Last 7 days
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMicrowave-assisted extraction of pectin from unutilized pumpkin biomass
Košťálová, Zuzana; Aguedo, Mario ULg; Hromádkováa, Zdenka

in Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification (2016), 102

Microwave-assisted extraction was employed to extract polysaccharides from pumpkin biomass and compared to the usual extraction by conventional heating. The effect of microwave heating time, liquid/solid ... [more ▼]

Microwave-assisted extraction was employed to extract polysaccharides from pumpkin biomass and compared to the usual extraction by conventional heating. The effect of microwave heating time, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio and extraction temperature on the yield and molecular mass of extracted pectin from the seeded oil pumpkin biomass was investigated. Heating times ranged from 2 to 10 min, L/S ratio from 30/1 to 50/1 and temperature from 80 to 120 °C. The response surface methodology was used to optimize the effects of processing parameters to isolate pectin with medium molecular weight and with the highest yield. The retained conditions were as follows: liquid/solid ratio 50/1, microwave heating time of 10 min and a temperature of 102.2 °C. Among the studied factors, the liquid/solid ratio had the greatest influence on yield and molecular mass, respectively. Application of microwave heating in the extraction of pumpkin biomass gave a pectin with medium Mw and dramatically reduced extraction time in comparison to traditional hot acid extraction. Microwave is an excellent tool for extraction and modification of polysaccharides in one step. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailQuelle est l’efficacité de soins collaboratifs et intégrés pour des patients en situation de multimorbidité physique et mentale en ambulatoire ?
Belche, Jean ULg

in Minerva: Tijdschrift Voor Evidence Based Medicine (2016), 15(3), 58-63

Alors que les études cliniques se focalisent principalement sur un problème de santé spécifique avec des patients vierges de comorbidités, il ressort d’une étude épidémiologique publiée en 2012 (1) que la ... [more ▼]

Alors que les études cliniques se focalisent principalement sur un problème de santé spécifique avec des patients vierges de comorbidités, il ressort d’une étude épidémiologique publiée en 2012 (1) que la multimorbidité, définie comme la présence d’au moins 2 maladies chroniques), augmente substantiellement avec l’âge (≥ 65 ans) mais qu’en nombre absolu de patients, elle touche plus de patients plus jeunes (plus de 50% en dessous de 65 ans). Près d’un tiers de ces patients multimorbides souffre de problèmes de santé mentale (dépression, troubles psychotiques, etc.), dont la gravité augmente avec le nombre de comorbidités et le statut socio-économique. L’étude analysée ici fait l’hypothèse d’un bénéfice d’un modèle de soins collaboratif et intégré en première ligne de soins sur la dépression et la gestion de la maladie chronique par le patient, tout en veillant à sélectionner une population représentative du constat démographique actuel de multimorbidité. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa multimorbidité : le médecin généraliste et les systèmes de santé mis au défi
Belche, Jean ULg; Crismer, André ULg

in Minerva: Tijdschrift Voor Evidence Based Medicine (2016), 15(3), 55-57

Nous observons une hausse de la prévalence des maladies chroniques et, dans la majorité des situations, la présence concomitante d’au moins deux maladies chroniques, définition minimale de la ... [more ▼]

Nous observons une hausse de la prévalence des maladies chroniques et, dans la majorité des situations, la présence concomitante d’au moins deux maladies chroniques, définition minimale de la multimorbidité, chez un même patient. La manière dont sont structurés la production scientifique et les systèmes de santé, dont le paradigme dominant est la prise en charge de patients avec une seule morbidité, complique la prise en charge adéquate de cette population (1). Søndergaard a dès lors exploré les difficultés que rencontre le médecin généraliste (MG) face aux patients en situation de multimorbidité au travers d’ateliers auxquels ont participé près de 180 MG et chercheurs scandinaves. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffective soil hydraulic conductivity predicted with the maximum power principle
Westhoff, Martijn ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2016, April)

Drainage of water in soils happens for a large extent through preferential flowpaths, but these subsurface flowpaths are extremely difficult to observe or parameterize in hydrological models. To ... [more ▼]

