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See detailEstimating the economic impact of a possible equine and human epidemic of West Nile virus infection in Belgium
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Vandeputte, Sébastien; Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne ULg et al

in Eurosurveillance (2016), 21(31),

This study aimed at estimating, in a prospective scenario, the potential economic impact of a possible epidemic of WNV infection in Belgium, based on 2012 values for the equine and human health sectors ... [more ▼]

This study aimed at estimating, in a prospective scenario, the potential economic impact of a possible epidemic of WNV infection in Belgium, based on 2012 values for the equine and human health sectors, in order to increase preparedness and help decision-makers. Modelling of risk areas, based on the habitat suitable for Culex pipiens, the main vector of the virus, allowed us to determine equine and human populations at risk. Characteristics of the different clinical forms of the disease based on past epidemics in Europe allowed morbidity among horses and humans to be estimated. The main costs for the equine sector were vaccination and replacement value of dead or euthanised horses. The choice of the vaccination strategy would have important consequences in terms of cost. Vaccination of the country’s whole population of horses, based on a worst-case scenario, would cost more than EUR 30 million; for areas at risk, the cost would be around EUR 16–17 million. Regarding the impact on human health, short-term costs and socio-economic losses were estimated for patients who developed the neuroinvasive form of the disease, as no vaccine is available yet for humans. Hospital charges of around EUR 3,600 for a case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and EUR 4,500 for a case of acute flaccid paralysis would be the major financial consequence of an epidemic of West Nile virus infection in humans in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailReplacement of Glycoprotein B in Alcelaphine Herpesvirus 1 by Its Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Homolog : Implications in Vaccine Development for Sheep-Associated Malignant Catarrhal Fever.
Cunha, Cristina W.; Taus, Naomi S.; Dewals, Benjamin G ULg et al

in mSphere (2016), 1(4), 00108-16

Vaccine development is a top priority in malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) research. In the case of sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), progress toward this objective has ... [more ▼]

Vaccine development is a top priority in malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) research. In the case of sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), progress toward this objective has been hindered by the absence of methods to attenuate or modify the virus, since it cannot be propagated in vitro. As an alternative for vaccine development, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that one of the SA-MCF vaccine candidate targets, OvHV-2 glycoprotein B (gB), could be expressed by a nonpathogenic alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and then evaluated the potential of the AlHV-1/OvHV-2 chimera to be used as a vaccine and a diagnostic tool. The construction and characterization of an AlHV-1/OvHV-2 chimeric virus that is nonpathogenic and expresses an OvHV-2 vaccine target are significant steps toward the development of an SA-MCF vaccine and also provide a valuable means to study OvHV-2 biology. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of the sea-ice carbon pump: Insights from a three-dimensional ocean-sea-ice biogeochemical model (NEMO-LIM-PISCES)
Moreau, Sébastien; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Bopp, Laurent et al

in Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene (2016), 4(1), 000122

The role of sea ice in the carbon cycle is minimally represented in current Earth System Models (ESMs). Among potentially important flaws, mentioned by several authors and generally overlooked during ESM ... [more ▼]

The role of sea ice in the carbon cycle is minimally represented in current Earth System Models (ESMs). Among potentially important flaws, mentioned by several authors and generally overlooked during ESM design, is the link between sea-ice growth and melt and oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). Here we investigate whether this link is indeed an important feature of the marine carbon cycle misrepresented in ESMs. We use an ocean general circulation model (NEMO-LIM-PISCES) with sea-ice and marine carbon cycle components, forced by atmospheric reanalyses, adding a first-order representation of DIC and TA storage and release in/from sea ice. Our results suggest that DIC rejection during sea-ice growth releases several hundred Tg C yr−1 to the surface ocean, of which < 2% is exported to depth, leading to a notable but weak redistribution of DIC towards deep polar basins. Active carbon processes (mainly CaCO3 precipitation but also ice-atmosphere CO2 fluxes and net community production) increasing the TA/DIC ratio in sea-ice modified ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes by a few Tg C yr−1 in the sea-ice zone, with specific hemispheric effects: DIC content of the Arctic basin decreased but DIC content of the Southern Ocean increased. For the global ocean, DIC content increased by 4 Tg C yr−1 or 2 Pg C after 500 years of model run. The simulated numbers are generally small compared to the present-day global ocean annual CO2 sink (2.6 ± 0.5 Pg C yr−1 ). However, sea-ice carbon processes seem important at regional scales as they act significantly on DIC redistribution within and outside polar basins. The efficiency of carbon export to depth depends on the representation of surface-subsurface exchanges and their relationship with sea ice, and could differ substantially if a higher resolution or different ocean model were used. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom practice-based game research to game design as a cultural technique
Werning, Stefan; Kamp, Michiel; De Smale, Stephanie et al

