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See detailLien social et protection sociale. Allocution d'ouverture
Vrancken, Didier ULg

Speech (2014)

Cette allocution, tout en resituant la manifestation scientifique dans le cadre des activités de l'AISLF 2012-2016, insiste sur le regard performatif du sociologue et resitue celui-ci dans une perspective ... [more ▼]

Cette allocution, tout en resituant la manifestation scientifique dans le cadre des activités de l'AISLF 2012-2016, insiste sur le regard performatif du sociologue et resitue celui-ci dans une perspective de performation du lien social, au sein d'une société du travail et d'intervention sur les personnes. Cette perspective est enfin éclairée à la lumière des enjeux de reconfiguration des politiques de protection sociale. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of a sprayer that makes CE-ESI-MS easy and robust
Far, Johann ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg; Falmagne, Jean-Bernard et al

Conference (2014, May 28)

Presentation of a CEMS interface design for easy and robust coupling of Capillary Electrophoresis with Mass Spectrometry equipped with a nanospray source. Principles and specification were presented.

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See detailReprésentations de l’environnement et adoption des pratiques durables de production par les cotonculteurs du Bénin
Assogba, Sonagnon Claude-Gervais ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

The research aims at contributing to a better understanding of the adoption of eco-friendly innovations. It analyses representations of environment and practices associated with sustainable management of ... [more ▼]

The research aims at contributing to a better understanding of the adoption of eco-friendly innovations. It analyses representations of environment and practices associated with sustainable management of cotton farming systems in order to deepen understanding of logics and strategies underlining farmers’ practices, and motivations that determine their sustainable farming system adoption behaviors. Organic cotton (SCBIO) and cotton made in Africa (SCMIA) systems were used as case study. Field research was carried out in Kandi and Pehunco in the largest area of cotton production in the North of Benin. The theoretical framework is based on the theories of technical change analysis, the actor-oriented approach and the theories of social representations. Data were collected from a sample of 90 organic cotton farmers and 100 CmiA farmers selected from a typology based on endogenous criteria of prosperity. 39 field agents from organizations promoting sustainable cotton farming system were surveyed. Individuals and groups interviews were used to collect data. The data were analyzed with a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods including normative and relative comparison analysis, perception analysis, descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, chi square test, etc. Results show a marginal contribution of organic cotton and cotton made in Africa to national economy in comparison to the conventional system. At farmer’s level farming system analysis reveals that both organic cotton and cotton made in Africa systems are not intensively sustainable. Their implementation is characterized by a large gap between recommendations and farmers’ practices, especially in soils’ fertility and pests’ management. The use of organic matters in combination with crops rotation including leguminous plants is the main approach of soils fertility management in organic cotton system. However, quantities of organic matters used, especially cow dung, are not sufficient due to its low availability and the lack of transportation means. The management of pests and diseases faces enormous constraints ranging from biopesticides production difficulties, weak efficiency of biopesticides, to observation of the evolution of parasitic complex, etc. Although the use of organo-chemical fertilizer is recommended in SCMIA system, more than 50% of SCMIA farmers apply only chemical fertilizer. Globally, the quantities of chemical fertilizer applied are under the requirements while the quantities of organic fertilizers are too small. Application of staged and targeted pest control (lutte étagée ciblée) is limited by constraints coming from the late implementation and the ineffectiveness of pesticides, the high number of observations needed, etc. Therefore, pesticides are used in overdose and prohibited pesticides such as endosulfan are also used. Consequently yields are very low and decrease. In addition, some farmers, especially from organic system, considering necessity of chemical fertilizers use for maize production develop diverse strategic logics such as misappropriation, craftiness, etc. to obtain these fertilizers. It appears from analysis that strategic logics carried out by farmers in farming systems’ adoption are the result of a combination of explanatory factors. These factors contribute to deepen the understanding of the weaknesses of organic and CmiA values chains in Benin and the bottlenecks in their development. Far from being static, farmers’ logics area temporary equilibrium resulting from different explanatory categories relative to social representations of environment, perceptions of projects and production and social reproduction objectives of farmers, the demand of sustainable cotton on international market, etc. Consequently, all actions aimed at promoting the sustainability of cotton farming system may facilitate access of farmers to inputs through the improvement of their existence means for a better soil fertility and pests management. Sensitization and training programs on the importance of leguminous plants integration to crops rotation, staged and targeted pest control, etc., may be carried out. At policy level it would be desirable that policies decisions don't negatively affect the development of alternative cotton value chains. In addition, measures may be taken to facilitate farmers’ access to chemical fertilizers for food crops, especially maize, to avoid their selling off. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Authority of Human Rights Case Law from the Perspective of the International Criminal Judge
Deprez, Christophe ULg