Drainage of water in soils happens for a large extent through preferential flowpaths, but these subsurface flowpaths are extremely difficult to observe or parameterize in hydrological models. To potentially overcome this problem, thermodynamic optimality principles have been suggested to predict effective parametrization of these (sub-grid) structures, such as the maximum entropy production principle or the equivalent maximum power principle. These principles have been successfully applied to predict heat transfer from the Equator to the Poles, or turbulent heat fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. In these examples, the effective flux adapts itself to its boundary condition by adapting its effective conductance through the creation of e.g. convection cells. However, flow through porous media, such as soils, can only quickly adapt its effective flow conductance by creation of preferential flowpaths, but it is unknown if this is guided by the aim to create maximum power. Here we show experimentally that this is indeed the case: In the lab, we created a hydrological analogue to the atmospheric model dealing with heat transport between Equator and poles. The experimental setup consists of two freely draining reservoirs connected with each other by a confined aquifer. By adding water to only one reservoir, a potential difference will build up until a steady state is reached. From the steady state potential difference and the observed flow through the aquifer, and effective hydraulic conductance can be determined. This observed conductance does correspond to the one maximizing power of the flux through the confined aquifer. Although this experiment is done in an idealized setting, it opens doors for better parameterizing hydrological models. Furthermore, it shows that hydraulic properties of soils are not static, but they change with changing boundary conditions. A potential limitation to the principle is that it only applies to steady state conditions. Therefore the rate of adaptation of hydraulic properties should be faster than the rate of change in boundary conditions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (6 ULg)
Full Text
See detailReview on the applications of directional impulse responses in room acoustics
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Actes du CFA 2016 (2016, April)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDoes the Budyko curve reflect a maximum power state of hydrological systems? A backward analysis
Westhoff, Martijn ULg; Zehe, Erwin; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2016, April)

Almost all catchments plot within a small envelope around the Budyko curve. This apparent behaviour suggests that organizing principles may play a role in the evolution of catchments. In this paper we ... [more ▼]

Almost all catchments plot within a small envelope around the Budyko curve. This apparent behaviour suggests that organizing principles may play a role in the evolution of catchments. In this paper we applied the thermodynamic principle of maximum power as the organizing principle. In a top-down approach we derived mathematical formulations of the relation between relative wetness and gradients driving runoff and evaporation for a simple one-box model. We did this in an inverse manner such that when the conductances are optimized with the maximum power principle, the steady state behaviour of the model leads exactly to a point on the asymptotes of the Budyko curve. Subsequently, we added dynamics in forcing and actual evaporations, causing the Budyko curve to deviate from the asymptotes. Despite the simplicity of the model, catchment observations compare reasonably well with the Budyko curves subject to observed dynamics in rainfall and actual evaporation. Thus by constraining the – with the maximum power principle optimized – model with the asymptotes of the Budyko curve we were able to derive more realistic values of the aridity and evaporation index without any parameter calibration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (3 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailVIGNETTE DIAGNOSTIQUE DE L'ETUDIANT. LogBook Numérique : Un carnet de bord réflexif comme outil d'apprentissage en contexte de stage.
Scantamburlo, Gabrielle ULg; Vierset, Viviane; Bonnet, Pierre ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(4), 210-215

Un LogBook (ou journal de bord) est un outil d’apprentissage et d’accompagnement où sont répertoriées des situations cliniques vécues lors d’un stage. Il joue un rôle essentiel dans la maîtrise des ... [more ▼]

Un LogBook (ou journal de bord) est un outil d’apprentissage et d’accompagnement où sont répertoriées des situations cliniques vécues lors d’un stage. Il joue un rôle essentiel dans la maîtrise des compétences cliniques. Au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, nous avons développé un LogBook numérique pour renforcer le guidage des étudiants et favoriser une réflexion vers l’autonomisation. Il apporte des repères utiles aux enseignants cliniciens et aux étudiants. Il est aussi utilisé comme outil de co-évaluation. Ce LogBook a été conçu pour le stage en psychiatrie. Cependant, sa particularité est de pouvoir être adapté à tous les contextes de stage, dans toutes les disciplines, en vue de favoriser une harmonisation cohérente du parcours clinique de l’étudiant, en lien avec les impératifs du cursus donnés par l’Europe. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (6 ULg)
Full Text
See detailInsertion professionnelle et parcours enseignants : mise en perspective
Simons, Germain ULg

in Didactiques en pratique (2016), (2),

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailContribution of future urbanisation expansion to flood risk changes
Bruwier, Martin ULg; Mustafa, Ahmed; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2016, April)