Conference (2016, August 02)

Panel : de Smale, Stephanie: Game Essays in the Digital Humanities : The paper addresses the use of prototyping for creating game essays, the applicability of game essays within a digital humanities ... [more ▼]

Panel : de Smale, Stephanie: Game Essays in the Digital Humanities : The paper addresses the use of prototyping for creating game essays, the applicability of game essays within a digital humanities framework and the challenges and opportunities of taking a research-centric rather than a player-centric perspective on game design. Kamp, Michiel: Parameters of Musical Interaction in Games : The paper proposes exploring game music by experimenting with the ways in which the soundtrack responds to game states and player interaction beyond adapting analytical techniques borrowed from film music studies, like masking or replacing parts of the soundtrack. Hurel, Pierre-Yves: Amateur Game Design as Reflexive Practice : The paper presents an ethnographic perspective on amateur game design with a particular focus on the use of distinct tools such as RPG Maker and their affordances for reflective practice. Werning, Stefan: From Analytical Play to Analytical Game Design : The paper outlines the transition from intrinsically analytical aspects in (meta-)ludic practices (speed-running, in-game photography, cosplaying, let’s playing etc.) to game design as a cultural technique, i.e. a mode of expression and civic engagement in a gamified society. [less ▲]

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See detailParentification and related processes: distinction and implications for clinical practice
Haxhe, Stéphanie ULg

in Journal of Family Psychotherapy (2016), 27(3), 185-199

With the emergence of what we call « new families », the place and the role of the child are increasingly questioned. If a child helps a parent or takes care of them, the terms “parentified child” ... [more ▼]

With the emergence of what we call « new families », the place and the role of the child are increasingly questioned. If a child helps a parent or takes care of them, the terms “parentified child”, “parental child” or “adult child” are used equally. However, these concepts hide different processes that have different impacts on the child’s development. In the present article, based on our doctoral research and clinical practice experience, we will try to make the distinction between these concepts and to illustrate them. We are convinced that by a better identification of each process, we can help therapists and social workers in their interventions with children and their families. [less ▲]

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See detailRealization of the Najafi-Golestanian microswimmer
Grosjean, Galien ULg; Hubert, Maxime ULg; Lagubeau, Guillaume et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2016), 94(2), 021101

A paradigmatic microswimmer is the three-linked-spheres model, which follows a minimalist approach for propulsion by shape shifting. As such, it has been the subject of numerous analytical and numerical ... [more ▼]

A paradigmatic microswimmer is the three-linked-spheres model, which follows a minimalist approach for propulsion by shape shifting. As such, it has been the subject of numerous analytical and numerical studies. In this Rapid Communication, an experimental three-linked-spheres swimmer is created by self-assembling ferromagnetic particles at an air-water interface. It is powered by a uniform oscillating magnetic field. A model, using two harmonic oscillators, reproduces the experimental findings. Because the model remains general, the same approach could be used to design a variety of efficient microswimmers. [less ▲]

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See detailLOTUS: a low-cost, ultraviolet spectrograph
Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 460

We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all ... [more ▼]

We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5 × 95 arcsec) and wide (5 × 25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration, respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Å with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependent spectral resolution of R = 225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg, we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is <2 Å rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 19 Feb. 2016 Outburst of Comet 67P/CG: An ESA Rosetta Multi-Instrument Study
Grün, E.; Agarwal, J.; Altobelli, N. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016)

On 19 Feb. 2016 nine Rosetta instruments serendipitously observed an outburst of gas and dust from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Among these instruments were cameras and spectrometers ... [more ▼]

