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See detailLes recherches sur les microalgues à l'Université de Liège
Franck, Fabrice ULg

Scientific conference (2016, December 09)

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See detailThe (non)-Effects of Public Experiments on High-Level Radioactive Waste Programs
Parotte, Céline ULg

Conference (2016, December 09)

Siting processes of high-level radioactive wastes remain a sensitive step for nuclear waste management organizations. At this stage, radioactive wastes programs become highly visible. Such concreteness ... [more ▼]

Siting processes of high-level radioactive wastes remain a sensitive step for nuclear waste management organizations. At this stage, radioactive wastes programs become highly visible. Such concreteness increases controversies leading to modification or temporary standstill of the program (see e.g. strong local oppositions in the 80’s in Canada and in France). These controversies have often forced nuclear waste management organizations to include larger societal groups (civil society, NGO’s, parliamentarians, lay people,…) and to recognize the societal dimension of such issue. The program is thus recognized as a sociotechnical one, compelling authorities to a new approach to territorial development (Leloup 2010). At the local scale, new instruments and strategies have been adopted and implemented to tackle this territorial question. One of these tools is the local information committee. Considering nuclear waste management as an art of government (Dean, 2010), this presentation focuses on the siting processes of radioactive wastes programs and analyzes the coproduction between territory and program (Jasanoff 2004). It therefore studies the influence on the programs of the local publics through their local information committee in two specific cases: the French and the Canadian high-level radioactive wastes programs. To do so, it mobilizes official documents, participatory observations, two ethnographic fieldworks (Bure – France and Manitouwadge, Ignace, Schreiber and Nipigon – Canada), and semi-structured interviews. These interviews were conducted with French and Canadian nuclear waste management organizations’ member, regulators, local representatives and local consultation committee’s members. In analyzing such siting processes, we first analytically describe the shift from a national radioactive waste management program to a territorialized management in France and in Canada. Second, it aims at understanding the concrete and sometimes unanticipated effects of implementing a management program at the local level by focusing on the integration of local publics and stakeholders in the decision-making of such processes. Finally, it discusses the dual relationship between program and territory in these processes. Our results highlight that the territorial development of the high-level radioactive wastes programs started within R&D programs although the program was officially presented as “placeless” (Murphy 2009). They also show that the siting processes have been designed very differently. In Canada, the siting process has been co-designed with publics while the French national Parliament has imposed a siting location for the industrial project. Third, through the (in)actions of such local committees considered as invited critics (Wynne 2007), new socio-technical adjustments has occurred in these programs. Even though, we stress that the dichotomy between expert-based and participatory is still pregnant (for different reasons) and reinforce the dichotomy between nature/experts/underground and society/publics/ground. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mise à disposition de travailleurs
Linguelet, Renaud ULg

in Mormont, Hugo (Ed.) Droit du travail tous azimuts (2016)

Le législateur érige en principe l’interdiction de mise à disposition de travailleurs (art. 31, § 1, al. 1, de la loi du 24 juillet 1987). Le premier chapitre de la contribution est consacré à une mise en ... [more ▼]

Le législateur érige en principe l’interdiction de mise à disposition de travailleurs (art. 31, § 1, al. 1, de la loi du 24 juillet 1987). Le premier chapitre de la contribution est consacré à une mise en perspective du champ d'application personnel et matériel de l'interdiction, une comparaison avec d'autres véhicules juridiques proches et une analyse des sanctions applicables en cas de violation de l'interdiction. Le second chapitre, quant à lui, se concentre sur les exceptions au principe. Une attention particulière est portée au mécanisme du groupement d'employeurs. [less ▲]

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See detailReprésenter la connaissance en linguistique. Observations sur l’édition de matériaux et sur l’analyse syntaxique
Mazziotta, Nicolas ULg

Post doctoral thesis (2016)

In the field of linguistics, knowledge is often represented by the means of edited data (textual editions or structured databases) and diagrams. These representations can be called inscriptions of ... [more ▼]

