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See detailA review on simulation-based optimization methods applied to building performance analysis
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Applied Energy (2014), 113

Recent progress in computer science and stringent requirements of the design of “greener” buildings put forwards the research and applications of simulation-based optimization methods in the building ... [more ▼]

Recent progress in computer science and stringent requirements of the design of “greener” buildings put forwards the research and applications of simulation-based optimization methods in the building sector. This paper provides an overview on this subject, aiming at clarifying recent advances and outlining potential challenges and obstacles in building design optimization. Key discussions are focused on handling discontinuous multi-modal building optimization problems, the performance and selection of optimization algorithms, multi-objective optimization, the application of surrogate models, optimization under uncertainty and the propagation of optimization techniques into real-world design challenges. This paper also gives bibliographic information on the issues of simulation programs, optimization tools, efficiency of optimization methods, and trends in optimization studies. The review indicates that future researches should be oriented towards improving the efficiency of search techniques and approximation methods (surrogate models) for large-scale building optimization problems; and reducing time and effort for such activities. Further effort is also required to quantify the robustness in optimal solutions so as to improve building performance stability. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Breakthrough of Social Enterprise: Conceptual Clarifications
Defourny, Jacques ULg; Nyssens, Marthe

in Alix, Nicole; de Nanteuil, Matthieu (Eds.) For an Economy of Trust in Europe: the Contribution of the Social and Solidarity Economy (2014)

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See detailPrécis de droit pénal social
Kéfer, Fabienne ULg

Book published by Anthémis - 2è éd. (2014)

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See detailArrêt Essent c. Pays-Bas: l'interdiction absolue de privatisation à l'épreuve de la libre circulation des capitaux
Demoulin, Iris ULg; Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg

in Journal de Droit Européen [=JDE] (2014), 1

La prévention des conflits d’intérêts dans les industries de réseau peut rendre légitimes des mesures antiprivatisation. De telles mesures peuvent être justifiées par la poursuite d’objectifs d’intérêt ... [more ▼]

La prévention des conflits d’intérêts dans les industries de réseau peut rendre légitimes des mesures antiprivatisation. De telles mesures peuvent être justifiées par la poursuite d’objectifs d’intérêt général. [less ▲]

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See detailVascular Endothelial Growth Factor-111 (VEGF-111) and tendon healing: preliminary results in a rat model of tendon injury
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Janssen, Lauriane ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Muscle, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (2014), 1(5), 25-28

Tendon lesions are among the most frequent musculoskeletal pathologies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to regulate angiogenesis. VEGF-111, a biologically active and proteolysis ... [more ▼]

Tendon lesions are among the most frequent musculoskeletal pathologies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to regulate angiogenesis. VEGF-111, a biologically active and proteolysis-resistant splice variant of this family, was recently identified. This study aimed at evaluating whether VEGF-111 could have a therapeutic interest in tendon pathologies. Surgical section of one Achilles tendon of rats was performed before a local injection of either saline or VEGF-111. After 5, 15 and 30 days, the Achilles tendons of 10 rats of both groups were sampled and submitted to a biomechanical tensile test. The force necessary to induce tendon rupture was greater for tendons of the VEGF-111 group (p<0.05) while the section areas of the tendons were similar. The mechanical stress was similar at 5 and 15 days in the both groups but was improved for the VEGF-111 group at day 30 (p <0.001). No difference was observed in the mRNA expression of collagen III, tenomodulin and MMP-9. In conclusion, we observed that a local injection of VEGF-111 improves the early phases of the healing process of rat tendons after a surgical section. Further confirmatory experimentations are needed to consolidate our results. [less ▲]

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See detailCROSSROADS - magazine sonore des musiques noires US
Sacré, Robert ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2014)

CROSSROADS : émission radio hebdomadaire diffusée sur EQUINOXE FM 100.1 (on line via www.equinoxefm.be) : tous les mercredis de 18 à 20h : contenu : blues,R&B,Soul, gospel, Zydeco, jazz

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See detailSciences humaines : Gestion des ressources environnementales : Etude de cas : le gaz de schiste
Claessens, Myriam; Lunskens, Virginie; Stevens, Xavier ULg

Learning material (2014)

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See detailWater soluble exo-polysaccharide from Syncephalastrum racemosum, a strong inducer of plant defence reactions
Valepyn, Emmanuel ULg; Cabrera, Juan-Carlos; Richel, Aurore ULg et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2014), 101

This study examines the production, characterization and bioactivity on plant cell cultured in vitro of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Syncephalastrum racemosum CBS 443.59. Firstly, the influence of the ... [more ▼]

