recruited. To be eligible, the patients must not have suffered from any other traumatic or micro-traumatic injury than the PT on the pathologic limb. Methods: After a physical examination, the tendon damage was assessed by ultrasounds examination. The patients were then tested on an isokinetic dynamometer and the maximum torque (per unit of mass, MTm) developed by the quadriceps and the hamstrings were recorded for various angular velocities. After each test, a visual analog scale (VAS) was used to estimate the pain felt by the patients. Results: No significant correlation was found between the MTm and the demographic variables. The difference in MTm between the healthy and the pathological limbs was significant only at a rate of 60°/s, for both the quadriceps and the hamstrings. Lastly, the VAS score showed that the most intense pain was experienced after the eccentric test. Conclusions: There is no clear patient strength profile emerging from the isokinetic test. This stresses the importance for the clinicians to make testing and to apply a personalized treatment to each patient. Finally, the isokinetic eccentric testing of the quadriceps can be used to induce a mechanical stress on the tendon for a reliable pain assessment. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the effect of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) with Hyaluronic Acid (HA) injections to treat chronic Jumper's knee
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; DEROISY, Rita ULiege; SAMSON, Antoine ULiege et al

in Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (in press)

Introduction: Patellar Tendinopathies (PT) represent a very frequent disorder which incidence can reach 30-50% among jumping sports. This trouble is often rebel to classical treatment. Objective: To ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Patellar Tendinopathies (PT) represent a very frequent disorder which incidence can reach 30-50% among jumping sports. This trouble is often rebel to classical treatment. Objective: To compare the efficacy of a single injection of RPR to a double infiltration of HA at one week interval. Patients/Methods: Thirty-three patients suffering from PT were enrolled into the study and split into two randomized groups . Eighteen patients (Group 1) have received one PRP injection and the other fifteen subjects (Group 2) received two HA infiltrations. Pain and functionality of the knee were evaluated before injection (T0), 6 weeks (T2) and 3 months (T3) after injections: pain with VAS and pressure algometer, algofunctional scores with IKDC and VISA-P questionnaires, ultrasound, isokinetic evaluation (quadriceps contractions : concentric 60°/sec (C60), concentric 240°/sec (C240), excentric 30°/sec (E30) and VAS during testing). Results: At baseline, difference existed only between groups for algometer, tendon thickness and axial hypoechoic area. In both groups, VAS, algometer, IKCD, VISA-P, VAS for isokinetic testing C60, C240 and E30 were significantly improved at T2 and T3 compared to T0. Comparison between the 2 groups showed no difference excepted for algometer, tendon thickness (T2, T3) and axial hypoechoic area (T2). Discussion and conclusions: There existed a similar improvement of the symptoms in both groups. PRP has already shown its efficacy in PT. HA should probably be a new therapeutic opportunity in this indication. Nevertheless, it should better, for further studies, to include a more homogeneous population and a longer follow-up period of time. [less ▲]

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See detailIllness perceptions explain the variance in functional disability, but not habitual physical activity, in patients with chronic low back pain: A cross-sectional study
Leysen, Marijke; Nijs, Jo; Van Wilgen, Paul et al

in Pain Practice (in press)

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See detailLes termini du pomerium : des bornes consacrées au dieu Terminus ?
Berthelet, Yann ULiege

in Koch-Piettre, Renée (Ed.) Mémoires de la terre (in press)

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See detailJours fastes et néfastes dans le calendrier public romain, à la fin de la République et au début du Principat. Une dichotomie hémérologique éloignée de son usage moderne.
Berthelet, Yann ULiege

in MARTI, Lionel (Ed.) Les hémérologies : Mésopotamie, Rome, Chine, Japon. (in press)

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See detailReducing agent can be omitted in the incubation medium of the batch in vitro fermentation model of the pig intestines
Poelaert, Christine; Nollevaux, Geraldine; Boudry, Christelle et al

in Animal (in press)

Over the past decade, in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on the digestive physiology and health. In these methods, ingredients are fermented by ... [more ▼]