The flood risk is expected to increase in the future due to climate change and urban development. Climate change modifies flood hazard and urban development influences exposure and vulnerability to floods ... [more ▼]

The flood risk is expected to increase in the future due to climate change and urban development. Climate change modifies flood hazard and urban development influences exposure and vulnerability to floods. While the influence of climate change on flood risk has been studied widely, the impact of urban development also needs to be considered in a sustainable flood risk management approach. The main goal of this study is the determination of the sensitivity of future flood risk to different urban devel~ opment scenarios at a relatively short-time horizon in the River Meuse basin in Wallonia (Belgium). From the different scenarios, the expected impact of urban development on flood risk is assessed. Three urban expansion scenarios are developed up to 2030 based on a coupled cellular automata (CA) and agent-based (AB) urban expansion model: (i) business-as-usual, (ii) restrictive and (m) extreme expansion scenarios. The main factor controlling these scenarios is the future urban land demand. Each urban expansion scenario is developed by considering or not high and/or medium flood hazard zones as a constraint for urban development. To assess the model's performance, it is calibrated for the Meuse River valley (Belgium) to simulate urban expansion between i990 and 2000. Calibration results are then assessed by comparing the 2000 simulated land-use map and the actual 2000 land-use map. The flood damage estimation for each urban expansion scenario is determined for five flood discharges by overlaying the inundation map resulting from a hydraulic computation and tlte urban expansion map and by using damage curves and specific prices. The hydraulic model Wolt‘2D has been extensively validated by comparisons between observations and computational results during flood event .This study focuses only on mobile and immobile prices for urban lands, which are associated to the most severe damages caused by floods along the River Meuse. These findings of this study offers tools to drive urban expansion based on numerous policies visions to mitigate future flood risk along the Meuse River. In particular, we assess the impacts on future flood risk of the prohibition of urban development in high and/or medium flood hazard zones. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe contribution of air-fluidization to the mobility of rapid flowslides
Stilmant, Frédéric; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2016, April)

Air-fluidization can be the origin of the long runout of gravitational flows involving fine particles such as ash. An excessive air pore pressure dramatically reduces the friction angle of the material as ... [more ▼]

Air-fluidization can be the origin of the long runout of gravitational flows involving fine particles such as ash. An excessive air pore pressure dramatically reduces the friction angle of the material as long as this pressure has not been dissipated, which occurs during the flow. This phenomenon can be modelled thanks to the 2D depth-averaged equations of mass and momentum conservation and an additional transport equation for basal pore pressure evolu- tion (Iverson and Denlinger, 2001). ln this contribution, we discuss the application of this model in relation to recent experimental results on air- fluidized flows by Roche et al. (2008) and Roche (2012). The experimental results were used to set a priori the value of the diffusion coefficient in the model, taking into account the diference of scale between the experiments and real-world applications. We also compare the model predictions against detailed observations of a well-documented historical event, the collapse of a fly-ash heap in Belgium (Stilmant et al., 2015). In particular, we analyse the influence of the different components of the model on the results (pore pressure dissipation vs. pore pressure generation). The diffusion coefficient which characterizes the dissipation of air pore pressure is found sufficiently low for maintaining a fluidized flow over hundreds of meters. The study concludes that an air-tluidization theory is consistent with the field observations. These findings are particularly interesting as they seem not in line with the mainstream acceptation in landslide modelling that air generally plays a secondary role (e.g., Legros, 2002). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDistribution of uncertainties at the municipality level for flood risk modelling along the river Meuse: implications for policy-making
Pirotton, Michel ULg; Stilmant, Frédéric; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

Conference (2016, April)

Flood risk modelling has been conducted for the whole course of the river Meuse in Belgium. Major cities, such as Liege (200,000 inh.) and Namur (l 10,000 inh.), are located in the floodplains of river ... [more ▼]

