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See detailRegression analysis of different sources of dormancy duration value for the potato varieties.
Visse-Mansiaux, Margot ULg; Vanderschuren, Hervé ULg; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

Poster (2017, February 08)

A dormancy value or duration defines the period potato tubers can be stored before initiating sprouting. Characterization of dormancy value provides useful information to implement strategies for short or ... [more ▼]

A dormancy value or duration defines the period potato tubers can be stored before initiating sprouting. Characterization of dormancy value provides useful information to implement strategies for short or long-term storage of potato varieties and can be instrumental to schedule treatment of potato tubers with sprouting inhibitors. The dormancy values of the varieties are provided by breeders. Those values can be retrieved from online databases. The objective of this study is to compare the dormancy values gathered from online databases with the dormancy values collected in Switzerland through field and storage experiments. This comparison is performed using linear regression analysis. So, 2 sources of information were used: 1) dormancy of cultivars provided by breeders (breeders dormancy) 2) dormancy of cultivars obtained from field experiments (field dormancy). The field experiments were managed in Switzerland during 25 years in four different locations and for 721 varieties of potatoes. Field data were registered during the growing season such as weather data (e.g. temperature, rainfall etc.), soil data and crop management data. One month after harvest, the potatoes were stored at 8°C in wooden crates containing 7 kg of potato tubers. The dormancy was defined as the time between the harvest and the emergence of the first sprouts. The results are the following: the dormancy of cultivars provides by online databases are incomplete and heterogeneous. This can be explained by the heterogeneity of the methods used by breeders to determine the dormancy values (e.g. the use of different control varieties and the use of different dormancy scales). The comparison of breeders and field dormancy through linear regression leads to the proposal of novel methodologies to assess and calculate the dormancy values of the potato varieties. Our results also stress the importance of climatic and field parameters to estimate the dormancy length of a given potato stock. [less ▲]

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See detailQuality and chemical composition of longissimus dorsi muscle of Béni-Guil sheep breeding in eastern Morocco
Belhaj, Kamal ULg; Mansouri, Farid; Ben-Moumen, Abdessamad et al

Poster (2017, February 07)

The aim of the present study was to analyze the lipid, cholesterol, fatty acids composition and amino acids from red meat of Béni-Guil sheep breeding in eastern of Morocco, which was breeded in semi ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to analyze the lipid, cholesterol, fatty acids composition and amino acids from red meat of Béni-Guil sheep breeding in eastern of Morocco, which was breeded in semi-extensive breeding, Its very appreciated by the consumer, but this good reputation is still only on Informal Hedonic Tests, the Consumers speak about the best sheep meat as regards the quality and intensity of its aroma and succulence, flavour and tenderness. The objective of this research is to evaluate the nutritional, organoleptic and health quality of this meat by biochemical analyzes, in particular the cholesterol, fatty acid profile (FA) and amino acid composition of the longissumus dorsi muscle. Meat quality was measured on the longissimus dorsi (LD). The results showed that 100g of fresh meat contains 25.72% of dry matter, including 5.14% of Fat, 19.43% of protein and 0.94% of mineral matter. The fatty acid profile measured showed that 100 grams of fat contains 24.98 grams fatty acids, including 49.45% saturated fatty acid, 38.48% monounsaturated fatty acid and 12.40% polyunsaturated fatty acid. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of amino acids composition allowed the identification of more than 18 components including six essential amino acids (Ile, Leu Lys, Thr, Val, Phe). [less ▲]

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See detailAcylcarnitines profile best predicts survival in horses with atypical myopathy
BOEMER, François ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; CELLO, Christophe ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2017)

Equine atypical myopathy (AM) is caused by hypoglycin A intoxication and is characterized by a high fatality rate. Predictive estimation of survival in AM horses is necessary to prevent unnecessary ... [more ▼]