In the field of linguistics, knowledge is often represented by the means of edited data (textual editions or structured databases) and diagrams. These representations can be called inscriptions of knowledge. They suggest three core questions. First of all, how to read them? The first chapter investigates the conventions at use to represent and organize information in edited data and syntactic diagrams. Secondly, how to choose what has to be inscribed? This chapter focuses on how only a part of data and analyses is represented in the inscriptions. An operation of reduction is always necessary and it accompanies the choices about what has to be represented. The choice of the formal structure used for encoding the inscription acts as a major constraint on what can and what cannot be inscribed. Thirdly, how do inscriptions allow us to discover more? This chapter is centered on the use of diagrams to unveil new knowledge about the facts and the theory. It is also shown that diagrams make it possible to investigate the relationships between formal structures themselves. A fourth chapter investigates digital inscriptions, showing how the use of the computer allows us to reevaluate the answers to all the aforementioned questions. [less ▲]

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See detailVitrification: Research and state-of-the-art in humans and animals
Ectors, Fabien ULg

Scientific conference (2016, December 09)

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See detailComic strips et papier glacé. Rétro-réflexivité de la bande dessinée chez Cole Closser
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

Conference (2016, December 09)

La « rétromania » bat son plein dans le champ de la bande dessinée qui, aujourd'hui, ne compte plus les rééditions luxueuses des œuvres, canoniques ou oubliées, de son passé1. Les Sunday comics, pages ... [more ▼]

La « rétromania » bat son plein dans le champ de la bande dessinée qui, aujourd'hui, ne compte plus les rééditions luxueuses des œuvres, canoniques ou oubliées, de son passé1. Les Sunday comics, pages dominicales des quotidiens américains où paraissaient en couleur le supplément de bande dessinée, ont fait l'objet d'une attention toute particulière, comme en atteste les rééditions à l'échelle originale réalisées par Sunday Press, magnifiant ces œuvres éphémères au sein d'ouvrages monumentaux. Art Spiegelman et Chris Ware, auteurs clés du roman graphique, ont directement été impliqués dans de tels projets, manifestant une continuité entre ces Sunday pages et leurs propres expérimentations avec la forme, illustrant bien l'adage de Spiegelman, « the future of comics is in the past ». La bande dessinée contemporaine, donc, semble être crucialement située à l'intersection d'une fascination rétrospective pour son passé, et d'une réinvention de ce passé, de l'exploration de « nouvelles » formes. Partant de ce contexte précis, qu'il s'agira d'approfondir, cette présentation examinera les Sunday comics comme « objets en mouvement » à travers l'œuvre de Cole Closser2, qui manifeste une « rétro-réflexivité3 » basée sur l'imitation non seulement du style de comic strips mais aussi sur l'évocation de leurs récentes rééditions. Closser mélange outils numériques et techniques obsolètes pour produire quelque chose qui veut se faire passer pour un objet du passé. L'œuvre de Closser ainsi met en avant les aspects matériels et haptiques liés à la reproduction de « vieux » comic strips, ainsi que le fétichisme lié à cette mise en scène matérielle de ces objets telle qu'on peut la trouver dans les designs des livres de Dan Nadel ou Chip Kidd4. Le cas de Closser est paradigmatique de la manière dont cette forme de rétro-réflexivité dépasse la question d'intertextualité pour interroger comment de « vieilles » bandes dessinées re-circulent en tant qu'objets au sein de la production contemporaine et donc au-delà du marché des collectionneurs. À partir du cas de Closser, cette présentation cherchera à mettre en lumière différents usages que ces objets du passé de la bande dessinée recouvrent au cœur du roman graphique contemporain, cartographiant un mouvement simultanément rétrospectif et orienté vers le futur. [less ▲]

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See detailTraduire August Wilson: voix africaines américaines en français
Bada, Valérie ULg; Pagnoulle, Christine ULg

Scientific conference (2016, December 09)

Les rythmes syntaxiques and intonatifs ainsi que la langue allitérative et anaphorique propres à la poétique wilsonienne sont autant de complexités de traduction. Le présent article décrit les difficultés ... [more ▼]

Les rythmes syntaxiques and intonatifs ainsi que la langue allitérative et anaphorique propres à la poétique wilsonienne sont autant de complexités de traduction. Le présent article décrit les difficultés des traductrices à créer une langue en français qui respecte le rythme ainsi que la référentialité multiple du texte. [less ▲]

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See detailCortical desmoid: Case Report and Literature Review
COLLIN, Romain ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg

in Abstract Book of Annual Congress of Physical & Rehabilitation Medicine 2016 (2016, December 09)

