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See detailMeeting Fronstage, Deciding Backstage
Slomian, Cynthia ULg

Conference (2017, April 27)

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See detail“New Ways of Working” and their managerial myths: the resurgence of liberation and distributed surveillance?
Jemine, Grégory ULg

Conference (2017, April 27)

Through this contribution we aim to explore how two well-known bodies of knowledge, namely the panopticism as developed by Foucault (2012) and the works from the Human Relations movement (Mayo, 1949) are ... [more ▼]

Through this contribution we aim to explore how two well-known bodies of knowledge, namely the panopticism as developed by Foucault (2012) and the works from the Human Relations movement (Mayo, 1949) are being reprocessed and reinjected by managerial actors in organisational projects of “modernisation” such as “New Ways of Working”. Nowadays, in open and flexible workspaces, visual and acoustic privacy at work tend to disappear (Van der Voort, 2004) which leaves room for a constant monitoring of employees’ behaviours, mainly performed by the peers (Sewell & Taskin, 2015). The old managerial myth of distributed surveillance resurfaces as everyone is in a position to monitor his colleagues, generating a global feeling of unease. Simultaneously several managerial discourses advocate for abolishing direct supervision and liberating the employees of the bureaucratic factors through self-managed teams and empowerment. The defenders of “freedom” in companies build their argumentation on former findings from the Human Relations movement such as the improved efficiency of small groups and the benefits of removing rules. In an historical perspective, we wonder why and how such elements of knowledge produced several decades ago now become performative in several Belgian companies. [less ▲]

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See detailX-LAG: How did they grow so tall?
BECKERS, Albert ULg; Rostomyan, Liliya ULg; Potorac, Iulia ULg et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2017)

X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) is a new, pediatric-onset genetic syndrome, due to Xq26.3 microduplications encompassing the GPR101 gene. XLAG has a remarkably distinct phenotype with disease onset ... [more ▼]

X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) is a new, pediatric-onset genetic syndrome, due to Xq26.3 microduplications encompassing the GPR101 gene. XLAG has a remarkably distinct phenotype with disease onset occurring before the age of 5 in all cases described to date, which is significantly younger than in other forms of pituitary gigantism. These patients have mixed GH and prolactin positive adenomas and/or mixed-cell hyperplasia and highly elevated levels of GH/IGF-1 and prolactin. Given their particularly young age of onset, the significant GH hypersecretion can lead to a phenotype of severe gigantism with very advanced age-specific height Z-scores. If not adequately treated in childhood, this condition results in extreme final adult height. XLAG has a clinical course that is highly similar to some of the tallest people with gigantism in history. « X-linked acrogigantism » (XLAG) est un syndrome pédiatrique récemment décrit, lié à des microduplications du chromosome Xq26.3, englobant le gène GPR101, responsable de l’affection. Les patients XLAG présentent un phénotype remarquablement distinct des autres cas de gigantisme hypophysaire. Dans tous les cas décrits, la maladie s’exprime avant 5 ans soit beaucoup plus tôt que dans les autres formes. Les patients ont habituellement un gros adénome ou une hyperplasie mixte pour la GH et la prolactine et des taux très élevés de GH/IGF1 et prolactine. En raison de son début très précoce, l’hypersécrétion importante de GH peut conduire à un gigantisme extrêmement sévère avec un Z-score très important pour l’âge. Si cette condition n’est pas traitée pendant l’enfance, elle peut conduire à une taille finale extrême. XLAG montre une évolution clinique similaire à celle observée chez les géants les plus grands de l’histoire. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate change and insect pests: Impact on carbon dioxide increase on aphid behavior and semiochemistry
Boullis, Antoine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

There is no longer any doubt on the incidence of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on global change. Climate modifications are responsible of perturbations in interactions between living organisms ... [more ▼]