On 19 Feb. 2016 nine Rosetta instruments serendipitously observed an outburst of gas and dust from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Among these instruments were cameras and spectrometers ranging from UV over visible to microwave wavelengths, in-situ gas, dust and plasma instruments, and one dust collector. At 9:40 a dust cloud developed at the edge of an image in the shadowed region of the nucleus. Over the next two hours the instruments recorded a signature of the outburst that significantly exceeded the background. The enhancement ranged from 50% of the neutral gas density at Rosetta to factors >100 of the brightness of the coma near the nucleus. Dust related phenomena (dust counts or brightness due to illuminated dust) showed the strongest enhancements (factors >10). However, even the electron density at Rosetta increased by a factor 3 and consequently the spacecraft potential changed from ˜-16 V to -20 V during the outburst. A clear sequence of events was observed at the distance of Rosetta (34 km from the nucleus): within 15 minutes the Star Tracker camera detected fast particles (˜25 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP]) while 100 μm radius particles were detected by the GIADA dust instrument ˜1 hour later at a speed of ~6 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. The slowest were individual mm to cm sized grains observed by the OSIRIS cameras. Although the outburst originated just outside the FOV of the instruments, the source region and the magnitude of the outburst could be determined. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-92b, WASP-93b and WASP-118b: Three new transiting close-in giant planets
Hay, K. L.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P. et al

E-print/Working paper (2016)

We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric lightcurves. WASP-92 is an F7 star, with a moderately inflated planet orbiting with a period of 2.17 days, which has R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.461 ± 0.077R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 0.805 ± 0.068M[SUB]J[/SUB]. WASP-93b orbits its F4 host star every 2.73 days and has R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.597 ± 0.077R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.47 ± 0.029M[SUB]J[/SUB]. WASP-118b also has a hot host star (F6) and is moderately inflated, where R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.440 ± 0.036R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 0.514 ± 0.020M[SUB]J[/SUB] and the planet has an orbital period of 4.05 days. They are bright targets (V = 13.18, 10.97 and 11.07 respectively) ideal for further characterisation work, particularly WASP-118b, which is being observed by K2 as part of campaign 8. The WASP-93 system has sufficient angular momentum to be tidally migrating outwards if the system is near spin-orbit alignment, which is divergent from the tidal behaviour of the majority of hot Jupiters discovered. [less ▲]

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See detail2D-photochemical model for forbidden oxygen line emission for comet 1P/Halley
Cessateur, G.; De Keyser, J.; Maggiolo, R. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016)

We present here a 2D-model of photochemistry for computing the production and loss mechanisms of the O([SUP]1[/SUP]S) and O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) states, which are responsible for the emission lines at 577.7 nm ... [more ▼]

We present here a 2D-model of photochemistry for computing the production and loss mechanisms of the O([SUP]1[/SUP]S) and O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) states, which are responsible for the emission lines at 577.7 nm, 630 nm, and 636.4 nm, in case of the comet 1P/Halley. The presence of O[SUB]2[/SUB] within cometary atmospheres, measured by the in-situ ROSETTA and GIOTTO missions, necessitates a revision of the usual photochemical models. Indeed, the photodissociation of molecular oxygen also leads to a significant production of oxygen in excited electronic states. In order to correctly model the solar UV flux absorption, we consider here a 2D configuration. While the green to red-doublet ratio is not affected by the solar UV flux absorption, estimates of the red-doublet and green lines emissions are, however, overestimated by a factor of two in the 1D model compared to the 2D model. Considering a spherical symmetry, emission maps can be deduced from the 2D model in order to be directly compared to ground and/or in-situ observations. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of nitrogen stress on winter wheat by multispectral machine vision
Marlier, Guillaume ULg; Gritten, Fanny; Leemans, Vincent ULg et al

Conference (2016, August 01)

Hand-held sensors (SPAD meter, N-Tester, …) used for detecting the leaves nitrogen concentration (Nc) present several drawbacks. The nitrogen concentration is gained by an indirect way through the ... [more ▼]