Equine atypical myopathy (AM) is caused by hypoglycin A intoxication and is characterized by a high fatality rate. Predictive estimation of survival in AM horses is necessary to prevent unnecessary suffering of animals that are unlikely to survive and to focus supportive therapy on horses with a possible favourable prognosis of survival. We hypothesized that outcome may be predicted early in the course of disease based on the assumption that the acylcarnitine profile reflects the derangement of muscle energetics. We developed a statistical model to prognosticate the risk of death of diseased animals and found that estimation of outcome may be drawn from three acylcarnitines (C2, C10:2 and C18 -carnitines) with a high sensitivity and specificity. The calculation of the prognosis of survival makes it possible to distinguish the horses that will survive from those that will die despite severe sign of acute rhabdomyolysis in both groups [less ▲]

See detailStratégie des Organisations
Neysen, Nicolas ULg

Book published by DeBoeck Supérieur (2017)

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See detailImproving specific class mapping from remotely sensed data by cost-sensitive learning
Silva, Joel; Bacao, Fernando; Dieng, Ndeye Maguette ULg et al

in International Journal of Remote Sensing (2017), 38(11), 32943316

In many remote-sensing projects, one is usually interested in a small number of land-cover classes present in a study area and not in all the land-cover classes that make-up the landscape. Previous ... [more ▼]

In many remote-sensing projects, one is usually interested in a small number of land-cover classes present in a study area and not in all the land-cover classes that make-up the landscape. Previous studies in supervised classification of satellite images have tackled specific class mapping problem by isolating the classes of interest and combining all other classes into one large class, usually called others, and by developing a binary classifier to discriminate the class of interest from the others. Here, this approach is called focused approach. The strength of the focused approach is to decompose the original multi-class supervised classification problem into a binary classification problem, focusing the process on the discrimination of the class of interest. Previous studies have shown that this method is able to discriminate more accurately the classes of interest when compared with the standard multi-class supervised approach. However, it may be susceptible to data imbalance problems present in the training data set, since the classes of interest are often a small part of the training set. A result the classification may be biased towards the largest classes and, thus, be sub-optimal for the discrimination of the classes of interest. This study presents a way to minimize the effects of data imbalance problems in specific class mapping using cost-sensitive learning. In this approach errors committed in theminority class are treated as being costlier than errors committed in the majority class. Cost-sensitive approaches are typically implemented by weighting training data points accordingly to their importance to the analysis. By changing the weight of individual data points, it is possible to shift theweight from the larger classes to the smaller ones, balancing the data set. To illustrate the use of the cost-sensitive approach to map specific classes of interest, a series of experiments with weighted support vector machines classifier and Landsat Thematic Mapper data were conducted to discriminate two types of mangrove forest (high-mangrove and low-mangrove) in Saloum estuary, Senegal, a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation World Heritage site. Results suggest an increase in overall classification accuracy with the use of cost-sensitive method (97.3%) over the standard multi-class (94.3%) and the focused approach (91.0%). In particular, cost-sensitive method yielded higher sensitivity and specificity values on the discrimination of the classes of interest when compared with the standard multi-class and focused approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailExEP yield modeling tool and validation test results
Morgan, Rhonda; Turmon, Michael; Delacroix, Christian ULg et al

in Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets VIII (2017)

EXOSIMS is an open-source simulation tool for parametric modeling of the detection yield and characterization of exoplanets. EXOSIMS has been adopted by the Exoplanet Exploration Programs Standards ... [more ▼]