Flood risk modelling has been conducted for the whole course of the river Meuse in Belgium. Major cities, such as Liege (200,000 inh.) and Namur (l 10,000 inh.), are located in the floodplains of river Meuse. Particular attention has been paid to uncertainty analysis and its implications for decision-making. The modelling chain contains flood frequency analysis, detailed 2D hydraulic computations, damage modelling and risk calculation. The relative importance of each source of uncertainty to the overall results uncertainty has been estimated by considering several alternate options for each step of the analysis; different distributions were considered in the flood frequency analysis; the influence of modelling assumptions and boundary conditions (e.g., steady vs. unsteady) were taken into account for the hydraulic computation; two different landuse classifications and two sets ofdamage functions were used; the number of exceedance probabilities involved in the risk calculation (by integration of the risk-curves) was varied. In addition, the sensitivity of the results with respect to increases in flood discharges \vas assessed. The considered increases are consistent with a "wet" climate change scenario for the time horizons 202l~2050 and 2071-2100 (Detrembleur et al., 2015). The results of hazard computation differ significantly between the upper and lower parts of the course of river Meuse in Belgium. In the former, inundation extents grow gradually as the considered flood discharge is increased (i.e. the exceedance probability is reduced), while in the downstream part, protection structures (mainly concrete walls) prevent inundation for flood discharges corresponding to exccedance probabilities of 0.01 and above (in the present climate). For higher discharges, large inundation extents are obtained in the floodplains. The highest values of risk (mean annual damage) are obtained in the municipalities which undergo relatively frequent flooding (upper part of the river), as well as in those of the downstream part of the Meuse in which flow depths in the urbanized floodplains are particularly high when inundation occurs. This is the case of the city of Liege, as a result of a subsidence process following former mining activities. For a given climate scenario, the uncertainty ranges affecting flood risk estimates are significant; but not so much that the results for the different municipalities would overlap substantially. Therefore, these uncertainties do not hamper prioritization in terms of allocation of risk reduction measures at the municipality level. In the present climate, the uncertainties arising from flood frequency analysis have a negligible influence in the upper part of the river, while they have a considerable impact on risk modelling in the lower part, where a threshold effect was observed due to the flood protection structures (sudden transition from no inundation to massive flooding when a threshold discharge is exceeded). Varying the number of exceedance probabilities in the integration of the risk curve has different effects for different municipalities; but it does not change the ranking of the municipalities in terms of flood risk. For the other scenarios, damage estimation contributes most to the overall uncertainties. As shown by this study, the magnitude of the uncertainty and its main origin vary in space and in time. This emphasizes the paramount importance of conducting distributed uncertainty analyses. In the considered study area, prioritization of risk reduction means can be reliably performed despite the modelling uncertainties. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFirst steps of the regional climate model MAR over the Euro-CORDEX domain
Scholzen, Chloé ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg

Poster (2016, April)

In the framework of the Euro-CORDEX initiative, the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège, Belgium, is currently using the regional climate model MAR (for “Modèle Atmosphérique Régional” ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the Euro-CORDEX initiative, the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège, Belgium, is currently using the regional climate model MAR (for “Modèle Atmosphérique Régional”) to simulate the past, present and future climate over Europe. Simulations are to be performed for both available resolutions over the Euro-CORDEX domain, namely 0.11 deg. (12.5 km) and 0.44 deg. (50 km). Historical and present-day runs (1979-2015) will use the ERA-Interim and the NCEP/NCAR-v1 reanalyses as boundary conditions, whereas future projections will be driven by two selected GCMs from the CMIP5 database: NorESM1-M and MIROC5. All CMIP5-GCMs were previously compared against ERA-Interim reanalysis data in terms of their ability to represent the current mean climate over Europe. The GCMs also underwent a statistical classification based on the calculation of skill-scores evaluating for instance 850 hPa temperature and 500 hPa geopotential height. Several settings and parameters were tested in order to calibrate the regional climate model MAR over the Euro-CORDEX domain. MAR is to be validated against observations from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D). The final aim of this study is to assess the performance of MAR in comparing its results to other RCMs used within the Euro-CORDEX initiative. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (7 ULg)
See detailLes institutions du travail
Counet, Maxime ULg

in Cornet, Jacques; Martin, Anne; Navarre, Sylvie (Eds.) et al Pratique des sciences sociales. Tome 2 (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg)
See detailLes "piliers" et leurs associations
Counet, Maxime ULg

