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See detailLe droit de l’Union européenne face à l’économie collaborative
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg

in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Européen (in press), (3),

La présente contribution a pour objectif de proposer un état de lieux de l’incidence du droit de l’Union européenne sur le développement, la promotion et la règlementation de l’économie collaborative au ... [more ▼]

La présente contribution a pour objectif de proposer un état de lieux de l’incidence du droit de l’Union européenne sur le développement, la promotion et la règlementation de l’économie collaborative au sein du marché intérieur. Pour ce faire, cet article se divise en deux parties. Dans la première partie, le phénomène de l’économie collaborative ainsi que les approches réglementaires envisagées par les institutions de l’Union européenne pour mieux encadrer cette économie seront analysés. Nous soulignerons que l’Union européenne décide pour l’instant de ne pas proposer de nouveaux instruments de réglementation, préférant plutôt interpréter les instruments et dispositions déjà existants du droit de l’Union européenne. S’inscrivant dans cette approche, la deuxième partie de la contribution dressera une cartographie des dispositions pertinentes du droit de l’Union européenne qui gouvernent l’économie collaborative, en proposant des lignes directrices supplémentaires qui devraient permettre d’encore mieux intégrer l’économie collaborative dans le cadre juridique de l’Union européenne. [less ▲]

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See detailFree movement of goods
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg; Van den Bogaert, Stefaan

in Ambtenbrink, Fabian; Curtin, Deirdre; De Witte, Bruno (Eds.) et al The Law of the European Union (in press)

This chapter offers a 60 pages overview of the case law on the free movement of goods. It detects the trends underlying the Court's case law and assembles all relevant data on the subject matter.

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See detailBurdens of Access: Understanding Customer Barriers and Barrier-Attenuating Practices in Access-Based Services
Hazee, Simon ULg; Delcourt, Cécile ULg; Van Vaerenbergh, Yves

in Journal of Service Research (in press)

Access-based services (ABS), which grant customers limited access to goods without any transfer of ownership, are unique technology-based service innovations requiring the substantial involvement and ... [more ▼]

Access-based services (ABS), which grant customers limited access to goods without any transfer of ownership, are unique technology-based service innovations requiring the substantial involvement and collaboration of customers, without employees’ supervision. Although ABS offer several potential advantages, convincing customers to use them remains challenging. Combining 56 in-depth interviews with supplementary literature, the authors address this challenge by proposing an integrative framework that reflects the (1) barriers that prevent customers from using ABS and (2) practices in which customers engage to attenuate those barriers. The complex, multidimensional barriers relate not only to the service and technology features but also to other customers. Customers can engage in different practices to attenuate perceived barriers and create value, namely, “to distance,” “to manage,” “to elaborate,” “to control,” and “to relate.” Yet they regard these barrier-attenuating practices as necessary sacrifices to use ABS. Complementing suggestions that customers adopt and use ABS to escape the burdens of ownership, the current research reveals that customers actually may confront several “burdens of access.” This research suggests managers who wish to reduce rejection of their innovation could not only overcome customers’ perceived barriers, but also facilitate and reduce the number of practices in which customers engage to attenuate those barriers themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailNine facultative endosymbionts in aphids. A review
Guo, Jianqing ULg; Hatt, Séverin ULg; He, Kanglai et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (in press)

Aphids are frequently engaged in mutualistic associations with endosymbionts. Symbionts are bacterial or fungal microorganisms that can be obligate or facultative to aphids. Research showed facultative ... [more ▼]

Aphids are frequently engaged in mutualistic associations with endosymbionts. Symbionts are bacterial or fungal microorganisms that can be obligate or facultative to aphids. Research showed facultative (or secondary) symbionts have numerous effects on their host aphids such as resistance to heat shock, parasitoids and fungus etc., which may consequently promote a co-evolution between symbionts and hosts. However, this symbiotic relation may be affected by several factors, such as the ability of symbionts to spread from aphids to others within and across populations, and the cost of infections for hosts. Moreover, aphid-symbionts interactions may be affected by aphid living environment such as its host plant, the presence of natural enemies or the temperature. Here we firstly described the functions of nine facultative symbionts (Serratia symbiotica, Hamiltonella defensa, Regiella insecticola, Rickettsia, Rickettsiella, PAXS (pea aphid X-type symbiont), Spiroplasma, Wolbachia and Arsenophonus) studied in aphids one by one, and discussed the associations between these symbionts and aphids, plants and environment. We aim to have a better knowledge of the roles the facultative symbionts play in aphid biology, ecology and evolution, which we believe can provide new inspirations for aphid control. [less ▲]