EXOSIMS is an open-source simulation tool for parametric modeling of the detection yield and characterization of exoplanets. EXOSIMS has been adopted by the Exoplanet Exploration Programs Standards Definition and Evaluation Team (ExSDET) as a common mechanism for comparison of exoplanet mission concept studies. To ensure trustworthiness of the tool, we developed a validation test plan that leverages the Python-language unit-test framework, utilizes integration tests for selected module interactions, and performs end-to-end crossvalidation with other yield tools. This paper presents the test methods and results, with the physics-based tests such as photometry and integration time calculation treated in detail and the functional tests treated summarily. The test case utilized a 4m unobscured telescope with an idealized coronagraph and an exoplanet population from the IPAC radial velocity (RV) exoplanet catalog. The known RV planets were set at quadrature to allow deterministic validation of the calculation of physical parameters, such as working angle, photon counts and integration time. The observing keepout region was tested by generating plots and movies of the targets and the keepout zone over a year. Although the keepout integration test required the interpretation of a user, the test revealed problems in the L2 halo orbit and the parameterization of keepout applied to some solar system bodies, which the development team was able to address. The validation testing of EXOSIMS was performed iteratively with the developers of EXOSIMS and resulted in a more robust, stable, and trustworthy tool that the exoplanet community can use to simulate exoplanet direct-detection missions from probe class, to WFIRST, up to large mission concepts such as HabEx and LUVOIR. [less ▲]

See detailStarshade orbital maneuver study for WFIRST
Soto, Gabriel; Sinha, Amlan; Savransky, Dmitry et al

in Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets VIII (2017)

The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission, scheduled for launch in the mid-2020s will perform exoplanet science via both direct imaging and a microlensing survey. An internal coronagraph ... [more ▼]

The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission, scheduled for launch in the mid-2020s will perform exoplanet science via both direct imaging and a microlensing survey. An internal coronagraph is planned to perform starlight suppression for exoplanet imaging, but an external starshade could be used to achieve the required high contrasts with potentially higher throughput. This approach would require a separately-launched occulter spacecraft to be positioned at exact distances from the telescope along the line of sight to a target star system. We present a detailed study to quantify the Δv requirements and feasibility of deploying this additional spacecraft as a means of exoplanet imaging. The primary focus of this study is the fuel use of the occulter while repositioning between targets. Based on its design, the occulter is given an offset distance from the nominal WFIRST halo orbit. Target star systems and look vectors are generated using Exoplanet Open-Source Imaging Simulator (EXOSIMS); a boundary value problem is then solved between successive targets. On average, 50 observations are achievable with randomly selected targets given a 30-day transfer time. Individual trajectories can be optimized for transfer time as well as fuel usage to be used in mission scheduling. Minimizing transfer time reduces the total mission time by up to 4.5 times in some simulations before expending the entire fuel budget. Minimizing Δv can generate starshade missions that achieve over 100 unique observations within the designated mission lifetime of WFIRST. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of sarcopenia in a population of nursing home residents according to their frailty status: results of the SENIOR cohort
Buckinx, Fanny ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; BRUNOIS, Théo ULg et al

in Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions (2017), 17(3), 209-17

Objective: To investigate the relationship between frailty and sarcopenia, by evaluating the prevalence of sarcopenia among frail, pre-frail and robust elderly nursing home residents in Belgium. Methods ... [more ▼]

Objective: To investigate the relationship between frailty and sarcopenia, by evaluating the prevalence of sarcopenia among frail, pre-frail and robust elderly nursing home residents in Belgium. Methods: This is an analysis of baseline data collected from the SENIOR (Sample of Elderly Nursing home Individuals: an Observational Research) cohort. All subjects received a sarcopenia evaluation, based on the definition proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). The frailty evaluation was primarily based on FRIED’s definition but also on 9 other operational definitions. Results: A total of 662 subjects (73.1% of women) were included in this analysis (mean age: 83.2±8.99 years). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 38.1% whereas the prevalence of frail and pre-frail persons was respectively 24.7% and 61.4%. Among frail, pre-frail and robust subjects, respectively 47%, 38.9% and 16.3% were diagnosed sarcopenic. The prevalence of sarcopenia according to ten different operational definitions of frailty ranged between 32.8 % (i.e. Frail scale Status and Frailty Index) and 47% (i.e. Fried definition). Conclusion: This research highlights that over a third of nursing home residents are sarcopenic and the percentage is almost 50% among frail subjects; those latter constitute about 1 in 4 of the population of nursing home residents studied here. [less ▲]