Over the past decade, in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on the digestive physiology and health. In these methods, ingredients are fermented by a bacterial inoculum diluted in a mineral buffer solution. Generally, a reducing agent such as Na2S or cysteine-HCl generates the required anaerobic environment by releasing metabolites similar to those produced when protein is fermented, possibly inducing a dysbiosis. An experiment was conducted to study the impact of two reducing agents on results yielded by such in vitro fermentation models. Protein (soybean proteins, casein) and carbohydrate (potato starch, cellulose) ingredients were fermented in vitro by bacteria isolated from fresh feces obtained from three sows in three carbonate-based incubation media differing in reducing agent: (i) Na2S, (ii) cysteine-HCl and (iii) control with a mere saturation with CO2 and devoid of reducing agent. The gas production during fermentation was recorded over 72 h. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production after 24 and 72 h and microbial composition of the fermentation broth after 24 h were compared between ingredients and between reducing agents. The fermentation residues after 24 h were also evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Results showed that the effect of the ingredient induced higher differences than the reducing agent. Among the latter, cysteine-HCl induced the strongest differences compared with the control, whereas Na2S was similar to the control for most parameters. For all ingredients, final gas produced per g of substrate was similar ( P>0.10) for the three reducing agents whereas the maximum rate of gas production ( Rmax) was reduced ( P<0.05) when carbohydrate ingredients were fermented with cysteine-HCl in comparison to Na2S and the control. For all ingredients, total SCFA production was similar ( P>0.10) after 24 h of fermentation with Na2S and in the control without reducing agent. Molar ratios of branched chain-fatty acids were higher ( P<0.05) for protein (36.5% and 9.7% for casein and soybean proteins, respectively) than for carbohydrate (<4%) ingredients. Only fermentation residues of casein showed a possible cytotoxic effect regardless of the reducing agent ( P<0.05). Concerning the microbial composition of the fermentation broth, most significant differences in phyla and in genera ascribable to the reducing agent were found with potato starch and casein. In conclusion, saturating the incubation media with CO2 seems sufficient to generate a suitable anaerobic environment for intestinal microbes and the use of a reducing agent can be omitted. [less ▲]

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See detailCyclic and Fatigue Behaviour of Rock Materials: Review, Interpretation and Research Perspectives
Cerfontaine, Benjamin ULiege; Collin, Frédéric ULiege

in Rock Mechanics & Rock Engineering (in press)

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive state of the art of fatigue and cyclic loading of natural rock materials. Papers published in the literature are classified and listed in order to ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive state of the art of fatigue and cyclic loading of natural rock materials. Papers published in the literature are classified and listed in order to ease bibliographical review, to gather data (sometimes contradictory) on classical experimental results and to analyse the main interpretation concepts. Their advantages and limitations are discussed, and perspectives for further work are highlighted. The first section summarises and defines the different experimental set-ups (type of loading, type of experiment) already applied to cyclic/fatigue investigation of rock materials. The papers are then listed based on these different definitions. Typical results are highlighted in next section. Fatigue/cyclic loading mainly results in accumulation of plastic deformation and/or damage cycle after cycle. A sample cyclically loaded at constant amplitude finally leads to failure even if the peak load is lower than its monotonic strength. This subcritical crack is due to a diffuse microfracturing and decohesion of the rock structure. The third section reviews and comments the concepts used to interpret the results. The fatigue limit and S–N curves are the most common concepts used to describe fatigue experiments. Results published from all papers are gathered into a single figure to highlight the tendency. Predicting the monotonic peak strength of a sample is found to be critical in order to compute accurate S–N curves. Finally, open questions are listed to provide a state of the art of grey areas in the understanding of fatigue mechanisms and challenges for the future. [less ▲]

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See detailFiscalité régionale et locale : actualités en droit public
Lombaert, Bruno; Thomas, Mathieu; Vrancken, Martin ULiege

in Le droit administratif répressif, fiscal et indemnitaire (in press)

La contribution présente des décisions récentes en fiscalité régionale et locale. Elle se penche également sur l'appréhension des intercommunales par l'Etat et sur leur sujétion à l'impôt sur les ... [more ▼]

La contribution présente des décisions récentes en fiscalité régionale et locale. Elle se penche également sur l'appréhension des intercommunales par l'Etat et sur leur sujétion à l'impôt sur les personnes morales ou sur les sociétés. [less ▲]

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See detailJean Desquesnes : Il primo libro de madrigali a cinque voci (Anvers, Phalèse et Bellère, 1594). Edition critique
Degroote, Frédéric ULiege

in Revue de la Société Liégeoise de Musicologie (in press)

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