Scientific conference (2014, May 28)

This brief presentation addressed the question of the legal value of European human rights jurisprudence from the perspective of the international criminal judge.

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See detailDesign of a spherical array of microphones for room acoustics applications.
Feron, Hermine; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

Conference (2014, May 28)

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See detailRegulation in Practice: Choice among regulatory Tools
Bougnouch, Mehdi ULg; Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2014, May 28)

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See detailPréférences résidentielles et production du logement en banlieue périurbaine
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg; Strée, Julie

Conference (2014, May 27)

La communication traitera des relations entre les mécanismes de la production immobilière et les préférences résidentielles. Elle visera à vérifier l’hypothèse selon laquelle nous assistons à l’émergence ... [more ▼]

La communication traitera des relations entre les mécanismes de la production immobilière et les préférences résidentielles. Elle visera à vérifier l’hypothèse selon laquelle nous assistons à l’émergence et au renforcement de préférences susceptibles de remettre en cause le modèle périurbain du pavillon périphérique. Notre propos s’inscrit donc dans la réflexion sur le futur des zones périurbaines (Grant et al., 2013). Notre recherche a consisté dans la réalisation et l’analyse d’une enquête menée au sein de la zone métropolitaine de Bruxelles, auprès de ménages habitant un logement neuf (Strée et Halleux, 2013). Les ménages ont été interrogés sur leurs préférences résidentielles ainsi que sur leurs propensions à payer pour différents types de produits immobiliers. Son échantillon est constitué de 120 ménages ayant été interrogés en face à face à leur domicile. L’échantillon a été stratifié en fonction de deux critères : la localisation au sein de la zone métropolitaine et le type de logements. Concernant la localisation, des enquêtes ont été menées à Wavre (commune située à une demi-heure voiture du centre de Bruxelles) et en plus lointaine périphérie, à Perwez et Chastre (communes situées à une heure voiture du centre de Bruxelles). Concernant les types de logement, la stratification s’est opérée de la manière suivante : 40 % des ménages résident dans une habitation quatre façades, 30 % dans une habitation mitoyenne et 30 % dans un appartement. Un premier résultat de notre enquête est de confirmer la prégnance du modèle de la maison unifamiliale isolée (quatre façades), qui représente le logement idéal pour 69 % de l’échantillon (y compris par 70 % des ménages résidant dans une habitation mitoyenne et par 57 % des ménages résidant en appartement). Pour autant, en comparaison d’enquêtes précédentes, les propensions à payer témoignent d’une bonne acceptation des produits immobiliers alternatifs. Sur base d’enquêtes précédentes réalisées dans le périurbain de Liège, nous nous attendions à une moins-value de 15 à 20 % entre le produit de la maison isolée et le produit de la maison jointive. Or, la différence observée est ici inférieure à 10 %. Cette situation est à relier à la problématique de la disponibilité en zones constructibles (Halleux et Strée, 2012). En effet, le bassin d’emploi bruxellois se caractérisant par une faible disponibilité foncière, cela conduit à banaliser la promotion commerciale de logements jointifs. Au sein de ces territoires, les ménages auraient donc bien intégré ce type de développements. Au sein d’autres territoires aux marchés fonciers moins tendus, nous aurions probablement observé des consentements à payer plus élevés pour la maison isolée, consentements qui auraient alors pu être interprétés comme un signe de stigmatisation vis-à-vis du logement jointif. Au final, nous mettons en avant un effet systémique où, par son impact sur la multiplication des projets de maisons mitoyennes, la rareté de l’offre foncière conduit à renforcer l’acceptation de la demande pour ce type de produits immobiliers. Parmi les autres résultats de notre enquête, soulignons la forte valorisation de la maison de 100 m2 qui, en comparaison d’appartements de la même superficie, est valorisée à un niveau moyen 13 % supérieur. Il existe donc un potentiel commercial important pour la petite maison. Cela représente à la fois une menace pour la consommation d’espace et une opportunité pour la densification douce. Il ressort également de nos enquêtes qu’une localisation intra-urbaine (dans un quartier « ancien ») est fortement dévalorisée. Pour autant, un signal encourageant tient ici à la relation entre l’âge du répondant et cette dévalorisation : les effectifs de moins de 40 ans dévalorisent moins les quartiers densément bâti que les populations plus âgées. Il s’agit là d’un résultat qui s’inscrit dans l’hypothèse de Grant et al. (2013) quant au renforcement de la demande pour des localisations plus urbaines et plus centrales. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation and integration of the Rorschach Comprehensive System and the TCI-R questionnaire
Rentmeister, Daniel; Blavier, Adelaïde ULg; Di Piazza, Laetitia ULg et al