There is no longer any doubt on the incidence of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on global change. Climate modifications are responsible of perturbations in interactions between living organisms. This research topic is in the light of scientists since several decades and is considered to be of major interest in the understanding of future ecosystems’ functioning. In this prospect, interactions between insect herbivores and their natural enemies have received little attention under a climate change scope, while they are of paramount importance in the proper equilibrium of agro-ecosystems. As the efficacy of natural enemies is governed largely by behavioral mechanisms, changes in the predators’ behaviors but also in those related to prey defenses can change the dynamics of insect populations. As aphids are considered as one of the main crop pests in temperate regions, relative literature on impact of increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations on aphid population dynamic now exists. However, few publications about their chemical ecology are reported. Aphids are using many chemical signals to communicate with each other or in their interactions with higher trophic levels. Here, I tempted to identify the impact of an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration on the interactions between aphids and their natural enemies mediated by semiochemicals. Aspects of phytovirus transmission by aphids were also covered. After being involved in three literature reviews, I was interested in the aphid alarm signaling which strongly supports aphid-predators interactions. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), this signaling is mediated by a pheromone, namely the (E)-β-farnesene. For my experiments, I took into consideration the importance of all the steps that this molecule has to pass by, from its production into the emitter individual to the induced behavioral response of the receivers. The results obtained during these experiments highlighted an imbalance in aphid chemical communication for populations grown under elevated CO2 conditions, by modifications in several steps of the signal (decrease in pheromone production, emission and associated behavior). The results obtained here were supported by previous studies indicating that increases in CO2 concentration reduce the aphid escape behavior, which makes them potentially more susceptible to predation. We know that many plant pathogens are dependent on aphid dispersal to spread, so it is of major importance to predict how these insect vectors could be affected by forecasted climate. I thus carried my interest on the ability of aphids to transmit phytoviruses under changing atmosphere. Using another aphid model, the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), we have not observed any modifications in terms of virus and aphid spread in laboratory trials when tested under either actual or forecasted CO2 concentration. However, the viral transmission efficiency via aphids is increased under CO2-enriched atmosphere. Finally, the host searching behavior of an aphid predator was studied. The efficiency of natural enemies of insect pests is mainly driven by their ability to find food sources or oviposition sites in their environment. The conducted study highlighted the preference of the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus De Geer towards aphid colonies grown under actual CO2 levels, suggesting modifications in chemical cues guiding hoverflies to a suitable oviposition site, due to increase of CO2. The results and knowledge obtained during these studies will add novel information on how a major component of climate change may impact tritrophic interactions and thus the efficiency of natural enemies of insect herbivores in biological control scope. [less ▲]

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See detailPISA expliqué à tous : pistes pour améliorer l'enseignement en FW-B
Lafontaine, Dominique ULg

Scientific conference (2017, April 27)

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See detailPraxis, besoins et impératifs affectifs : Réflexions sur la normativité de la conscience émue.
Recchia, Fabio ULg

Conference (2017, April 26)

L'objectif de cette communication consiste à dégager les caractéristiques normatives de la conscience émue. Nous mobiliserons pour ce faire la thématique des "impératifs affectifs", qui est abondamment ... [more ▼]

L'objectif de cette communication consiste à dégager les caractéristiques normatives de la conscience émue. Nous mobiliserons pour ce faire la thématique des "impératifs affectifs", qui est abondamment discutée par Sartre dans "Les Racines de l'éthique". Sur cette base, nous développerons une réflexion en trois temps. 1° Nous situerons tout d'abord les "Racines de l'éthique" dans la continuité des réflexions de "l'Esquisse d'une théorie des émotions". 2° Nous montrerons ensuite que l'analyse des impératifs affectifs enveloppe une critique du positivisme, qui est une approche massivement adoptée par nombre de philosophie des émotions. 3° Enfin, nous approfondirons la description sartrienne des impératifs affectifs à partir de "L'Émile" de Jean-Jacques Rousseau. L'association de l'un et l'autre texte nous permettra en effet de commenter la "seconde forme d'émotion" qui est très allusivement décrite par les dernières pages de l'Esquisse d'une théorie des émotions. Plus largement, ce détour par la philosophie politique des modernes permettra d'établir un dialogue entre la phénoménologie sartrienne de l'affectivité et l'approche de la normativité qui est proposée par la philosophie française des sciences sociales. [less ▲]

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See detailConstitutus = καϑεστώς : un hellénisme de la langue juridique ?
Rochette, Bruno ULg

Conference (2017, April 26)

