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See detailThe somatotrope Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone/Growth Hormone/Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 axis in immunoregulation and immunosenescence
Bodart, Gwennaëlle ULg; Farhat, Khalil; RENARD, Jeanne de Chantal ULg et al

in Savino, Wilson; Guaraldi, Federica (Eds.) Endocrine Immunology (2017)

Most scientific reports debate the thymotropic and immuno-stimulating properties of the somato- trope growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)/growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis ... [more ▼]

Most scientific reports debate the thymotropic and immuno-stimulating properties of the somato- trope growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)/growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, but there is still some disagreement about the physiological role of this axis in basal conditions. Moreover, some authors have hypothesized that the physiological role of the somato- trope axis only appears in stressful conditions (such as sepsis or infective and inflammatory diseases). This chapter will provide an extended overview of the expression of the components (signals and receptors) of the somatotrope axis and their properties on cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. It will also summarize some clinical studies suggesting a benefit for a short-term GH treat- ment in acute immunodeficiencies, and the importance of GH supplementation in adult GH defi- ciency. A new transgenic mouse model, the hypothalamic GHRH-deficient (Ghrh–/–) mouse, which exhibits a severe deficiency of the somatotrope axis, will be presented since it will be of great help in further deciphering the regulation by the GHRH/GH/IGF-1 axis on both immune development and function. Finally, we will discuss the implication of aging-related somatopause in relation to the general context of Immunosenescence. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutional pedagogy for an autonomous society: Castoriadis & Lapassade
Wustefeld, Sophie ULg

in Educational Philosophy & Theory (2017)

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See detailFish habitat selection in a large hydropeaking river: Strong individual and temporal variations revealed by telemetry
Capra, Hervé; Plichard, Laura; Bergé, Julien et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2017), 578

Modeling individual fish habitat selection in highly variable environments such as hydropeaking rivers is required for guiding efficient management decisions. We analyzed fish microhabitat selection in ... [more ▼]

Modeling individual fish habitat selection in highly variable environments such as hydropeaking rivers is required for guiding efficient management decisions. We analyzed fish microhabitat selection in the heterogeneous hydraulic and thermal conditions (modeled in two-dimensions) of a reach of the large hydropeaking Rhône River locally warmed by the cooling system of a nuclear power plant. We used modern fixed acoustic telemetry techniques to survey 18 fish individuals (five barbels, six catfishes, seven chubs) signaling their position every 3 s over a three-month period. Fish habitat selection depended on combinations of current microhabitat hydraulics (e.g. velocity, depth), past microhabitat hydraulics (e.g. dewatering risk or maximum velocities during the past 15 days) and to a lesser extent substrate and temperature. Mixed-effects habitat selection models indicated that individual effects were often stronger than specific effects. In the Rhône, fish individuals appear to memorize spatial and temporal environmental changes and to adopt a “least constraining” habitat selection. Avoiding fast-flowing midstream habitats, fish generally live along the banks in areas where the dewatering risk is high. When discharge decreases, however, they select higher velocities but avoid both dewatering areas and very fast-flowing midstream habitats. Although consistent with the available knowledge on static fish habitat selection, our quantitative results demonstrate temporal variations in habitat selection, depending on individual behavior and environmental history. Their generality could be further tested using comparative experiments in different environmental configurations. [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth velocity of preterm infants - analysis and recommendations
Fenton, Tanis; Hoyos, Angela; Groh-Wargo, Sharon et al

Conference (2017)

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See detailGrowth velocity of preterm infants - analysis and recommendations
Fenton, Tanis; Hoyaos, Angela; Groh-Wargo, Sharon et al

Conference (2017)

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See detailL. Volusius Maecianus, De assis distributione
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Mantovani, Dario; Wibier, Matthijs (Eds.) History and Geography of Late Antique Legal Culture (2017)

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See detailThe Characteristics of al-Maqrīzī's Handwriting
Bauden, Frédéric ULg

in Bauden, Frédéric; Franssen, Elise (Eds.) "In the Author's Hand": Holograph and Authorial Manuscripts in the Islamic Handwritten Tradition (2017)