Poster (2014, May 27)

In this study, a dual purpose is sought. First, we statistically compare the Rorschach test interpreted by the Comprehensive System from J.E. Exner and the Temperament and Character Inventory – Revised by ... [more ▼]

In this study, a dual purpose is sought. First, we statistically compare the Rorschach test interpreted by the Comprehensive System from J.E. Exner and the Temperament and Character Inventory – Revised by R. Cloninger to highlight their differences and similarities. Second, through clinical cases, we discuss the relevance of integrating the results obtained by these two tools to establish a comprehensive and consistent psychological profile of an individual. For the statistical comparison, a sample of 27 “healthy” subjects (M = 24.37 years, SD = 2.75) was first submitted to the Rorschach test. Then, immediately after, each subject completed the TCI-R. A correlation analysis (Pearson Rho) was done between various Index and a Bonferroni adjustment was made. For the case studies, 3 subjects were recruited. Anamneses were carried out and the Rorschach test and TCI-R administered. Our first results, which are to be taken with caution because of the small number of subjects in the sample, must be qualified and discussed. From 2448 statistical comparisons, we select the most relevant and discuss different correlation results. The case studies show a concordance in social relationships and impulsivity; and show that the information peculiar to each test allows us to complete the subject’s profile. Finally, it is by addressing two different epistemologies underlying these two tests that we can best explain the psychological differences highlighted in the same individuals. We conclude by suggesting that this difference in results must certainly be understood in an integrative logic and emphasizes the complementarity between these two tests. [less ▲]

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See detailLong protocols to Rorschach Comprehensive System and a posteriori reduction of number of responses: What is the impact on the clinical interpretation ?
Dufour, Cristelle; Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Blavier, Adelaïde ULg

Poster (2014, May 27)

Our study was interested in the exceptionally long protocols, superior to 55 answers, supplied by five subjects in the test of Rorschach according to the method of the Comprehensive System. In order to ... [more ▼]

Our study was interested in the exceptionally long protocols, superior to 55 answers, supplied by five subjects in the test of Rorschach according to the method of the Comprehensive System. In order to gain understanding of which attitude to adopt in front of this kind of protocol, we made a a posteriori reduction of the number of answers by basing us on the recommendations of Exner (Exner, on 2001), then a comparative study between the clinical interpretation realized with all of the answers and with only the first five answers by board. We also replicate this methodology of a posteriori decrease of the number of answers with four answers by board according to the new recommendations of the system R-PAS of Meyer and al. (Meyer and al, on 2009). The sample consists of three raw coal subjects and two psychiatric subjects. Our analysis highlighted a stability of certain variables (EB, Lambda, EA for example) but a difference in the psychological profile of the subjects after reduction. We observed a clarification of the fundamental difficulties to the psychiatric subjects and rather a neutralization of these difficulties for the raw coal subjects, with particularly defence mechanisms which seem more adapted. In our sample, the consideration of all of the answers or only of the partial protocol thus brings a difference in the clinical interpretation ; as a consequence any reduction should be made with big caution. Our study allows to discuss current practices of the test of Rorschach, by looking for a compromise between the inherent constraints to the validity of the test and the questions of the clinical complexity decrease appropriate to any initiative of standardization. [less ▲]