We describe a cortical desmoid lesion in a 13-year-old male football player. This case is the typical illustration of symptoms and radiological findings founded in cortical desmoid. Cortical desmoid is ... [more ▼]

We describe a cortical desmoid lesion in a 13-year-old male football player. This case is the typical illustration of symptoms and radiological findings founded in cortical desmoid. Cortical desmoid is benign cortical fibro-osseous lesion that most frequently occurs in the medial supracondylar femur. A traumatic pathogenesis of this lesion is the most probable cause due to higher traction forces at the insertion site of gastrocnemius or the aponeurosis of adductor magnus. It’s usually diagnosed in 10-15-year-old male adolescent who present knee pain, tenderness or swelling. It also can be asymptomatic and incidental finding on radiological exam. Radiologic features depend on the shape and the stage of lesion evolution. It is important to make a correct diagnosis to avoid many additional tests and biopsy, thinking it is a malignant bone tumor. Despite no published therapeutic guideline exists in literature, symptomatic treatment can be considered efficient. [less ▲]

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See detailScapulothoracic bursitis and kyphoscoliosis: a case report
MILANTS, Christophe ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg

in Abstract Book of Annual Congress of Physical & Rehabilitation Medicine 2016 (2016, December 09)

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See detailRecurrent stress fracture of tibial tubercule in a volleyball player - a case report
SANFILIPPO, Damien ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg

in Abstract Book of Annual Congress of Physical & Rehabilitation Medicine 2016 (2016, December 09)

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See detailIntracanalar lumbar neurinoma
Manto, Florence; HOUET, Elise ULg; LACREMANS, Pierre ULg et al

in Abstract Book of Annual Congress of Physical & Rehabilitation Medicine 2016 (2016, December 09)

Neurinoma are slow growing encapsulated tumors, coming from Schwann cells. They are a rare cause of low back pain, possibly with a radiating pain in the inferior limb. This case report describes the ... [more ▼]

Neurinoma are slow growing encapsulated tumors, coming from Schwann cells. They are a rare cause of low back pain, possibly with a radiating pain in the inferior limb. This case report describes the managing of a patient with right cruralgia without strength lost. The CT- scan had failed to highlight a lesion corresponding to the symptoms of the patient. A MRI was therefore realized, and was able to show a lumbar intradural tumor. The MRI signal of neurinoma is usually typical. However, in this case, the histo-pathological analysis has been necessary to confirm the diagnosis. The patient underwent laminectomy and tumor resection with nearly complete resolution of symptoms, excepting a right perineal hemihypoesthesia, probably corresponding to the location of the concerned nervous root. The MRI is the best method to explore cruralgia or a sciatica not responding to treatment, and without precipitating factor such as disc herniation explaining the symptoms. [less ▲]

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See detailMineralogy and crystal chemistry of natural and synthetic uranyl oxysalts
Dal Bo, Fabrice ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Since 1960, the number of described uranyl mineral species has been multiplied by three. To date more than 200 mineral species containing uranium as a main structural element are reported in Nature, and ... [more ▼]