This study examines the production, characterization and bioactivity on plant cell cultured in vitro of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Syncephalastrum racemosum CBS 443.59. Firstly, the influence of the fungus culture condition in shake flasks (pH, temperature and different carbon and nitrogen sources) on EPS and biomass production were evaluated. In order to enhance EPS production, a new protocol based on two-stage pH fermentation in a 3 L stirred fermentor was developed. Under this condition, EPS production increased by 3.55 times, compared to a constant pH process, reaching a maximal EPS concentration of 2.62 g/L. Structurally, the EPS contains a polyglucuronic acid backbone, linked essentially with mannose and fucose units and some galactose and glucose units. The bioactivity of EPS as inducer of defence reactions in plant suspension-cultured cells was also studied. Our results show, for first time, that EPS from S. racemosum CBS 443.59 induces, depending on the concentration, PAL activation and H2O2 synthesis in Arabidospsis thaliana cell suspensions. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of limestone fillers on surface free energy and electrical conductivity of the interstitial solution of cement mixes
Courard, Luc ULg; Michel, Frédéric ULg; Perkowicz, Sylwia et al

in Cement and Concrete Composites (2014), 45

Most of concrete formulations actually contain mineral additives that are used as an inert filler or supplementary cementitious material (as type II addition). These materials are generally used in order ... [more ▼]

Most of concrete formulations actually contain mineral additives that are used as an inert filler or supplementary cementitious material (as type II addition). These materials are generally used in order to increase concrete performances both in its fresh and hardened states. The mineral additives usually improve the consistency and workability of fresh concrete and reduce the water demand for a required concrete slump because of an additional volume of fines. The way of action depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of fillers. The study of surface free energies and electric conductivities of interstitial solutions of cement mixes modified by blast furnace slags and limestone fillers contributes to a better knowledge of hardening and interaction process. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit pour le prévenu de comparaître personnellement devant les juridictions répressives
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2014), 1/2014(janvier), 113-119

La note rappelle les règles belges relatives à la comparution du prévenu personne physique devant les juridictions répressives en les mettant en parallèle avec la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des ... [more ▼]

La note rappelle les règles belges relatives à la comparution du prévenu personne physique devant les juridictions répressives en les mettant en parallèle avec la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme. Elle s'attache ensuite à examiner la question de l'incapacité pour une partie d'être présente à son procès. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk Taking of Executives under Different Incentive Contracts: Experimental Evidence
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Vieider, Ferdinand

in Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization (2014), 97

Classic financial agency theory recommends compensation through stock options rather than shares to counteract excessive risk aversion in agents. In a setting where any kind of risk taking is suboptimal ... [more ▼]

Classic financial agency theory recommends compensation through stock options rather than shares to counteract excessive risk aversion in agents. In a setting where any kind of risk taking is suboptimal for shareholders, we show that excessive risk taking may occur for one of two reasons: risk preferences or incentives. Even when compensated through restricted company stock, experimental CEOs take large amounts of excessive risk. This contradicts classical financial theory, but can be explained through risk preferences that are not uniform over the probability and outcome spaces, and in particular, risk seeking for small probability gains and large probability losses. Compensation through options further increases risk taking as expected. We show that this effect is driven mainly by the personal asset position of the experimental CEO, thus having deleterious effects on company performance. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Evidence of Human Activities during the Holocene in the Lowland Forests of the Northern Congo Basin
Morin-Rivat, Julie ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Gillet, Jean-François et al

in Radiocarbon (2014), 56(1), 209-220

In the last decade, the myth of the pristine tropical forest has been seriously challenged. In central Africa, there is a growing body of evidence for past human settlements along the Atlantic forests ... [more ▼]

In the last decade, the myth of the pristine tropical forest has been seriously challenged. In central Africa, there is a growing body of evidence for past human settlements along the Atlantic forests, but very little information is available about human activities further inland. In this study, we aimed at determining the temporal and spatial patterns of human activities in an archaeologically unexplored area of 110,000 km² located in the northern Congo Basin and currently covered by dense forest. Fieldwork involving archaeology as well as archaeobotany was undertaken in 36 sites located in southeastern Cameroon and in the northern Republic of Congo. Evidence of past human activities through either artifacts or charred botanical remains was observed in all excavated test pits across the study area. The set of 43 radiocarbon dates extending from 15,000 BP to the present time showed a bimodal distribution in the Late Holocene which was interpreted as two phases of human expansion with an intermediate phase of depopulation. The 2300–1300 BP phase is correlated with the migrations of supposed farming populations from northwestern Cameroon. Between 1300 and 670 BP, less material could be dated. This is in agreement with the population collapse already reported for central Africa. Following this, the 670–20 BP phase corresponds to a new period of human expansion known as the Late Iron Age. These results bring new and extensive evidence of human activities in the northern Congo Basin and support the established chronology for human history in central Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust method optimization strategy – a useful tool for method transfer: the case of SFC
Dispas, Amandine ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Andri, Bertyl ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 88

