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See detailDer individuelle Rechtsschutz gegen Verwaltungshandlungen - Landesbericht Belgien
Behrendt, Christian ULg; Miny, Xavier ULg

in Huber, Peter M.; von Bogdandy, Armin (Eds.) Ius Publicum Europaeum, vol. VIII (in press)

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See detailInterest of creatine supplementation insoccer
Miny, Kevin ULg; Burrowes, J; Jidovtseff, Boris ULg

in Science & Sports (in press)

Objectives This review article aimed to summarize the current state of understanding on creatine supplementation for soccer players. In other words, it investigated the beneficial (and potentially ... [more ▼]

Objectives This review article aimed to summarize the current state of understanding on creatine supplementation for soccer players. In other words, it investigated the beneficial (and potentially negative) effects of this supplementation on sport-specific skills and performance in soccer players. Furthermore, this article accordingly discussed the safest and most recommended protocols for the consumption of creatine by these athletes. News Studies have shown that creatine supplementation can have positive effects on sprint and vertical jump performances in soccer players. This supplementation may also enhance soccer players’ muscle strength and adaptation to a high-intensity training regimen. Besides, creatine may be able to enhance muscle glycogen (as well as phosphocreatine) storage, reduce oxidative stress, and improve muscular repair and hypertrophy. Interestingly, creatine supplementation does not seem to affect aerobic performance. Prospects and projects Soccer players could take creatine during pre-season training (3 to 5g/day) in order to help them endure a high-intensity training regimen and enhance their muscular strength and adaptation resulting from strength and/or resistance training. A lower dosage (less than 3g/day) might also be sufficient and beneficial during the season in case of fatigue, in order to sustain adequate levels of phosphocreatine and glycogen in the muscles. Occasional intakes (about 3g) before games and/or extenuating practices could also give a physical and mental boost to the players. Conclusion Most of the studies measured the effects of creatine on skills or physical performances in isolation from the true athletic demands of soccer match play. In conclusion, there is still a need for more research in order to determine whether creatine supplementation is ergogenic regarding the (aerobic) capacity to repeat (very) high-intensity actions, more particularly during competitive soccer. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of short-term memory and visuo-spatial skills in numerical magnitude processing: evidence from Turner syndrome
Attout, Lucie ULg; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile et al

in PLoS ONE (in press)

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See detailOperation of distribution systems within secure limits using real-time Model Predictive Control
Soleimani Bidgoli, Hamid ULg; Valverde, Gustavo; Aristidou, Petros et al

in Rueda Torres, Jose (Ed.) Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment and Intelligent Control for Sustainable Power Systems (in press)

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See detailEnhancement of Transmission System Voltage Stability through Local Control of Distribution Networks
Valverde, Gustavo; Aristidou, Petros; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Rueda Torres, Jose (Ed.) Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment and Intelligent Control for Sustainable Power Systems (in press)

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See detailSpatiotemporal variation of drought characteristics in the context of climate change in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China
Li, Xiang-Xiang; Ju, Hui; Garré, Sarah ULg et al

in Journal of Integrative Agriculture (in press)

Understanding the potential drought characteristics under climate change is essential for reducing vulnerability and establishing adaptation strategies, especially in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (3H Plain ... [more ▼]

Understanding the potential drought characteristics under climate change is essential for reducing vulnerability and establishing adaptation strategies, especially in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (3H Plain) which is the grain production base in China. In this paper, the variation of drought characteristics including drought event frequency, duration, severity and intensity for the past 50 years (1961-2010) and future scenarios (2010-2099) based on observed meteorological data and RCP 8.5 projections were investigated, respectively. Firstly, the applicability of three climatic drought indices including the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index based on the Penman–Monteith equation (SPEI-PM) and the Thornthwaite equation (SPEI-TH) were compared in tracing recorded agricultural drought areas. Then, the drought characteristics including drought event, duration, severity and intensity using “run theory” was analyzed for both historical observations and future RCP 8.5 scenarios based on the proper index. Correlation analysis between drought indexes and agricultural drought areas showed that SPEI-PM performed better than SPI and SPEI-TH in the 3H Plain. Based on the results of SPEI-PM, droughts over the past 50 years have experienced reduced drought with shorter durations, and weaker severity and intensity. However, for the future RCP 8.5 scenario, drought is predicted to rise in frequency, duration, severity and intensity from 2010-2099 although drought components during the 2010-2039 were milder compared to historical conditions. This study highlights that the estimations for atmospheric evaporative demand would bring in differences in long term drought trend of drought indexes and consequently the applicability in 3H Plain. The results of this paper can help inform researchers and local policy makers to establish drought risk management strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailBehaviour and browse species selectivity of heifers grazing in a temperate silvopastoral system
Vandermeulen, Sophie ULg; Ramírez-Restrepo, Carlos Alberto; Marche, Christian et al

in Agroforestry Systems (in press)