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See detailDual action of neuro-estrogens in the regulation of male sexual behavior
Cornil, Charlotte ULg; de Bournonville, Catherine

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (in press)

Estrogens derived from brain testosterone aromatization (neuro-estrogens) are critical for the activation of male sexual behavior. Their effects on this behavior are typically associated with long-term ... [more ▼]

Estrogens derived from brain testosterone aromatization (neuro-estrogens) are critical for the activation of male sexual behavior. Their effects on this behavior are typically associated with long-term changes in circulating levels of testosterone and the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors. According to this view, neuro-estrogens would prime the neural circuits controlling the long-term expression of behavior, which would then be acutely regulated by neurotransmitter systems conveying information from the social environment. In parallel, neuro-estrogens are also able to produce much faster effects than previously anticipated. Our recent investigations in Japanese quail revealed an interesting dichotomy in the regulation of male sexual behavior by membrane- and nuclear-initiated estrogen signaling providing respectively an acute modulation of sexual motivation and a long-term control of the capacity to display the copulatory sequence. In parallel, a similar dichotomy applies to the regulation of brain aromatase whose expression depends on the transcriptional activity of testosterone metabolites while its enzymatic activity is rapidly regulated in a region- and context-dependent manner. Recent evidences suggest that rapid changes in sexual motivation result from rapid changes in local estrogen production. Together, these data support the idea that the acute regulation of some aspects of male sexual behavior depends not only on classical neurotransmitter systems, but also on rapid and spatially restricted changes in local estrogen availability. The existing literature suggests that this acute regulation by neuro-estrogens of the motivational aspects of behavior could be generalized to other systems such as singing behavior in songbirds. [less ▲]

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See detailTempla de majesté et conception du vote à Rome
Berthelet, Yann ULg

in Virginie Hollard, et al. (Ed.) Le vote en Grèce et à Rome (in press)

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See detailLes élections sacerdotales, sous la République romaine. Un exemple de politisation et de démocratisation ?
Berthelet, Yann ULg

in Hollard, Virginie; Le Digol, Christophe (Eds.) Histoire d'élection(s) (in press)

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See detailExperimental and theoretical analysis of shear bolted connections for tubular structures
D'Antimo, Marina ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (in press)

In this paper, numerical and experimental investigations devoted to the evaluation of the bearing resistance of tubular members with gusset plates and through-all long bolts are presented. Unlike lap ... [more ▼]

In this paper, numerical and experimental investigations devoted to the evaluation of the bearing resistance of tubular members with gusset plates and through-all long bolts are presented. Unlike lap shear joints, the analysed connection evidences a reduced confinement of the bearing area associated to the use of long bolts and the presence of a gap in the member, which can lead, consequently, to a reduction of the bearing resistance. In order to investigate the behaviour of shear connections made up of thin and thick SHS (Square Hollow Section) profiles and long bolts, an experimental test campaign including 24 specimens and FE simulations have been conducted. Both experimental and FE results have confirmed the influence of local instability on the hole in bearing resistance of thin profiles and the poor accuracy of the available standards for this particular joint typology. In particular, the performed comparisons have shown that, for thin profiles, EC3 model is likely to overestimate the resistance, while for higher thickness of the SHS conservative predictions are obtained. The present paper presents the conducted experimental and numerical investigations, highlighting at the end the need for a proper formulation able to account for the local instability effect on the bearing resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailX-ray study of bow shocks in runaway stars
De Becker, Michaël ULg; del Valle, M.V.; Romero, G.E. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (in press)

Massive runaway stars produce bow shocks through the interaction of their winds with the interstellar medium, with the prospect for particle acceleration by the shocks. These objects are consequently ... [more ▼]