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See detail[18F]UCB-H AS A BRAIN SV2A RADIOTRACER: A FIRST CLINICAL TRIAL
Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; Aerts, Joël ULg et al

Poster (2014, May 27)

[18F]UCB-H is a fluorine-18 radiolabelled PET imaging tracer with a high affinity for the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A). This protein, involved in vesicle trafficking and widely distributed in the ... [more ▼]

[18F]UCB-H is a fluorine-18 radiolabelled PET imaging tracer with a high affinity for the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A). This protein, involved in vesicle trafficking and widely distributed in the brain, represents the binding site and the primary mechanism of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam. Levetiracetam has recently been suggested to reduce synaptic deficits in a mouse Alzheimer’s disease model and to improve cognition in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, suggesting a possible role for this protein in synaptic integrity. The objective of this study was to investigate the cerebral distribution of [18F]UCB-H in healthy human volunteers. Dynamic PET imaging of the head of four healthy volunteers was performed over 100 minutes after injection of 170.4 ± 24.9 MBq of GMP produced [18F]UCB-H. The input function was acquired by arterial blood sampling during the dynamic PET acquisition. Blood data analysis showed a consistent tracer amount in whole blood and plasma indicating a very low degree of binding of the tracer to the red blood cells. Unchanged [18F]UCB-H fraction in plasma follows a bi-exponential behavioral decrease with a starting fraction of 92% of the injected amount of the tracer, measured at 3 min post injection. This fraction decreases to about 50% at 10 min post injection. The [18F]UCB-H PET data revealed a high and rapid uptake in the grey matter structures, matching the known ubiquitous distribution of SV2A in the brain. The kinetics of the tracer in the brain was characterized by an initial high uptake phase followed by rapid washout allowing the standard compartmental modeling (1-tissue compartment, 2-tissue compartment, and Logan graphical analysis). The three models gave consistent results. The two-tissue compartment model fitted the experimental data best and provided a total distribution volume of [18F]UCB-H in the brain greater than 7 mL/cm3 and a specific distribution volume around 3 mL/cm3. Our results indicate that [18F]UCB-H is a new radiotracer for brain SV2A proteins suitable for human studies. Further studies are warranted to assess SV2A modifications in neurological pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease. [less ▲]

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See detailPuissances émergentes : quel rôle dans la gouvernance mondiale ?
Santander, Sébastian ULg

Scientific conference (2014, May 27)

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See detailProbabilistic Assessment of the Lifetime of Low-Earth-Orbit Spacecraft: Uncertainty Characterization
Dell'Elce, Lamberto ULg; Arnst, Maarten ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Journal of Guidance Control & Dynamics (2014)

Orbital lifetime estimation is a problem of great timeliness and importance in astrodynamics. In view of the stochastic nature of the thermosphere and of the complexity of drag modeling, any deterministic ... [more ▼]

Orbital lifetime estimation is a problem of great timeliness and importance in astrodynamics. In view of the stochastic nature of the thermosphere and of the complexity of drag modeling, any deterministic assessment of orbital lifetime is likely to be bound to failure. This is why the present paper performs uncertainty quantification of satellite orbital lifetime estimation. Specifically, this paper focuses on the probabilistic characterization of the dominant sources of uncertainty inherent to low-altitude satellites. Uncertainties in the initial state of the satellite and in the atmospheric drag force, as well as uncertainties introduced by modeling limitations associated with atmospheric density models, are considered. Mathematical statistics methods, in conjunction with mechanical modeling considerations, are used to infer the probabilistic characterization of these uncertainties from experimental data and atmospheric density models. This characterization step facilitates the application of uncertainty propagation and sensitivity analysis methods, which in turn allows gaining insight into the impact that these uncertainties have on the orbital lifetime. The proposed developments are illustrated using one CubeSat of the QB50 constellation. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l'analyse des pratiques discursives aux modalités de conception
Joachim, Guillaume ULg; Roosen, Marie ULg; Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