Hand-held sensors (SPAD meter, N-Tester, …) used for detecting the leaves nitrogen concentration (Nc) present several drawbacks. The nitrogen concentration is gained by an indirect way through the chlorophyll concentration and the leaves have to be fixed in a defined position for the measurements. These drawbacks could be overcome by an imaging device that measures the canopy reflectance. Hence, the objective of the paper is to analyse the potential of multispectral imaging for detecting nitrogen concentration. The tests were carried out on parcels submitted to nitrogen inputs varying from 0 to 180 kg N.ha-1. Reference Nc measurements were obtained by the Kjeldahl method and a Hydro N-Tester (Yara). The developed imaging system comprised a CMOS camera and a set of 22 interference filters ranging from 450 to 950 nm mounted on a wheel steered by a stepper motor. The image acquisition and the motor rotation were controlled by a program written in C++. The crop was imaged vertically at one meter height. The raw images presented 1280×1024 pixels covering an area of approximately 0.25 m² and were recorded with a 12-bit luminance resolution. To deal with the natural irradiance variability of the scene, a white reference was used and the integration time was automatically adjusted for each image. The image treatment included the segmentation of Photosynthetically Active Leaves (PAL) by using Bayes theorem and the computation of the mean PAL reflectance after correction of background and illumination fluctuations. Nc was estimated on the basis of the 22 filters by the Partial Least Square (PLS) method and by four filters selected by the Best Subset Selection (BSS) method. In comparison with the Kjeldahl method, the estimation of Nc by means of the Hydro N-Tester, the PLS method and the BSS method (filters 600-80, 950-100, 650-40 and 450-80 nm) gave determination coefficients equal to 0.53, 0.63, and 0.62, respectively. This indicated that the full multi-spectral approach gave significantly better Nc estimation than a portable device and suggested that a camera equipped with four filters would give similar results. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Cover Song Identification with Hierarchical Rank Aggregation
Osmalsky, Julien ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Proceedings of the 17th International for Music Information Retrieval Conference (2016, August)

Abstract Cover song identification involves calculating pairwise similarities between a query audio track and a database of reference tracks. While most authors make exclusively use of chroma features ... [more ▼]

Abstract Cover song identification involves calculating pairwise similarities between a query audio track and a database of reference tracks. While most authors make exclusively use of chroma features, recent work tends to demonstrate that combining similarity estimators based on multiple audio features increases the performance. We improve this approach by using a hierarchical rank aggregation method for combining estimators based on different features. More precisely, we first aggregate estimators based on global features such as the tempo, the duration, the loudness, the beats, and the average chroma vectors. Then, we aggregate the resulting composite estimator with four popular state-of-the-art methods based on chromas as well as timbre sequences. We further introduce a refinement step for the rank aggregation called “local Kemenization” and quantify its benefit for cover song identification. The performance of our method is evaluated on the Second Hand Song dataset. Our experiments show an significant improvement of the performance, up to an increase of more than 200 % of the number of queries identified in the Top-1, compared to previous results. [less ▲]

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See detailCalcium-Iron Oxide as Energy Storage Medium in Rechargeable Oxide Batteries
Berger, Cornelius M.; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ULg; Hermann, Raphaël ULg et al

in Journal of the American Ceramic Society (2016)

Rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprise a regenerative solid oxide cell (rSOC) and a storage medium for oxygen ions. A sealed ROB avoids pumping loss, heat loss, and gas purity expenses in comparison ... [more ▼]

Rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprise a regenerative solid oxide cell (rSOC) and a storage medium for oxygen ions. A sealed ROB avoids pumping loss, heat loss, and gas purity expenses in comparison with conventional rSOC. However, the iron oxide base storage medium degrades during charging– discharging cycles. In comparison, CaFe3O5 has improved cyclability and a high reversible oxygen storage capacity of 22.3 mol%. In this study, we analyzed the redox mechanism of this compound. After a solid-state synthesis of CaFe3O5, we verified the phase composition and studied the redox reaction by means of X-ray diffraction, Mossbauer spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Results show a great potential to operate the battery with this storage material during multiple charging–discharging cycles. [less ▲]

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See detailHabitat use of an unstudied Lepilemur in the northwest Madagascar: L. mittermeieri
Wilmet, Leslie ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Beudels-Jamar et al

Conference (2016, August)