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See detailFaire vivre une expérience d’évaluation mutuelle en formation initiale : quelle transposition vers les pratiques d’enseignement projetées ?
Goffin, Christelle ULg; Fagnant, Annick ULg

in Contextes et Didactiques (2017), 9

Dans une étude préalable menée en Belgique francophone (Fagnant et Goffin, à paraître), nous avons notamment montré que les futurs enseignants du secondaire supérieur (grades 10 - 12) témoignaient ... [more ▼]

Dans une étude préalable menée en Belgique francophone (Fagnant et Goffin, à paraître), nous avons notamment montré que les futurs enseignants du secondaire supérieur (grades 10 - 12) témoignaient d’expériences limitées en matière d’évaluation formative : leur vécu en tant qu’élève faisait davantage état de pratiques d’auto-notation que de réelles expériences d’autoévaluation. Voulant prendre en compte le décalage entre le cadre légal qui prescrit la mise en œuvre d’évaluations formatives et la réalité des classes où ce type d’évaluation semble être peu pratiqué, nous avons tenté d’agir dès la formation initiale. Ainsi, nous avons fait vivre à ces futurs enseignants une expérience d’évaluation mutuelle en tant qu’étudiant universitaire dans un cours pluridisciplinaire tout en les faisant réfléchir à la transposition de ces acquis vers leurs pratiques de stage en tant qu’enseignant d’une discipline donnée. Cet article présente le dispositif mis en place, tout en y portant un regard critique documenté par deux sources d’informations. La première concerne les commentaires rédigés par les étudiants sur ce qu’ils ont retenu du dispositif expérimenté. La seconde porte sur les pratiques d’évaluation que les futurs enseignants ont développées ou pourraient développer en classe avec leurs élèves, en lien avec l’expérience vécue en formation. Les analyses mettent en évidence que cette expérience a pu, dans une certaine mesure, nourrir leurs processus d’apprentissage et leur développement professionnel. [less ▲]

See detailMulti-mission modeling for space-based exoplanet imagers
Savransky, Dmitry; Delacroix, Christian ULg; Garrett, Daniel

in Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets VIII (2017)

In addition to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope Coronagraphic Imager (WFIRST CGI), which is currently scheduled for launch in the mid 2020s, there is an extensive, ongoing design effort for next ... [more ▼]

In addition to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope Coronagraphic Imager (WFIRST CGI), which is currently scheduled for launch in the mid 2020s, there is an extensive, ongoing design effort for next-generation, space-based, exoplanet imaging instrumentation. This work involves mission concepts such as the Large UV/ Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR), the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Misson (HabEx), and a starshade rendezvous mission for WFIRST, among others. While each of these efforts includes detailed mission analysis targeted at the specifics of each design, there is also interest in being able to analyze all such concepts in a unified way (to the extent that this is possible) and to draw specific comparisons between projected concept capabilities. Here, we discuss and compare two fundamental approaches to mission analysis, full mission simulation and depth of search analysis, in the specific context of simulating and comparing multiple different mission concepts. We present strategies for mission analysis at varying stages of concept definition, using WFIRST as a motivating example, and discuss useful metrics for cross-mission comparison, as well as strategies for evaluating these metrics. [less ▲]

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See detailTrappist-1 et les sept planètes
Manfroid, Jean ULg; Désamoré, Luc

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailLong-term effects of exercise during youth or adulthood on cocaine reactivity in mice: qualitative developmental differences
Lespine, Louis-Ferdinand ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

Conference (2017)

Epidemiological studies suggest that physical exercise could have preventive properties on drugs vulnerability. Animal research showed that rats or mice housed with a running wheel (a model of physical ... [more ▼]