Conference (2014, May 27)

Cette communication aborde l’étude des interactions entre architectes exploitant différentes ressources (parole, dessin, geste) dans leur pratique professionnelle collaborative de conception. Elle portera ... [more ▼]

Cette communication aborde l’étude des interactions entre architectes exploitant différentes ressources (parole, dessin, geste) dans leur pratique professionnelle collaborative de conception. Elle portera sur des questions méthodologiques, en s’attachant à décrire les apports possibles de travaux de linguistique appliquée à l’analyse de la communication multimodale en architecture. La communication dans les processus de conception est fréquemment abordée à partir de représentations graphiques en tant que procédés de production ou de transmission de connaissances. En effet, c’est en grande partie par le dessin qu’un concepteur donne forme à l’objet qu’il étudie, qu’il le communique à autrui et avant tout qu’il se le représente à lui-même. S’il est avéré que les professionnels de l’architecture utilisent diverses figures comme outils pour représenter et transmettre graphiquement un objet encore inexistant, le champ théorique de la discipline possède par contre peu d’outils méthodologiques permettant de témoigner ou d’analyser minutieusement in vivo la dimension heuristique des échanges entre concepteurs mobilisant plusieurs modalités de communication simultanées. Or, les travaux empiriques de Charles Goodwin (UCLA) inspirés de l’ethnométhodologie et de Lorenza Mondada (UNI Basel) issus de la linguistique appliquée, se sont attachés à l’étude de situations discursives multimodales et ont développé des méthodes découlant de l’analyse conversationnelle. Ces deux approches transdisciplinaires présentent notamment la possibilité aux chercheurs d’analyser à différents niveaux l’articulation de représentations graphiques, gestuelles et verbales et d’identifier la fonction des différentes modalités dans la construction collective du sens et dans l’élaboration d’objets de connaissance propres à une discipline. Nous questionnerons l'intérêt de ces transferts et emprunts d’outils méthodologiques sur l’étude des interactions entre architectes : comment nous aident-ils potentiellement à cerner les procédés par lesquels ces acteurs co-élaborent des objets de savoir utiles pour leur activité ? Quelles contributions inédites produisent-ils pour approcher la cognition dans les processus de conception ? Cette étude expérimentale et réflexive sera enfin l’occasion de décrire brièvement les limites d’une translation des outils de l’analyse interactionnelle située sur l’appréhension des pratiques professionnelles de conception architecturale. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of melodic context on the perception of vocal pitch accuracy
Beeken, Manon; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Poster (2014, May 27)

In order to categorize sung performances as “in tune” or “out of tune”, one can measure the deviation between the performance and the musical notation. Depending on the study, a deviation of a semitone ... [more ▼]

In order to categorize sung performances as “in tune” or “out of tune”, one can measure the deviation between the performance and the musical notation. Depending on the study, a deviation of a semitone (100 cents) or a quartertone (50 cents) is considered as “out of tune”. However, these values are arbitrary and the current study aims to define perceptual thresholds of pitch accuracy in a melodic context. For this purpose, melodic sequences were manipulated, from “in tune” (deviation of 0 cent) to “out of tune” (10 to 80 cents, in 10 cents steps). In a 2x2x2 design we systematically varied the conditions of: melodies (ascending/descending target-interval), type of errors (interval or tonality deviation), and direction of the deviation (enlargement or compression). The sequences were presented to 30 non-musicians using the method of limits procedure, in a test/retest paradigm. For each condition, they were asked to specify whether the presented singing performances were “in tune” or “out of tune”. The results showed that participants were consistent in their evaluation between the test and the retest. The pitch accuracy threshold (M = 29 cents, ES = .75) was not influenced by the melody, the type of errors, and the direction of the deviation. This study highlights the ability of non-musicians to perceive small pitch deviations (less than a quartertone) in a melodic context. This finding elucidates on the concept of pitch accuracy and therefore yields the opportunity to revise objective tools for the evaluation of singer pitch accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of eye movements specific to drowsiness and their relation with subjective assessment: A cognitive ergonomic approach.
Blavier, Adelaïde ULg; Montagnino, Cédric; Wertz, Jérôme ULg et al