The concept of Quality by Design (QbD) is now well established in pharmaceutical industry and should be applied to the development of any analytical methods. In this context, the key concept of Design ... [more ▼]

The concept of Quality by Design (QbD) is now well established in pharmaceutical industry and should be applied to the development of any analytical methods. In this context, the key concept of Design Space (DS) was introduced in the field of analytical method optimization. In chromatographic words, the DS is the space of chromatographic conditions that will ensure the quality of peaks separation, thus DS is a zone of robustness. In the present study, the interest of robust method optimization strategy was investigated in the context of direct method transfer from sending to receiving laboratory. The benefit of this approach is to speed up the method life cycle by performing only one quantitative validation step in the final environment of method use. A Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) method previously developed was used as a case study in this work. Moreover, the interest of geometric transfer was investigated simultaneously in order to stress a little bit more the transfer exercise and, by the way, emphasize the additional benefit of DS strategy in this particular context. Three successful transfers were performed on two column geometries. In order to compare original and transferred methods, the observed relative retention times (RT) were modelled as a function of the predicted relative RT and of the method type (original or transferred). The observed relative RT of the original and transferred methods are not statistically different and thus the method transfer is successfully achieved thanks to the robust optimization strategy. Furthermore, the analytical method was improved considering analysis time (reduced five times) and peak capacity (increased three times). To conclude, the advantage of using a DS strategy implemented for the optimization and transfer of SFC method was successfully demonstrated in this work. [less ▲]

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See detailPas de culture de sécurité sans un leadership totalement convaincu, impliqué et moteur dans la démarche
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Healthcare Executive (2014)

La culture de sécurité en santé publique a 40 ans de retard Le rapport de l’IOM (Institute of Medicine), publié en 1999, met le doigt sur les risques auxquels les patients s’exposent en rentrant dans un ... [more ▼]

La culture de sécurité en santé publique a 40 ans de retard Le rapport de l’IOM (Institute of Medicine), publié en 1999, met le doigt sur les risques auxquels les patients s’exposent en rentrant dans un secteur hospitalier. Ces nombres éloquents ne sont pas l’apanage d’un système de santé publique particulier, par ailleurs fortement décrié et propre aux Etats Unis d’Amérique. Les statistiques dans d’autres systèmes de santé sont identiques et l’OMS clame aujourd’hui que, lorsque vous êtes admis dans un hôpital, vous avez 10% de risque d’en sortir moins bien qu’à l’entrée (European Union Network for Patient Safety). Et pourtant, tous les acteurs du terrain se gargarisent avec le slogan «priorité à la sécurité». Malheureusement, il s’agit là souvent simplement d’un slogan qui ne se reflète pas dans nos pratiques journalières. Et c’est là que le secteur de la santé se différencie singulièrement des autres domaines d’activités industrielles dits à haut risque (aviation civile, centrales atomiques, industrie alimentaire), qui ont depuis longue date un «management du risque opérationnel» organisé, structuré et prospectif. Un des principes de base du management du risque est la mesure: dans les écoles managériales on apprend que l’on ne peut manager ce que l’on ne mesure pas. Mesurons-nous les risques en santé publique? Avons-nous des indicateurs fiables, reproductibles, transparents qui nous donnent une idée de la sécurité et de la qualité de nos pratiques? L’incidence des risques systémiques – et je préfère utiliser ce terme plutôt que celui d’«erreur médicale» – est certainement sous-estimée, car il n’y pas en santé publique une culture de sécurité qui prône la déclaration spontanée et transparente de tous les événements, qu’ils soient indésirables (sans effet délétère pour le patient) ou greffés d’effet mineur (incident) ou majeur (accident). [less ▲]

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See detailLimestone fillers cement-based composites: effects of blast furnace slags on fresh and hardened properties
Courard, Luc ULg; Michel, Frédéric ULg

in Construction and Building Materials (2014), 51

Limestone filler is a raw material that is already used in several applications like paints, bricks, bituminous mixtures…etc. Moreover, and particularly in Belgium, classical additions for concrete like ... [more ▼]