Biodiversity and endemism is very high in Madagascar and Genus Lepilemur is part of the endemic mammalian fauna of the island. Sportive lemurs have small distribution ranges, fairly small total ... [more ▼]

Biodiversity and endemism is very high in Madagascar and Genus Lepilemur is part of the endemic mammalian fauna of the island. Sportive lemurs have small distribution ranges, fairly small total populations and are particularly negatively affected by deforestation and habitat fragmentation, serious threats for the biological diversity of the island. Our research focus on one poorly-known taxon, Lepilemur mittermeieri. The distribution range of this endangered species is restricted to the Ampasindava peninsula in the northwest Madagascar and ecological information is essential for its preservation. The main objective of our study is to analyze habitat use and niche characteristics of the species and the impact of habitat degradation and fragmentation on these parameters in order to design robust conservation guidelines for the Ampasindava peninsula. In this talk, we will present the project as a whole and results of two 4-months field missions conducted in 2015 and in 2016. These field missions were designed to specifically 1)compare home range size between two sites 2)complete forest characterization of the home range of several radio-collared individuals. The methodology includes the monitoring of 16animals equipped with radio-collar (VHS telemetry) during 6hours per night for a number of days, GPS locations being recorded every 10 minutes. The home range is derived from the telemetry observation through MCP method. [less ▲]

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See detailLes fortifications celtique et carolingienne du Rocher du Vieux-Château à Pont-de-Bonne (Modave, Belgique)
Delye, Emmanuel ULg

Book published by Cercle archéologique Hesbaye-Condroz (2016)

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See detailLa parentalité dans un contexte de violence conjugale : support de résilience ?
Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

Conference (2016, August)

L’accès à la parentalité, quels que soient le contexte social ou conjugal et l’histoire de la femme, s’avère une étape-clé de transition dans la trajectoire personnelle. Le fonctionnement parental est ... [more ▼]

L’accès à la parentalité, quels que soient le contexte social ou conjugal et l’histoire de la femme, s’avère une étape-clé de transition dans la trajectoire personnelle. Le fonctionnement parental est influencé par trois types de facteurs interagissant entre eux : la personnalité du parent (elle-même influencée par son histoire développementale), les caractéristiques individuelles de l'enfant et les sources de soutien et de stress de l'environnement (Belsky,1984).Les recherches sur la parentalité et la résilience se sont principalement centrées sur la résilience des enfants ayant vécu des traumatismes tels que les abus sexuels, où la résilience est activée par la disponibilité et le soutien parental ( Glowacz et Buzitu, 2014). Nos récentes études portant sur les trajectoires de femmes ayant vécu des traumatismes majeurs (violences conjugales, violences de guerre) nous conduisent à considérer l’accès à la parentalité comme un turning point, déclencheur d’un processus de résilience de ces femmes. Des analyses cliniques seront mises en perspective avec des données de recherches ayant évalué le sentiment de compétence parentale (incluant le sentiment d’efficacité et le sentiment de satisfaction), le stress parental et le soutien social perçu de femmes ayant vécu ces traumatismes. Nos observations et résultats nous amènent à questionner la résilience de la mère et les résonances de cette résilience sur l’enfant en développement. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Trade Sanctions related to Dual-Use Goods and Technologies
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULg

in Athens Journal of Law (2016)

One of the basic rules in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, such rule encounters some limitations when the object of trade is constituted by strategic items, such as dual-use items, which may ... [more ▼]

One of the basic rules in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, such rule encounters some limitations when the object of trade is constituted by strategic items, such as dual-use items, which may have peaceful (civilian/commercial) or non peaceful/military applications. Trade of these categories of goods needs to be controlled, as they can provoke security concerns. Such control is pursued through control lists, licenses, authorizations to stakeholders of the supply chain, information- sharing and cooperation mechanisms, reports, records, declarations, screenings and sanctions as well. The paper aims at focusing on the issue of sanctions, in particular the ones established at the international level: these measures are provided for the violation of trade rules in reference to dual-use items, and/or sanctions have as an object this type of goods. The legal provisions established by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and at the United Nations level are analysed thereafter. Brief observations are offered as regards the EU framework of restrictive measures too. [less ▲]

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