Since 1960, the number of described uranyl mineral species has been multiplied by three. To date more than 200 mineral species containing uranium as a main structural element are reported in Nature, and the crystal structures have been determined and refined for only one third of them. Furthermore, many new uranyl minerals are still reported to data, showing sometimes novel chemical compositions and structural arrangements. The uranium mineralogy is a fascinating subject, and an essential field of research as it contributes to the improvement of the management techniques of nuclear waste. The first part of this work was dedicated to the mineralogical characterisation of uranyl minerals, and especially of the autunite-type minerals, occurring in the Rabejac deposit. Indeed, the identification analyses have shown that many samples contain uranyl arsenates of the autunite and meta-autunite groups. Electron-microprobe chemical analyses performed on these minerals species indicate that the P content in (meta-)zeunerite and (meta-)uranospinite is significant in several samples, confirming the solid-solution series between uranyl arsenates and phosphates. Also, cationic substitutions occurring on the A site were observed, especially in uranospinite samples, in which significant amount of Ca is substituted for Mg. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on many members of the (meta-)zeunerite-(meta-)torbernite series, and the crystallographic parameters were put into correlation with the variation of the chemical composition. The crystal structure of arsenuranospathite, the Asanalogue of the Al-bearing uranyl phosphate uranospathite, was solved for the first time, indicating that these two minerals are isostructural (Dal Bo et al., 2015). Also, a structure model is proposed for metauranocircite-I, one of the Ba-bearing uranyl phosphate of the meta-autunite group. Investigations of uranyl mineral samples from other localities have allowed to discover single-crystals of bassetite, one of the Fe end-members of the autunite group. The crystal structure of bassetite was also solved for the first time, and these new structural data were presented in parallel to those obtained on saléeite, the Mg-analogue of bassetite (Dal Bo et al., 2016). Thanks to these new data, a discussion about the mineral hierarchy of the (meta-)autunite group is proposed. In addition, the crystal structure of the rare Al-bearing uranyl phosphate furongite from the Kobokobo pegmatite was determined, showing that this mineral species has unique and novel structural features. This specific study, as well as the redefinition of the structural formula of phuralumite, was the occasion to provide a review about the formation of Al polyhedra clusters in uranyl minerals, and to try to elucidate their physicochemical conditions of crystallisation. Many new crystallographic data were also collected on uranyl minerals for which the crystal structure was already reported in the literature. Therefore, it was possible to confirm the previous studies, or to highlight important discrepancies, especially in the case of the Al-bearing uranyl phosphate phuralumite. The H-bonds networks, which are essential for the stability of the structure, have been established in the structure of the uranyl carbonate liebigite, and in the structure of the uranyl silicates cuprosklodowskite, kasolite and soddyite. The second part of this work was devoted to the hydrothermal synthesis of uranyl oxysalts. The experimental conditions, as well as the chemical systems, were chosen in agreement with the conditions occurring in natural uranium deposits, or in geological repositories. A new compound, Be[(UO2)(PO4)]2(H2O)2.5, has been synthesized at low temperature. This is the third Be-bearing uranyl phosphate reported to date, and its crystal structure is based upon sheets showing the uranophane anion topology, typical of uranyl silicates occurring in the oxidation zone of the uranium deposits. The well-known Ba[(UO2)3(MoO4)4(H2O)](H2O)3 and (NH4)2[(UO2)(MoO4)2](H2O) compounds have been synthesized, and new crystallographic data were collected on them. In addition, it was possible to determine the hydrogen-bonds networks for the first compound, and to redefine the Mo6+ coordination polyhedra in the second one. [less ▲]

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See detailDARIAH-BE: Towards an ecosystem of Digital Humanities Research Centres in Belgium
Chambers, Sally; Deroo, Katrien; Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg et al

Conference (2016, December 08)

Digital Humanities is flourishing in Belgium. There are Virtual Research Environments (VRE) for studying transnational intellectual collaborations in the area of social reform and the political and social ... [more ▼]

Digital Humanities is flourishing in Belgium. There are Virtual Research Environments (VRE) for studying transnational intellectual collaborations in the area of social reform and the political and social history of the Belgian justice system. Tools being developed to digitally uncover the genetics of manuscripts or create a linked data structure to map networks across the ancient world. Furthermore, Electronic Literature across Europe is being mapped and video games are being studied using humanities research methods. The digitisation of artistic, historic and scientific collections is also a key priority in Belgium. With the Belgian Art Links and Tools platform, BALaT, the development of a Data Hub for Museums and Belgium’s digitised newspapers in Belgica Press being flagship examples. Alongside this rich tapestry of activities, Belgium is a Founding Member of DARIAH-EU, the Digital Research Infrastructure for the Arts and Humanities. The aim of DARIAH in Belgium is to develop and offer a sustainable portfolio of services enabling digital scholarship in the arts and humanities in Belgium and beyond. To realise this, partner institutions within Belgium are in the process of establishing Digital Humanities Research Centres which together will form a humanities-specific digital ecosystem, offering services both within their own institutions and to other institutions in Belgium. Additionally, selected services will be scaled-up for use within the European DARIAH community, and offered as in-kind contributions to DARIAH-EU. In this paper we will explore both the intra- and inter-institutional context of digital humanities centres in Belgium. Starting at the intra-institutional level, we will introduce two existing digital humanities research centres: the Centre Informatique de Philosophie et Lettres (CIPL, Université de Liège) in the French-speaking part of Belgium and the Ghent Centre for Digital Humanities (GhentCDH, Ghent University) in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. We will examine both the organisational goals of these centres and how they support digital humanities research within the university, with a particular focus on the collaborations they set up on an institutional level (for example with IT services and the library as well as between research groups). Furthermore, we compare these existing centres, with the newest digital humanities centre in Belgium, the Leuven Centre for Digital Humanities (LCDH) which is currently in the process of being established in the Dutch-speaking university and DARIAH partner institution, KU Leuven. Finally, we will analyse the opportunities and challenges in the inter-institutional context. While challenges such as the complex funding landscape and multilingual research environment should not be underestimated, there are many opportunities that can be celebrated. For example, collaborative training initiatives, such as Research Community Digital Humanities Flanders, which is open to members beyond Flanders, the annual DH Benelux conference which offers a platform for collaboration between digital humanities projects in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg and joint-funding opportunities such as the Belgian Research Action through Interdisciplinary Networks (BRAIN) programme. Additionally, activities for participation in DARIAH-EU, including preparing Belgian in-kind contributions and establishing DARIAH Working Groups not only addresses these challenges, but contributes to ensuring that digital humanities activities in Belgium thrive. [less ▲]