In Belgium silvopastoral grazing systems associating trees and pasture are instrumental in enhancing dynamic trade-offs between ruminant farming and habitat improvement. A 130-day study was conducted in ... [more ▼]

In Belgium silvopastoral grazing systems associating trees and pasture are instrumental in enhancing dynamic trade-offs between ruminant farming and habitat improvement. A 130-day study was conducted in Belgium from April to September 2013 to evaluate the effects of browsing a combination of shrubs and trees (i.e. hedge) on the selective behaviour of cattle and to relate these observations to changes in forage nutritive value. Twelve Holstein dairy heifers (Bos taurus; 487 kg) were allocated to either a control ryegrass pasture (i.e. control pasture group; CPG) or a pasture plus unrestricted browsing (i.e. browsing group; BG) of a hedge composed of shrubs and trees. Behaviour and selectivity towards the woody species were recorded for 14h on a daily basis during 3 consecutive days over spring, early summer and late summer. Leaves and stems of woody species and faecal samples were collected during each season to analyse their nutritive value and predict the dry matter intake by means of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Integrating shrubs and trees along a pasture influenced the heifers’ behaviour and BG heifers spent 19.3, 5.9 and 5.4% of their time browsing during spring, and early and late summer, respectively (P < 0.001). This behaviour was correlated to the pre-grazing pasture biomass (r=0.50; P < 0.001). Compared with the summer seasons, the greater browsing activity in spring was associated with higher plant feeding value. Overall, the most ingested species were Carpinus betulus, Cornus sanguinea, Corylus avellana and Crataegus monogyna. It was concluded that cattle use a significant time budget for browsing on temperate ryegrass pasture but further research is required to investigate potential benefits of silvopastoral systems in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystallization and Gelation Behavior of Low- and High Melting Waxes in Rice Bran Oil: a Case-Study on Berry Wax and Sunflower Wax
Doan, Chi Diem; Tavernier, Iris; Bin Sintang, Mohd Dona et al

in Food Biophysics (in press)

Low-melting berry wax (BEW) has proven to be a good oil gelator with a positive contribution to the consistency and flexibility of the structured oil. Nevertheless, the properties of BEWand the ... [more ▼]

Low-melting berry wax (BEW) has proven to be a good oil gelator with a positive contribution to the consistency and flexibility of the structured oil. Nevertheless, the properties of BEWand the corresponding oleogel have not yet been investigated in-depth. In this research, the difference in crystallization and gelling behavior between sunflower wax (SW), a high melting wax, and BEW, a low-melting wax, in rice bran oil (RBO) was investigated. The difference in melting and crystallization temperatures can be explained by the different chemical composition (long-chain wax esters in SWand shortchain fatty acids in BEW). The heterogeneity in crystal habits (unidirectional platelets versus microcrystalline particles) and polymorphism (orthorhombic versus hexagonal) are responsible for the varying gel strength and hardness of the respective SWand BEW-oleogels. The microcrystalline BEW particles aligned and reorganized during 1-month storage at 5 °C, which leaded to an increase in the gel strength and hardness of BEW-oleogel. The gelling property of SW-oleogel however did not significantly differ after 4 weeks at 5 °C, despite of the appearance of spherulitic crystalline clusters. The changes in the physical properties of wax-based oleogels during storage time were further explored using differential scanning calorimetry, polarized light microscope, powder X-ray diffraction and rheology. [less ▲]

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See detailCarte géologique de Wallonie (Belgique) 1/10.000, 48/8 Clavier
Barchy, Laurent; Marion, Jean-Marc ULg

Cartographic material (in press)

New geological map of Wallonia published at the scale of 1/25.000, based on a new field work and using previous scientific data produced since the previous edition in 1902 (at 1/40.000, by Lohest, Forir ... [more ▼]

New geological map of Wallonia published at the scale of 1/25.000, based on a new field work and using previous scientific data produced since the previous edition in 1902 (at 1/40.000, by Lohest, Forir and Mourlon). [less ▲]

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See detailCarte géologique de Wallonie. Huy-Nandrin n°48/3-4
Mottequin, Bernard; Marion, Jean-Marc ULg

Cartographic material (in press)