Massive runaway stars produce bow shocks through the interaction of their winds with the interstellar medium, with the prospect for particle acceleration by the shocks. These objects are consequently candidates for non-thermal emission. Our aim is to investigate the X-ray emission from these sources. We observed with XMM-Newton a sample of 5 bow shock runaways, which constitutes a significant improvement of the sample of bow shock runaways studied in X-rays so far. A careful analysis of the data did not reveal any X-ray emission related to the bow shocks. However, X-ray emission from the stars is detected, in agreement with the expected thermal emission from stellar winds. On the basis of background measurements we derive conservative upper limits between 0.3 and 10 keV on the bow shocks emission. Using a simple radiation model, these limits together with radio upper limits allow us to constrain some of the main physical quantities involved in the non-thermal emission processes, such as the magnetic field strength and the amount of incident infrared photons. The reasons likely responsible for the non-detection of non-thermal radiation are discussed. Finally, using energy budget arguments, we investigate the detectability of inverse Compton X-rays in a more extended sample of catalogued runaway star bow shocks. From our analysis we conclude that a clear identification of non-thermal X-rays from massive runaway bow shocks requires one order of magnitude (or higher) sensitivity improvement with respect to present observatories. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of Basil-Cabbage intercropping to control insect pests in Benin, West Africa
Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULg; Assogba Komlan, Françoise; Tossou, Eric et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (in press)

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) is a common vegetable whose production is severely limited by insect pest pressure in Western Africa. This study was conducted during the dry and rainy season in the south ... [more ▼]

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) is a common vegetable whose production is severely limited by insect pest pressure in Western Africa. This study was conducted during the dry and rainy season in the south Benin to evaluate the potential of tropical basil (Ocimum gratissimum L.) for repelling cabbage pests (Hellula undalis Fabricius, Plutella xylostella L. and Spodoptera litto-ralis Boisduval). In a complete randomized block design with four replicates, the insect infestation were compared between three association modalities: (i) cabbage intercropped with tropical basil, (ii) cabbage plots surrounded by tropical basil and (iii) control (no basil in the cabbage area). The presence of tropical basil near cabbage plots significantly reduced insect pest abundance on cabbage. Damages were also less important on cabbage intercropped with tropical basil. Among both intercropping modalities, alternate rows showed the best results in terms of reducing pest populations and damages than compared to cabbage plots surrounded by tropical basil. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of different hydrocolloids on dough thermo-mechanical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free steamed bread based on potato flour
Liu, Xingli ULg; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan et al

in Food Chemistry (in press)

The effects of hydrocolloids (Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), Xanthan gum (XG), and Apple pectin (AP)) at different concentrations on dough thermo-mechanical properties ... [more ▼]

The effects of hydrocolloids (Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), Xanthan gum (XG), and Apple pectin (AP)) at different concentrations on dough thermo-mechanical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free potato steamed bread were investigated. Results showed that hydrocolloids addition significantly increased the gelatinization temperature (from 52.0 to 64.2 °C) and water absorption (from 56.22 to 66.50 %) of potato dough. Moreover, hydrocolloids may be interacted with protein and starch, the density of potato protein bands was decreased by hydrocolloids addition, the reason might be that higher molecular weight complexes might be formed between proteins-hydrocolloids or proteins-proteins, thus change the protein solubility. Furthermore, steamed breads with hydrocolloids presented higher specific volume and lower hardness, and the rapidly digestible starch and estimated glycemic index were significantly decreased from 45.51 to 20.64, from 69.54 to 55.17, respectively. In conclusion, HPMC and XG could be used as improvers in the gluten-free potato steamed bread. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural Basis for Plant Plasma Membrane Protein Dynamics and Organization into Functional Nanodomains
Gronnier; Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg; Habenstein, Birgit et al

in eLife (in press)