Epidemiological studies suggest that physical exercise could have preventive properties on drugs vulnerability. Animal research showed that rats or mice housed with a running wheel (a model of physical exercise) can exhibit attenuated drug seeking and drug-induced psychomotor hyperactivity in comparison with their sedentary counterparts. Objectives: the aim was to evaluate the longevity of the protective effects of exercise on cocaine vulnerability and the influence of the developmental stage during which exercise is applied (in 4 experiments). Method: females and males C57BL/6J mice, aged 28 (youth) or 77 days (adults) were housed with (n=56) or without (n=28) a running wheel. After 3 weeks, half of the exercised mice (n=28) were deprived of their wheel (3 housing conditions/experiment). Three weeks later, mice were tested for sensitization to the psychomotor-activating effects of 8 mg/kg cocaine over 9 once-daily sessions (controls: saline solution). Mice were also tested 30 days later for their long-term expression of sensitization. Results: continuous wheel-running housing reduced cocaine responsiveness in both females and males regardless of the age on which exercise was introduced. Exercise performed exclusively in youth, but not over adulthood, reduced durably cocaine responsiveness, particularly in females. Conclusion: the likelihood of the long-term protection of exercise against cocaine responsiveness may depend on the age of exercise application and the gender. [less ▲]

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See detailIMPACT OF DYNAMIC SEATING ON CHILD’S BEHAVIOR AND CONCENTRATION IN CLASSROOM
Fettweis, Tatiana ULg; Nattier, Elodie; Vanderthommen, Marc ULg

Poster (2017)

Introduction Ergonomics and dynamism in classroom seem to influence schoolchildren’s behavior and concentration [1-2]. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of dynamic school furniture associated ... [more ▼]

Introduction Ergonomics and dynamism in classroom seem to influence schoolchildren’s behavior and concentration [1-2]. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of dynamic school furniture associated with a postural education on schoolchildren’s behavior and concentration in classroom. Methods Seventy-seven primary school children were divided into an experimental group (EG) (n=46, age=6.4, height=119.3cm, weight=23.2kg, body mass=16.5) and a control group (CG) (n=31, age=6.5, height=119.6cm, weight=23.1kg, body mass=16.1) and took part in this 2-school-year-follow-up cluster randomized controlled study including 4 phases of evaluation (E1 to E4) consisting of assessing the children’s behavior (sit or not / on task or not) from videos and their attention capacities with 2 different tests. In the first year, the EG was assessed before any intervention (E1), after having provided a triangular and dynamic cushion and 3 months of postural education (E2) and after 6 months using the cushion. In the second year, outcomes were assessed after 2 years using the cushion (E4). The CG had identical evaluation design but without any intervention. Results Compared with the CG, the children of the EG significantly improved their behavior at each step of the study. So, children’s spent proportionately more time sitting when ergonomic and dynamic seating was combined with postural education (p≤0.04) and they had more “on task” behavior (p≤0.001). Furthermore, the intervention tends to optimize the children’s attention (p<0.05). Conclusions The children’s behavior and concentration in the classroom was improved using ergonomic and dynamic furniture combined with a postural intervention. Further studies are needed to confirm those results. This study suggests that early prevention seems efficient to optimized schoolchildren’s behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailRemembering Beyond Words: Jazz and Musicality in Caryl Phillips’s Crossing the River
Mascoli, Giulia ULg

in Lamar Journal of the Humanities (2017), XLII(Spring), 5-22

The main focus in this article is to show why Caryl Phillips’s Crossing the River can be considered a jazz novel and specifically how its rhythmic quality is achieved. The article also seeks to develop an ... [more ▼]

The main focus in this article is to show why Caryl Phillips’s Crossing the River can be considered a jazz novel and specifically how its rhythmic quality is achieved. The article also seeks to develop an informed understanding of Phillips’s use of music in a way that reflects its significance in the postcolonial context. [less ▲]

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See detailA diachronic take on the Source–Goal asymmetry: evidence from inner Asia Minor Greek
Georgakopoulos, Athanasios ULg; Karatsareas, Petros

in Luraghi, Silvia; Nikitina, Tatiana; Zanchi, Chiara (Eds.) Space in Diachrony (2017)