New geological map of Wallonia published at the scale of 1/25.000, based on a new field work and using previous scientific data produced since the first edition by Gustave Dewalque & colleagues (1898 ... [more ▼]

New geological map of Wallonia published at the scale of 1/25.000, based on a new field work and using previous scientific data produced since the first edition by Gustave Dewalque & colleagues (1898) published at the scale of 1/40.000 [less ▲]

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See detailLa contribution du CHST à l'inventaire wallon des terrains potentiellement pollués
Defechereux, Olivier ULg; Peters, Arnaud ULg

in Actes du IXème Congrès de l’Association des Cercles francophones d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Belgique (in press)

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See detailLa carte de Vandermaelen et le paysage industriel wallon à la fin de la première industrialisation
Peters, Arnaud ULg; Defechereux, Olivier ULg

in Actes du IXème Congrès de l’Association des Cercles francophones d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Belgique (in press)

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See detailTechnological behaviour of Cretaceous and Pliocene clays of northern Morocco used in fired brick manufacturing
El Ouahabi, Meriam ULg; Daoudi, Lahcen; Fagel, Nathalie ULg

in Journal of Materials and Environmental Science (in press)

Northern Morocco has an important local ceramic industry. Twenty-three Craterous and Pliocene clays from Tangier area (Northern Morocco) were studied to test their suitability as raw material for fired ... [more ▼]

Northern Morocco has an important local ceramic industry. Twenty-three Craterous and Pliocene clays from Tangier area (Northern Morocco) were studied to test their suitability as raw material for fired brick production. To assess their behaviour, the chemical composition, specific surface area (SSA), cation exchange capacity (CEC), and apparent density of clays were determined. The chemical composition consisted mainly of SiO2 (32 – 60%), Al2O3 (7 – 30%), and CaO (0.5 – 32%). SSA and CEC values of all the samples were low. The apparent density, pore volume, and micropore values were almost similar. Clay bricks were prepared by forming and shaping, and then fired in the range of 800 – 1100°C. Firing shrinkage, loss on mass and water absorption capacity were done in order to characterize clays after firing. Most of the clay samples have the necessary properties for the manufacturing of brick products. However, some clay samples were above the norm of loss on weight, due mainly to their high amount of carbonates. Furthermore, some kaolinitic samples from Pliocene blue marls and Cretaceous marls are inappropriate for building-related brick fabrication, because of the development of portlandite in brick, when in contact with moisture of the air. However, it will be necessary to mix them with other clays with little or no carbonate to dilute their carbonates content and then enhance their workability. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-throughput sequencing analysis reveals the genetic diversity of different regions of the murine norovirus genome during in vitro replication
Mauroy, Axel ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Nezer, Carine et al

in Archives of Virology (in press)

In this study, we report the genetic diversity and nucleotide mutation rates of five representative regions of the murine norovirus genome during in vitro passages. The mutation rates were similar in ... [more ▼]

In this study, we report the genetic diversity and nucleotide mutation rates of five representative regions of the murine norovirus genome during in vitro passages. The mutation rates were similar in genomic regions encompassing partial coding sequences for non-structural (NS) 1-2, NS5, NS6, NS7 proteins within open reading frame (ORF) 1. In a region encoding a portion of the major capsid protein (VP1) within ORF2 (also including the ORF4 region) and a portion of the minor structural protein (VP2), the mutation rates were estimated to be at least one order of magnitude higher. The VP2 coding region was found to have the highest mutation rate. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantification des politiques versus démocratisation de l’évaluation : Etude des plans de cohésion sociale en Wallonie
Fallon, Catherine ULg; Feron, Pauline

in Mespoulet, Martine (Ed.) Usages des chiffres dans l’action publique territoriale (in press)

L’usage des chiffres dans l’action publique (ou la « quantification du politique ») mobilise deux registres en tension : premièrement celui de la performance, où « le chiffre est conçu comme un acteur ... [more ▼]