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See detail"In the Author's Hand": Holograph and Authorial Manuscripts in the Islamic Handwritten Tradition
Bauden, Frédéric ULg; Franssen, Elise ULg

Book published by Brill Academic Publishers (2017)

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See detailMiddle Miocene climate and vegetation models and their validation with proxy data
Henrot, Alexandra-Jane ULg; Utescher, Torsten; Erdei, Boglarka et al

in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (2017), 467

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See detailThe Cross-Cultural Legacy: Critical and Creative Writings in Memory of Hena Maes-Jelinek
Collier, Gordon; Davis, Geoffrey; Delrez, Marc ULg et al

Book published by Brill/Rodopi (2017)

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See detailIntegration of Gene Expression and Methylation to unravel Biological Networks in Glioblastoma Patients
Bessonov, Kyrylo ULg; Gadaleta, Francesco; Van Steen, Kristel ULg

in Genetic Epidemiology (2017)

The vast amount of heterogeneous omics data, encompassing a broad range of biomolecular information, requires novel methods of analysis, including those that integrate the available levels of information ... [more ▼]

The vast amount of heterogeneous omics data, encompassing a broad range of biomolecular information, requires novel methods of analysis, including those that integrate the available levels of information. In this work we describe Regression2Net, a computational approach that is able to integrate gene expression and genomic or methylome data in two steps. First, penalized regressions are used to build Expression-Expression (EEnet) and Expression-Genome or –Methylome (EMnet) networks. Second, network theory is used to highlight important communities of genes. When applying our approach Regression2Net to gene expression and methylation profiles for individuals with glioblastoma multiforme, we identified respectively 284 and 447 potentially interesting genes in relation to glioblastoma pathology. These genes showed at least one connection in the integrated networks ANDnet and XORnet derived from aforementioned EEnet and EMnet networks. Whereas the edges in ANDnet occur in both EEnet and EMnet, the edges in XORnet occur in EMnet but not in EEnet. In-depth biological analysis of connected genes in ANDnet and XORnet revealed genes that are related to energy metabolism, cell cycle control (AATF), immune system response and several cancer types. Importantly, we observed significant over-representation of cancer related pathways including glioma, especially in the XORnet network, suggesting a non-ignorable role of methylation in glioblastoma multiforma. In the ANDnet, we furthermore identified potential glioma suppressor genes ACCN3 and ACCN4 linked to the NBPF1 neuroblastoma breakpoint family, as well as numerous ABC transporter genes (ABCA1, ABCB1) suggesting drug resistance of glioblastoma tumors. [less ▲]

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See detailA vertebrate specific and essential role for sp7/osterix in osteogenesis revealed by gene knock-out in the teleost medaka.
Yu, T; Graf, M; Renn, Jörg ULg et al

in Development (2017), 144(2), 265-271

Sp7/osterix (osx) encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor that controls osteoblast differentiation in mammals. Although identified in all vertebrate lineages, its role in non-mammalian bone formation ... [more ▼]

Sp7/osterix (osx) encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor that controls osteoblast differentiation in mammals. Although identified in all vertebrate lineages, its role in non-mammalian bone formation remains elusive. Here we show that an osx mutation in medaka results in severe bone defects and larval lethality. Pre-osteoblasts fail to differentiate leading to severe intramembranous and perichondral ossification defects. The notochord sheath mineralizes normally supporting the idea of an osteoblast-independent mechanism for teleost vertebral centra formation. This study establishes a key role for Sp7/Osx for bone formation also in a non-mammalian species, and reveals conserved and non-conserved features in vertebrate bone formation. [less ▲]

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See detailSchizophrénie et perspective en première personne : Essai de psychopathologie phénoménologique
Valentiny, Caroline; Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Book published by De Boeck (2017)

Comment rencontrer l’homme schizophrène dans sa singularité, dans la richesse et les difficultés de son expérience ? Comment partager l’indicible de la rupture psychotique ? Comment dépasser les ... [more ▼]