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See detailElucidating the functions of brain GSK3α: possible synergy with GSK3β upregulation and reversal by antidepressant treatment in a mouse model of depressive-like behaviour
Pavlov, Dmitrii; Markova, Nataliia; Bettendorff, Lucien ULg et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (in press)

positively correlated with floating behavior on the third test. A twoweek- long pretreatment regime with imipramine (7.5 mg/kg/day) or thiamine (200 mg/kg/day), which is known to have antidepressant ... [more ▼]

positively correlated with floating behavior on the third test. A twoweek- long pretreatment regime with imipramine (7.5 mg/kg/day) or thiamine (200 mg/kg/day), which is known to have antidepressant properties, reduced the GSK3β over-expression and decreased floating behavior on Day 5. GSK3α mRNA levels were measured in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex on Days 1, 2 and 5. GSK3α expression was decreased in the prefrontal cortex on Day 2 and increased on Day 5. In this model, GSK3α mRNA changes were prevented by imipramine or thiamine treatment. There was a significant correlation between the expression of the two isoforms in the prefrontal cortex on Day 2 in untreated group. These results provide the first evidence for the potential involvement of GSK3α in depressive-like behaviours and as a target of anti-depressant therapy. Furthermore, the correlations suggest some cross-talk may exist between the two GSK3 isoforms. [less ▲]

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See detailDe automatische toekenning van rechten in de Belgische sociale bescherming. Stand van zaken en opties voor de toekomst
Buysse, Linde; Goedemé, Tim; Janssens, Julie et al

in Pauvreté en Belgique. Annuaire 2017 (in press)

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See detailPrévalence et risque de maltraitance des aînés à domicile en Wallonie : retour sur un dispositif d’enquête
Nisen, Laurent ULg

in "Vieillir aujourd'hui des mo(n)des recomposés" (in press)

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See detailMultiple Gas-Phase Conformations of a Synthetic Linear Poly(acrylamide) Polymer Observed Using Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry
Haler, Jean ULg; Far, Johann ULg; Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg et al

in Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry (in press)

Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) has emerged as a powerful separation and identification tool to characterize synthetic polymer mixtures and topologies (linear, cyclic, star-shaped ... [more ▼]

Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) has emerged as a powerful separation and identification tool to characterize synthetic polymer mixtures and topologies (linear, cyclic, star-shaped,...). Electrospray coupled to IM-MS already revealed the coexistence of several charge state-dependent conformations for a single charge state of biomolecules with strong intramolecular interactions, even when limited resolving power IM-MS instruments were used. For synthetic polymers, the sample's polydispersity allows the observation of several chain lengths. A unique collision cross-section (CCS) trend is usually observed when increasing the degree of polymerization (DP) at constant charge state, allowing the deciphering of different polymer topologies. In this paper, we report multiple coexisting CCS trends when increasing the DP at constant charge state for linear poly(acrylamide) PAAm in the gas phase. This is similar to observations on peptides and proteins. Biomolecules show in addition population changes when collisionally heating the ions. In the case of synthetic PAAm, fragmentation occurred before reaching the energy for conformation conversion. These observations, which were made on two different IM-MS instruments (SYNAPT G2 HDMS and high resolution multi-pass cyclic T-Wave prototype from Waters), limit the use of ion mobility for synthetic polymer topology interpretations to polymers where unique CCS values are observed for each DP at constant charge state. [less ▲]

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See detailA biased random key genetic algorithm applied to the electric distribution network reconfiguration problem
de Faria Jr., Haroldo; Resende, Mauricio; Ernst, Damien ULg

in Journal of Heuristics (in press)

This work presents a biased random-key genetic algorithm (BRKGA) to solve the electric distribution network reconfiguration problem (DNR). The DNR is one of the most studied combinatorial optimization ... [more ▼]

This work presents a biased random-key genetic algorithm (BRKGA) to solve the electric distribution network reconfiguration problem (DNR). The DNR is one of the most studied combinatorial optimization problems in power system analysis. Given a set of switches of an electric network that can be opened or closed, the objective is to select the best configuration of the switches to optimize a given network objective while at the same time satisfying a set of operational constraints. The good performance of BRKGAs on many combinatorial optimization problems and the fact that it has never been applied to solve DNR problems are the main motivation for this research. A BRKGA is a variant of random-key genetic algorithms, where one of the parents used for mating is biased to be of higher fitness than the other parent. Solutions are encoded by using random keys, which are represented as vectors of real numbers in the interval (0,1), thus enabling an indirect search of the solution inside a proprietary search space. The genetic operators do not need to be modified to generate only feasible solutions, which is an exclusive task of the decoder of the problem. Tests were performed on standard distribution systems used in DNR studies found in the technical literature and the performance and robustness of the BRKGA were compared with other GA implementations. [less ▲]