L’usage des chiffres dans l’action publique (ou la « quantification du politique ») mobilise deux registres en tension : premièrement celui de la performance, où « le chiffre est conçu comme un acteur contribuant à encadrer l’action en restreignant les options soumises à délibération et les choix ouverts à la décision collective », et deuxièmement la démocratie, perçue comme « un facteur d’extension du débat public et d’accroissement des sphères d’exercice de la responsabilité politique des citoyens ». Ogien relève le renforcement de cette tension, tout en soulignant l’absence de démocratisation de la mesure elle-même. Afin de remédier à cet écueil, l’auteur propose que les citoyens, rarement pris en considération dans l’élaboration et la définition des termes de la mesure, soient parties prenantes « du système du chiffre qui sert à rendre compte de leur existence et de leur destinée ». Cette contribution analyse les modalités concrètes de cette tension dans le cadre de l’évaluation d’une politique régionale mise en place au niveau local, les plans de cohésion sociale (PCS) en Région wallonne (Belgique), en mobilisant les données recueillies lors de l’évaluation des PCS terminée en mars 2013 . En effet, un enjeu important des PCS était la mise en place d’un processus d’évaluation qui se voulait « participatif» . La participation citoyenne étant une notion centrale de la philosophie PCS, un des objectifs de la Direction interdépartementale de la cohésion sociale (DiCS – administration régionale en charge du programme) était de la promouvoir à travers toutes les étapes de mise en œuvre de cette politique, y compris pour l’évaluation d’impact, inspirée en cela par les propositions méthodologiques du Conseil de l’Europe. Dans un premier temps, le bureau régional de statistique avait développé un indicateur composite « d’accès aux droits sociaux fondamentaux » afin d’objectiver la clé de répartition des ressources entre les territoires locaux. Ce n’est que dans un second temps, en fin de programme, que la DiCS était sommée de produire une « évaluation participative » mesurant l’impact des actions réalisées à travers les PCS sur la cohésion sociale et le bien-être. L’article propose de confronter ces deux démarches d’évaluation : celle qui aboutit à un indicateur quantitatif fondé sur une logique statistique et l’approche participative favorisant l’expression des parties prenantes. [less ▲]

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See detailPolyurethane coatings in 20th century outdoor painted sculptures. Part I: Comparative study of various systems by means of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy
Defeyt, Catherine ULg; Langenbacher, Julia; Rivenc, Rachel

in Heritage Science (in press)

Like acrylics and alkyds, polyurethanes (PUs) represent an important class of industrial paints adopted by 20th and 21st artists; primarily by those creating outdoor painted sculptures (OPS). Because PU ... [more ▼]

Like acrylics and alkyds, polyurethanes (PUs) represent an important class of industrial paints adopted by 20th and 21st artists; primarily by those creating outdoor painted sculptures (OPS). Because PU coatings offer a compromise between aesthetic and performance expectations, unachievable with other types of paints, they are commonly recognized as the most appropriate option for painted artworks intended for an outdoor setting. However, the PU class includes various systems and subgroups possessing very different properties. Through the FTIR-ATR study of 137 PU coating references from the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) reference collection, this paper outlines the differences and the similarities existing, in terms of the composition, of two package solvent-borne, two package water-borne, one package water-borne and fluoropolymer polyurethanes. The comparison of the obtained FTIR-ATR results allowed determining markers helpful to discriminate specific PU subgroups by means of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The goals of this paper are to provide to the conservation professionals a better understanding of the versatility and diversity of PU coatings and to facilitate the identification of the various types initially used by the artists. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights on the Picasso’s Blue Period painting La famille Soler through non-invasive imaging and analytical techniques
Defeyt, Catherine ULg; Walter, Philippe; Rousselière, Hélène et al

in Studies in Conservation (in press)

The material study of La Famille Soler through non-invasive imaging, molecular, structural and elemental techniques, permitted a relevant re-examination of this singular blue period painting, which is ... [more ▼]

The material study of La Famille Soler through non-invasive imaging, molecular, structural and elemental techniques, permitted a relevant re-examination of this singular blue period painting, which is considered as the earliest Picasso’s version of Le déjeuner sur l’herbe by E. Manet. On the one hand, it was concluded that the underlying landscape painted by Vidal in 1903 referred to Manet’s masterpiece. On the other hand, it was assumed that the cubist sketch undertaken by Picasso in 1912, prior to the current blue background, consists of an uncompleted transformation of Vidal’s landscape into synthetic cubism. Additionally, the main pigments associated to the underlying compositions were successfully identified. [less ▲]

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See detailPatterns of metal distribution in hypersaline microbialites during early diagenesis: Implications for the fossil record
Sforna, Marie-Catherine ULg; Daye, Mirna; Philippot, Pascal et al

in Geobiology (in press)

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See detailLa pensée à l'oeuvre dans une discussion philosophique : l'écouter, l'entendre, l'exploiter : former à l'animation par l'observation minutieuse d'une DVDP filmée.
Herla, Anne ULg; Jeanmart, Gaëlle ULg; Frieden, Nathalie et al

in Simon, Jean-Pascal; Tozzi, Michel (Eds.) Paroles de philosophes en herbe : Regards croisés de chercheurs sur une discussion sur la justice en CM2 (in press)

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