Comment rencontrer l’homme schizophrène dans sa singularité, dans la richesse et les difficultés de son expérience ? Comment partager l’indicible de la rupture psychotique ? Comment dépasser les catégorisations symptomatiques réduisant, selon une perspective en troisième personne, l’homme à sa maladie ? Les auteurs proposent une approche contemporaine et inédite de la schizophrénie. Ils s’inspirent d’un outil, l’échelle EASE, qui permet, selon une perspective en première personne, une exploration guidée de la (des) subjectivité(s) schizophrénique(s). L’échelle pose des balises dans l’investigation d’expériences liées aux troubles du soi. Elle permet de percevoir différemment la maladie, de l’intérieur, offrant ainsi une alternative rigoureuse aux approches a-subjectives des DSM-IV et 5. Située en amont de tout a priori théorique, la voie de la psychopathologie phénoménologique est une perspective originale, susceptible de nouer des dialogues féconds tant avec la psychanalyse qu’avec les sciences cognitives. Le choix d’une approche phénoménologique s’ancre dans une volonté de laisser la place à l’étonnement, de ne pas pré-penser, ou le moins possible, le recueil d’expériences. Les explorations des phénomènes décrits par les patients se nourrissent de la tradition de la psychopathologie phénoménologique (Blankenburg, Minkowski, Binswanger, Tatossian) et de ses apports contemporains (Stanghellini, Sass, Parnas, Fuchs) tout en laissant au phénomène clinique la primauté. Après une analyse approfondie du discours des patients, l’ouvrage explore l’hypothèse proposée par Louis Sass selon laquelle la folie pourrait dériver d’une intensification plutôt que d’un affaiblissement de la conscience. Les phénomènes d’hyper-réflexivité, particulièrement saillants dans les descriptions, semblent constituer des moments centraux dans leur rapport au monde. Ils se plaignent notamment d’une exacerbation de la pensée, de la recherche de sens, de l’intensité de la réflexion au détriment de la capacité d’abandon naturelle et antéprédicative au monde. Ce que les personnes schizophrènes ont à nous dire de leur expérience subjective, si l’on prend la peine de la creuser avec elles et malgré la rudesse de leur vécu, s’avère, au final, étonnant. [less ▲]

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See detailAgrégation-dispersion-empilement-monument continu
Van Rooyen, Xavier ULg

Learning material (2017)

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See detailPlaton héritier de Protagoras. Un dialogue sur les fondements de la démocratie
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

Book published by Vrin (2017)

Protagoras est un sophiste, les sophistes sont les ennemis de Platon… De ce syllogisme, la conclusion semble évidente. Elle appelle cependant quelques nuances. Plus qu’un ennemi, Protagoras apparaît en ... [more ▼]

Protagoras est un sophiste, les sophistes sont les ennemis de Platon… De ce syllogisme, la conclusion semble évidente. Elle appelle cependant quelques nuances. Plus qu’un ennemi, Protagoras apparaît en effet chez Platon comme une figure exemplaire, un interlocuteur valable qui, à travers son affirmation selon laquelle l’homme est la mesure de toutes choses, incarne la démocratie, ses conditions et ses conséquences. Ce livre traite le thème général, et classique, de l’opposition entre sophistique et philosophie, mais en le limitant à une seule question dont il déploie les différentes facettes : l’idée de mesure. Il reconstitue une pensée « protagoréenne » qui replace Platon dans son contexte intellectuel et montre comment, à travers la figure de Protagoras, c’est le débat avec la démocratie qui se joue, non seulement en tant que régime politique, mais aussi en tant que modèle théorique aux implications multiples (épistémologiques, morales, pédagogiques, techniques). Sur quel critère fonder la mesure ? Comment concevoir l’expertise et le savoir ? Quel rôle attribuer au langage dans l’éducation ? Que faire de l’identité du sujet dans le processus de mémoire ? Comment penser l’unité de la Cité ? Autant de questions soulevées dans le dialogue avec le modèle protagoréen. Comprendre ce que Platon doit à Protagoras, c’est ainsi chercher par quels éléments cette pensée l’a mis au défi et par réaction à quoi il a élaboré sa propre théorie de la mesure, de l’expertise, de l’éducation et de l’unité politique. [less ▲]

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See detailA new, challenging benchmark for nonlinear system identification
Tiso, Paolo; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2017), 84

The progress accomplished during the past decade in nonlinear system identi fication in structural dynamics is considerable. The objective of the present paper is to consolidate this progress by ... [more ▼]