Poster (2014, May 27)

Drowsiness is one of the major factors explaining accidents, particularly in traffic accidents but also in work situations with serious consequences (e.g. medicine). The drowsiness may be assessed by ... [more ▼]

Drowsiness is one of the major factors explaining accidents, particularly in traffic accidents but also in work situations with serious consequences (e.g. medicine). The drowsiness may be assessed by diverse measures that vary from physiological and unconscious data (e.g. EEG) to subjective and conscious evaluation. In their daily life, people are used to evaluate their drowsiness by subjective assessment and research observes a great inter-individual variation in this evaluation. Moreover, the subjective evaluation is dependent on the situation and the risk perceived by the person (e.g., new versus usual situations, simple versus complex environments, etc.). In this theoretical context, our purpose was to investigate the links between 1) objective performance (reaction time) measured by a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), 2) data from eye movements and 3) subjective assessment of drowsiness (measured with Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, KSS). 12 persons, aged from 20 to 56, participated individually. They were asked to respect a 60% sleep deprivation during the night before the experiment and to not drink any energy drinks the day of the experiment. The experiment was conducted between 1 and 3 PM after a heavy lunch in order to increase the circadian effect. Moreover, the temperature of the room was 25° in order to increase drowsiness. Each participant was asked to perform 4 PVT. However, although 100% of participants performed the first two PVT, only 66% were able to perform the third PVT and only 33% of participants performed the fourth and last PVT. Our results showed an effect of time on objective performance, eye movements and subjective assessment of drowsiness in PVT 1 and 2: significant increase of reaction time, increase of eye closure and perclos, reduction of pupil diameter and increase of subjective drowsiness estimation (KSS). Only the frequency and duration of blinks remained constant across time. In PVT 3 and 4, data from eye movements and objective performance (reaction time) did not vary anymore across the time. Only the subjective estimation of drowsiness (KSS) continued to increase. Furthermore, subjective estimation of drowsiness was differently correlated with eye movements and objective performance across the PVT; it was significantly correlated with reaction time (PVT 1,2,3), blink frequency and duration (PVT 1,2,3), perclos (PVT 1,2,3,4), eye closure (PVT 2,3), pupil diameter (PVT 1,2,3,4). These results are discussed and integrated in an ergonomic approach in order to analyze the links between objective performance, eye movements and subjective assessment of drowsiness. [less ▲]

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See detailDomain generality of serial order processing in short-term memory: Evidence from musical and verbal domains
Gorin, Simon ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg

Conference (2014, May 27)

Recent models of verbal short-term memory (STM) propose a distinction between item storage processes, which are viewed as domain-specific, and order storage processes, which are considered by some authors ... [more ▼]

Recent models of verbal short-term memory (STM) propose a distinction between item storage processes, which are viewed as domain-specific, and order storage processes, which are considered by some authors to be domain-general, at least as regards verbal and visual STM domains. Here we provide further evidence for domain-specific item STM processes and domain-general order STM processes by comparing item and order processing in verbal and musical STM domains. The musical domain is particularly relevant here given its reliance on different kinds of sequential processes (e.g., tones successions, rhythm). Using an interindividual differences approach, we administered to a group of young healthy adults different tasks requiring retention of item identity for words or tones, and tasks requiring retention of serial order information for word sequences or note sequences, as well as a task measuring retention abilities for rhythmic information. For the item STM tasks, we observed strong intercorrelations for within-domain WM measures, but not between-domain WM measures, after controlling for general WM abilities. For the serial order STM tasks, we observed a specific association with the rhythm STM task. These results highlight the importance of temporal sequential processes, as measured by the rhythm STM task, as a driving factor of domain-general STM processes in verbal and musical domains. They furthermore confirm the domain-specificity of item STM processes. [less ▲]

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