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See detailXenogeneic graft-versus-host disease: Impact of Th17 cells.
Delens, Loïc ULg; SERVAIS, Sophie ULg; Vrancken, Louise et al

Poster (2016, December 08)

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See detailPlanned Obsolescence, Nature and the Self in American Literature
Lombard, David ULg

Conference (2016, December 08)

On the cusp of the 1980s, when it became increasingly apparent that humanity had left its mark on every inch of the surface of the earth and altered its atmosphere, the idea of a strictly natural world ... [more ▼]

On the cusp of the 1980s, when it became increasingly apparent that humanity had left its mark on every inch of the surface of the earth and altered its atmosphere, the idea of a strictly natural world became obsolete and needed to be reimagined. As a result, American environmentalist Bill McKibben presented in his essay The End of Nature (1989) the hypothesis of a postnatural world, a world in which nature has ended ‘both as a discrete biophysical entity and as a meaningful concept’ (McKibben, 1989). This presentation will aim at demonstrating how American civilisation ‘planned’ the obsolescence of both nature and the self through its yearning for progress, production and for the accumulation of manufactured products and wealth. Besides commenting on McKibben’s essay, I will draw parallels between other works such as Henry David Thoreau’s memoir Walden (1854) and Don DeLillo’s novel White Noise (1985) in order to illustrate how the evolution of the American process of self-realisation that was originally connected to the natural landscape led to the fragmentation of the self in the postmodern landscape as expressed, for instance, in Fredric Jameson’s book Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (1991). I will also argue that Thoreau anticipated the notion that a construction of an identity based on a transcendental relationship with sublime nature was soon to be replaced by a transcendental experience with objects of consumption¬—or waste—or, more largely, with the postmodern sublime landscape. I will show that American literature may be at odds with Bernard London’s representation of consumer capitalism and with his description of planned obsolescence as a means of ‘salvation’ for the American people (London, 1932). [less ▲]

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See detailLimited impact of imatinib in a murine model of sclerodermatous chronic graft-versus-host disease (scl-cGVHD)
Fransolet, Gilles ULg; Belle, Ludovic; SOMJA, Joan ULg et al

Conference (2016, December 08)

- Introduction: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains one of the major complications following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Approximately 15% of the patients with chronic GVHD ... [more ▼]