in Cornet, Jacques; Martin, Anne; Navarre, Sylvie (Eds.) et al Pratique des sciences sociales. Tome 2 (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
See detailLes associations hors-piliers, les ONG et l'altermondialisme
Counet, Maxime ULg

in Martin, Anne; Navarre, Sylvie; Soutmans, Philippe (Eds.) et al Pratique des sciences sociales. Tome 2 (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailJugement Situationnel
Lothe, Benoit ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

in Brangier, Eric; Dubois, Michel; Valléry, Gérard (Eds.) et al Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations : 110 notions clés (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSelenium in Cattle: A Review
Mehdi, Youcef ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg

in Molecules (2016), 21(4), 545

This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include ... [more ▼]

This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLagrangian and arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian simulations of complex roll-forming processes
Crutzen, Yanick ULg; Boman, Romain ULg; Papeleux, Luc ULg et al

in Comptes Rendus Mécanique (2016), 344(4-5), 251-266

The Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism is a breakthrough technique in the numerical simulation of the continuous-type roll-forming process. In contrast to the classical Lagrangian approach, the ... [more ▼]

The Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism is a breakthrough technique in the numerical simulation of the continuous-type roll-forming process. In contrast to the classical Lagrangian approach, the ALE formalism can compute the hopefully stationary state for the entire mill length with definitely effortless set-up tasks thanks to a nearly-stationary mesh. In this paper, advantages of ALE and Lagrangian formalisms are extensively discussed for simulating such continuous-type processes. Through a highly complex industrial application, the ease of use of ALE modelling is illustrated with the in-house code METAFOR. ALE and Lagrangian results are in good agreement with each other. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffectiveness of High Intensity Radial Shock Wave Therapy in The Treatment of Chronic Plantar Fasciitis
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Fromm, Aurélien et al

in European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (2016, April), 52(Suppl. 1 No. 2), 733

Introduction: Literature is scarce concerning the effectiveness of high dose radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate its effectiveness on pain ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Literature is scarce concerning the effectiveness of high dose radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate its effectiveness on pain, function and pressure pain threshold in patients with chronicplantar fasciitis (PF). Materials and Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of chronic (pain lasting for more than 3 months) uni- or bilateral PF with a history of failed conservative treatment were included. After a 6-week control period during which no treatment occurred, a 2-week treatment period followed by a three weeks of rest (cicatrization phase) was provided. The treatment period consisted of three radial ESWT sessions (2000 impulses of 10 Hz frequency per session with an energy flux density of 0,275mJ/mm2) separated by a one-weekinterval. Patient assessments (pain intensity, foot function and pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the site of maximum local tenderness disability) were conducted at baseline, after the 6-week control phase (pre-treatment) and at the end of the cicatrization phase (post-treatment). Results: Thirty patients (19 women (63.3%)) with chronic PF and a mean age of 51.9±11 years were included in the present study. No drop-out occurred throughout the study period. No changes were observed at the pre-treatment assessment session except for pain intensity which decreased slightly but significantly (P<0.05). At the post-treatment session, highly significant (P<0.001) and clinically meaningful changes occurred for pain intensity (-34%), foot function score (-60%) and PPT (+68%). Conclusions: The present study suggests that high dose radial ESWT is a feasible and effective way to quickly and significantly decrease pain and disability in most patients with chronic PF. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImproved Thévenin equivalent methods for real-time voltage stability assessment
Perez, Angel; Johannsson, Hjortur; Ostergaard, Jacob et al

in proc. IEEE ENERGYCON Conference (2016, April)

An improved Thévenin equivalent method for real-time voltage stability assessment that uses wide-area information from synchrophasors is proposed. The improvements are a better modeling of the limited ... [more ▼]

An improved Thévenin equivalent method for real-time voltage stability assessment that uses wide-area information from synchrophasors is proposed. The improvements are a better modeling of the limited synchronous generators, and a processing that anticipates the effect of field current limiters, before the latter are activated. Several study cases using detailed dynamic simulations of the Nordic test system have been used to assess the performance of the proposed improvements. Their effectiveness is analyzed and, based on the results, their possible application in combination with the sensitivity-based voltage stability assessment method is explored. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (3 ULg)