The progress accomplished during the past decade in nonlinear system identi fication in structural dynamics is considerable. The objective of the present paper is to consolidate this progress by challenging the community through a new benchmark structure exhibiting complex nonlinear dynamics. The proposed structure consists of two o ffset cantilevered beams connected by a highly flexible element. For increasing forcing amplitudes, the system sequentially features linear behaviour, localised nonlinearity associated with the buckling of the connecting element, and distributed nonlinearity resulting from large elastic deformations across the structure. A finite element-based code with time integration capabilities is made available at http://sem.org/TDIV-Nonlin.asp. This code permits the numerical simulation of the benchmark dynamics in response to arbitrary excitation signals. [less ▲]

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See detailA nonlinear state-space approach to hysteresis identification
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Esfahani, Alireza; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2017), 84

Most studies tackling hysteresis identification in the technical literature follow white-box approaches, i.e. they rely on the assumption that measured data obey a specific hysteretic model. Such an ... [more ▼]

Most studies tackling hysteresis identification in the technical literature follow white-box approaches, i.e. they rely on the assumption that measured data obey a specific hysteretic model. Such an assumption may be a hard requirement to handle in real applications, since hysteresis is a highly individualistic nonlinear behaviour. The present paper adopts a black-box approach based on nonlinear state-space models to identify hysteresis dynamics. This approach is shown to provide a general framework to hysteresis identification, featuring flexibility and parsimony of representation. Nonlinear model terms are constructed as a multivariate polynomial in the state variables, and parameter estimation is performed by minimising weighted least-squares cost functions. Technical issues, including the selection of the model order and the polynomial degree, are discussed, and model validation is achieved in both broadband and sine conditions. The study is carried out numerically by exploiting synthetic data generated via the Bouc-Wen equations. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh resolution (1 km) positive degree-day modelling of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance, 1870–2012 using reanalysis data
Wilton, D.; Jowett, A.; Hanna, E. et al

in Journal of Glaciology (2017), 63

We show results from a positive degree-day (PDD) model of Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB), 1870–2012, forced with reanalysis data. The model includes an improved daily temperature ... [more ▼]

We show results from a positive degree-day (PDD) model of Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB), 1870–2012, forced with reanalysis data. The model includes an improved daily temperature parameterization as compared with a previous version and is run at 1 km rather than 5 km resolution. The improvements lead overall to higher SMB with the same forcing data. We also compare our model with results from two regional climate models (RCMs). While there is good qualitative agreement between our PDD model and the RCMs, it usually results in lower precipitation and lower runoff but approximately equivalent SMB: mean 1979–2012 SMB (± standard deviation), in Gt a−1, is 382 ± 78 in the PDD model, compared with 379 ± 101 and 425 ± 90 for the RCMs. Comparison with in situ SMB observations suggests that the RCMs may be more accurate than PDD at local level, in some areas, although the latter generally compares well. Dividing the GrIS into seven drainage basins we show that SMB has decreased sharply in all regions since 2000. Finally we show correlation between runoff close to two calving glaciers and either calving front retreat or calving flux, this being most noticeable from the mid-1990s. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective components of interventions in juvenile justice facilities: How to take care of delinquent youths?
Mathys, Cécile ULg

in Children and Youth Services Review (2017), 73

Therapeutic interventions support change in delinquent youths rather than rely on surveillance and deterrence. This article describes successful and concrete components for therapeutic interventions in ... [more ▼]

Therapeutic interventions support change in delinquent youths rather than rely on surveillance and deterrence. This article describes successful and concrete components for therapeutic interventions in juvenile justice facilities. The effectiveness of remedial measures to best address the sources of youths' delinquent behaviors and the performance of juvenile justice system are discussed first, and then two theoretical frameworks of rehabilitative models are described that are commonly used with delinquent youths. Finally, specific recommendations for enhancing treatment in juvenile justice facilities with regard to the content of interventions, social climate, and youth motivation to engage in treatment are described and explained in a way intended to help caregivers and practitioners, supervisors of juvenile justice facilities, and policy makers improve the daily life of youths placed in this kind of environment. [less ▲]

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