- Introduction: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains one of the major complications following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Approximately 15% of the patients with chronic GVHD develop the sclerodermatous form of the disease characterized by multiple organ fibrosis and loss of skin elasticity. Several studies have shown the potential benefits of imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), as a treatment of fibrosis in cGVHD due to its ability to inhibit simultaneously PDGF-R and c-Abl pathways which are both involved in fibrosis mechanisms. - Aims: Some early-phase clinical studies have assessed the impact of TKIs in patients with steroid-refractory cGVHD. Unfortunately, these studies yielded to conflicting results underlying the importance of re-assessing the impact of imatinib in scl-cGVHD pre-clinical models. This work investigates the possible benefits of imatinib on fibrosis in a murine model of sclerodermatous chronic GVHD (scl-cGVHD). - Methods and results: Lethally irradiated Balb/cJ mice (7 Gy TBI) were injected i.v. with 1.106 or 10.106 bone marrow cells and 2.106 or 70.106 splenocytes from B10.D2 donnor mice (Moderate and Classical scl-cGVHD models respectively). Mice were then treated with sterile water or imatinib (150 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage from day +7 to day +52 following transplantation. cGVHD severity was assessed three times/week with a scoring system encompassing 5 criteria (mice posture, weight loss, activity, hair loss, skin integrity ; 0-1-2 point(s)/criteria). Skin biopsies were performed on day +29 following transplantation to assess phosphorylation of c-Abl (TGF-β pathway) and PDGF receptor. Our results show that imatinib failed to prevent/improve GVHD with a similar evolution of the GVHD severity with no differences between groups (neither in moderate cGVHD model, nor in the classical cGVHD model). Mice weight loss during the experiments was also comparable between groups in both models of cGVHD. In the classical model, histological analyses indicate a significant reduction of the phosphorylation level of the PDGR receptor (p = 0.0079). In vivo cell proliferation assay with CFSE were also performed and showed a reduced proliferation of T cells and subsets (CD4, CD8 and Tregs) in spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and blood after imatinib treatment. Finally, FACS analyses performed on days +21 and +35 after transplantation did not show any differences in the absolute T-cell counts. - Conclusions: Although we have observed a decreased phosphorylation level of PDGR receptor and less proliferation of T cells and subsets in vivo, imatinib failed to alleviate scl-cGVHD both in moderate and classical murine models of scl-cGVHD. [less ▲]

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See detailEnjeux culturels de l'obsolescence technique et esthétique des jeux vidéo
Delbouille, Julie ULg; Hurel, Pierre-Yves ULg

Conference (2016, December 08)

Dès ses premières tentatives d’expansion sur le marché domestique, le jeu vidéo est marqué du sceau d’une double obsolescence : obsolescence ​te​chnique, qui régulera de plus en plus la durée de ... [more ▼]

Dès ses premières tentatives d’expansion sur le marché domestique, le jeu vidéo est marqué du sceau d’une double obsolescence : obsolescence ​te​chnique, qui régulera de plus en plus la durée de vie des dispositifs de jeu, mais également​ es​thétique, poussant le consommateur à remplacer des machines que la succession rythmée des « générations » rend rapidement désuètes. Cette obsolescence double est renforcée par l’omniprésence dans les discours de la course à la technologie : la presse spécialisée entretient la promesse de « lendemains qui chantent » (Triclot, 2016), glorifiant l’avenir du jeu vidéo. Ce motif récurrent se diffuse également dans les médias généralistes — qui, pendant plusieurs décennies, puisent dans la dimension économique du médium un des seuls discours bienveillants le concernant (Delbouille, 2018) — ainsi qu’auprès du grand public. A contrario, plusieurs pratiques culturelles développées par les joueurs viennent répondre à cette fuite en avant : d​ u ​retrogaming ​ au ​retromaking, de l’émulation aux politiques de patrimonialisation du médium (Barbier, 2014), ces pratiques ​constituent autant de tactiques (De Certeau, 1990) de résistance face à cette stratégie industrielle. Elles permettent ​alors d’aborder différemment, par exemple, l'histoire du jeu vidéo ​— qui n'est encore généralement envisagée que par le biais de sa dimension technique. Par la rupture qu’elles semblent marquer ​avec les productions dominantes, ces pratiques se situent « en décrochage » par rapport​ ​à la temporalité de l’industrie. L’objet de cette communication, en faisant dialoguer ces deux dynamiques, est de constituer l'obsolescence en tant qu’outil d’analyse des enjeux culturels du jeu vidéo. En résistant à l'obsolescence, en refusant l'expiration d'anciennes ​« ​delivery technologies » (Jenkins, 2013), les amateurs (Hurel, 2017) affirment l'existence d'un média jeu vidéo à part entière. Quant aux acteurs industriels, en réintégrant ces pratiques de décrochage au sein de leur course technologique, ils semblent arpenter une ligne de crête ​— cherchant ​à bénéficier d'un statut culturel qui leur serait bénéfique, sans pour autant abandonner le cœur de leur moteur économique. [less ▲]

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