Limestone filler is a raw material that is already used in several applications like paints, bricks, bituminous mixtures…etc. Moreover, and particularly in Belgium, classical additions for concrete like fly ashes and granulated blast furnace slags are becoming rare; there is a need for new additions that could have a positive effect on the properties of the fresh and hardened cementitous composites. Substitution of limestone filler in Portland cement and Granulated blast furnace slag cement has been realized between 15 and 27 % in mass. In addition to the characterization of the powder itself – specific mass, specific surface and laser granulometry – the problem of the water demand has been analysed: it seems that it remains constant with the substitution rate. Electric conductivity has also been performed in order to study the evolution of the “dormant” period. Tests on hardened mortars were performed with regard to mechanical properties and evolution of the porosity. Test results indicate that the porosity seems to be finer in the case of granulated blast furnace slags cements, partially due to a very low diameter of the slags particles. Oxygen permeability doesn’t seem to be influenced by the filler while capillary absorption increases with substitution rate. Finally, carbonation rate, sulphate resistance and chloride penetration show quite interesting behaviours, leading to the conclusion that limestone fillers maybe a good substitution material. [less ▲]

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See detailEnzymatic creatinine assays allowestimation of glomerular filtration rate in stages 1 and 2 chronic kidney disease using CKD-EPI equation
Kuster, Nils; Cristol, Jean-Paul; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2014), 428

The National Kidney Disease Education Program group demonstrated that MDRD equation is sensitive to creatinine measurement error, particularly at higher glomerular filtration rates. Thus, MDRD-based eGFR ... [more ▼]

The National Kidney Disease Education Program group demonstrated that MDRD equation is sensitive to creatinine measurement error, particularly at higher glomerular filtration rates. Thus, MDRD-based eGFR above 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 should not be reported numerically. However, little is known about the impact of analytical error on CKD-EPI-based estimates. This study aimed at assessing the impact of analytical characteristics (bias and imprecision) of 12 enzymatic and 4 compensated Jaffe previously characterized creatinine assays on MDRD and CKD-EPI eGFR. In a simulation study, the impact of analytical error was assessed on a hospital population of 24 084 patients. Ability using each assay to correctly classify patients according to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages was evaluated. For eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m2, both equations were sensitive to analytical error. Compensated Jaffe assays displayed high bias in this range and led to poorer sensitivity/specificity for classification according to CKD stages than enzymatic assays. As compared to MDRD equation, CKD-EPI equation decreases impact of analytical error in creatinine measurement above 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Compensated Jaffe creatinine assays lead to important errors in eGFR and should be avoided. Accurate enzymatic assays allow estimation of eGFR until 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 with MDRD and 120 mL/min/1.73 m2 with CKD-EPI equation. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommandations européennes pour la prise en charge des cardiopathies congénitales complexes de l'adulte
MILTNER, Béatrice ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(1), 16-25

THe number of patients with Grown-Up Congenital Heart disease (GUCH) consulting adult cardiologists is steadily increasing. These patients have either a non-diagnosed congenital heart disease revealed at ... [more ▼]

THe number of patients with Grown-Up Congenital Heart disease (GUCH) consulting adult cardiologists is steadily increasing. These patients have either a non-diagnosed congenital heart disease revealed at adulthood, or a diagnosed congenital heart disease for which one or multiple interventions have possibly been performed during childhood. In this article, we summarize the recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology of 2010 for complex congenital heart disease. [less ▲]

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See detailLe canon littéraire au crible des Physiologies
Stienon, Valérie ULg

in Revue d'Histoire Littéraire de la France (2014), 1

Gustave Lanson considérait les productions mineures comme le tissu conjonctif de l’histoire littéraire. Un tel point de vue peut rapidement faire apparaître les Physiologies parisiennes des années 1830 ... [more ▼]

Gustave Lanson considérait les productions mineures comme le tissu conjonctif de l’histoire littéraire. Un tel point de vue peut rapidement faire apparaître les Physiologies parisiennes des années 1830-1845 comme le laboratoire de bien des esthétiques modernes, ce corpus étant d’autant plus inventif qu’il procède pour une grande part des poétiques d’écriture hybrides et expansives de la presse. Parce qu'elles sont enclines à traiter du personnel, des lieux et des pratiques littéraires à partir d'une fraction symboliquement réprouvée, sinon marginale, de la production littéraire, les Physiologies peuvent assumer tout à la fois une fonction de régulation et de révélation des processus de légitimation. L'article met en évidence ce double rôle d'élucidation et d'observation participante manifestée par ces textes. [less ▲]

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