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See detailAmerican Literature and the Toxic Sublime
Lombard, David ULg

Book published by Quodlibet (2018)

According to Jennifer A. Peeples, the “toxic sublime” refers to “the tensions that arise from recognizing the toxicity of a place, object or situation, while simultaneously appreciating its mystery ... [more ▼]

According to Jennifer A. Peeples, the “toxic sublime” refers to “the tensions that arise from recognizing the toxicity of a place, object or situation, while simultaneously appreciating its mystery, magnificence and ability to inspire awe”. As an alternative to the “technological sublime”, which creates awe through the contemplation of human efforts to master the environment, it urges us to consider the negative and noxious aspects of such endeavours. Through her analysis of Edward Burtynsky’s “Manufactured Landscapes”, Peeples introduces a new form of sublime aesthetics, which may also be used as a valuable trope in the study of the relationship between literature and our physical environment. My goal in this study is to extend such considerations to the recent history of American literature, using examples such as Rachel Carson’s “A Fable for Tomorrow” (1962), which describes the invisible “lethal film” made of “systemic insecticides” that converts natural species into carcinogenic poison, thus depicting landscapes as intoxicated “places of beauty” that no longer symbolise human abilities to dominate the environment but rather their lack of control over it. Likewise, in Don DeLillo’s novel White Noise (1985), the protagonist Jack Gladney experiences his daughter’s “utterance” of the car brand “Toyota Celica” as “beautiful and mysterious”, which “str[ikes] [him] with the impact of a moment of splendid transcendence”. Gladney then proceeds to relate his family’s “garbage” to his relatives’ selves as it is a “sign[] of [their] deepest nature”. Jack’s approach to human waste shows that what Cynthia Deitering defines as the “toxic consciousness”—the general awareness of the existence of toxicity in the landscape—is to be associated with the protagonist’s idea of “consumer consciousness”. Indeed, the term toxicity can also metaphorically refer to the “poisoned” nature of our relationship to and perception of specific places, objects, or situations. The viewer in national parks, for instance, tends to see the “sublime landscape” as a “series of picturesque scenes”, which allows him to consume the scene as an “object of artistic consumption”. Such examples point to different but related ways of examining distinct forms of toxicity that characterise our relationship with our physical environment. They also prompt us to examine the problematic nature of technology and progress while dealing with the elusive and paradoxical nature of the technological sublime. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Optimal Control Formulation of Pulse-Based Control Using Koopman Operator
Sootla, Aivar; Mauroy, Alexandre; Ernst, Damien ULg

E-print/Working paper (2018)

In many applications, and in systems/synthetic biology in particular, it is desirable to compute control policies that force the trajectory of a bistable system from one equilibrium (the initial point) to ... [more ▼]

In many applications, and in systems/synthetic biology in particular, it is desirable to compute control policies that force the trajectory of a bistable system from one equilibrium (the initial point) to another equilibrium (the target point), or in other words to solve the switching problem. It was recently shown that, for monotone bistable systems, this problem admits easyto-implement open-loop solutions in terms of temporal pulses (i.e., step functions of fixed length and fixed magnitude). In this paper, we develop this idea further and formulate a problem of convergence to an equilibrium from an arbitrary initial point. We show that this problem can be solved using a static optimization problem in the case of monotone systems. Changing the initial point to an arbitrary state allows to build closed-loop, event-based or open-loop policies for the switching/convergence problems. In our derivations we exploit the Koopman operator, which offers a linear infinite-dimensional representation of an autonomous nonlinear system. One of the main advantages of using the Koopman operator is the powerful computational tools developed for this framework. Besides the presence of numerical solutions, the switching/convergence problem can also serve as a building block for solving more complicated control problems and can potentially be applied to non-monotone systems. We illustrate this argument on the problem of synchronizing cardiac cells by defibrillation. Potentially, our approach can be extended to problems with different parametrizations of control signals since the only fundamental limitation is the finite time application of the control signal. [less ▲]

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