Le participe parfait constitutus (ainsi que positus) a été vu comme une sorte de substitut destiné à pallier l’absence en latin de participe présent du verbe être (*ens, entis). Plusieurs auteurs ont ... [more ▼]

Le participe parfait constitutus (ainsi que positus) a été vu comme une sorte de substitut destiné à pallier l’absence en latin de participe présent du verbe être (*ens, entis). Plusieurs auteurs ont considéré cet emploi comme un hellénisme propre à la langue juridique en soulignant que, dans les Novellae de Justinien, constitutus est une traduction du grec καϑεστώς, qui a un sens actif. On en a déduit qu’il pourrait s’agir d’une particularité de la langue des juristes qui apparaît pour la première fois chez Julianus [4], Scaevola [6], Papinien [5] et Ulpien [8]. Cet emploi, qui ne semble pas antérieur à Sénèque [7], n’est toutefois pas spécifique aux juristes. On le rencontre dans le latin de l’Empire, spécialement chez des auteurs africains chrétiens et païens, comme Apulée [2] et Cyprien de Carthage [3], et surtout dans la langue tardive (Ammien Marcellin [1]). Cet usage pose la question de la spécificité de la langue des juristes et de l’influence éventuelle du grec sur cette langue technique. Une étude plus systématique des prétendus hellénismes chez le juriste Gaius, peut-être d’origine orientale, montre que l’influence du grec sur son latin, si elle a existé, est assez réduite. Un grand nombre de particularités qui ont été considérées comme des hellénismes sont en réalité des spécificités du latin tardif et connaissent des parallèles chez des auteurs comme Apulée, Tertullien, Augustin, Ammien Marcellin. J’étudie ici les emplois de constitutus comme prétendu substitut du participe présent de esse dans un corpus assez large de textes : Arnobe, Firmicus Maternus, Lactance, Hilaire, Lucifer, Ambroise, Jérôme, Sulpice Sévère, Cassien, Orose… jusqu’à Cassiodore. On trouve aussi cette tournure assez souvent dans la Vulgate. Pour expliquer cette spécificité, l’influence du grec n’est pas une donnée nécessaire. Il s’agit essentiellement, comme d’autres phénomènes, d’une évolution du latin, qui a sans doute éprouvé le besoin de combler la lacune de l’absence du participe présent du verbe « être », ce qui arrivera au Moyen Âge avec la création de *ens, entis, déjà proposé par Jules César. Exemples [1] Ammien Marcellin, XX, 3, 12 : eodem adhuc constituto [2] Apulée, Mét., IV, 11 : Tunc nos in ancipiti periculo constituti uel op primendi nostri uel deserendi socii remedium e re nata ualidum eo uolente comminiscimus. [3] Cyprien, Ep., 1, 1 : in clerico ministerio constituti [4] Julianus Dig. 24, 2, 6 : in captiuitate constitutus [5] Papinien Dig. 35, 1, 77, 3 : impubere filia constituta [6] Scaevola Dig. 4, 4, 39, 1 : curatoribus eius idoneis constitutis [7] Sénèque, NQ, III, 10, 3 : natura partes suas velut in ponderribus constitutas exanimat [8] Ulpien Dig. 3, 5, 19 : Ulpianus libro decimo ad edictum. sin autem apud hostes constitutus decessit, et successori et aduersus successorem eius negotiorum gestorum directa et contraria competit. Bibliographie GARCEA A., Caesar’s De analogia. Edition, Translation, and Commentary, Oxford, 2012. KALB W., Das Juristenlatein. Versuch einer Charakteristik auf Grundlage der Digesten, Nürnberg 1888 [Aalen 1961] --, Roms Juristen nach ihrer Sprache dargestellt, Leipzig 1890 [Aalen 1975]. LÖFSTEDT E., Zur Frage der Gräzismen, dans Syntactica. Studien und Beiträge zur historischen Syntax des Lateins II, Lund 1933, 406-457 NELSON H.L.W., Überlieferung, Aufbau und Stil von Gai Institutiones (Studia Gaiana, 6), Leiden 1981, ROSÉN H.-D. SHLEV, QUASI: Its Grecizing [?] syntactic patterns, Colloque de Linguistique latine de Toulouse (sous presse). SCHRIJNEN J.-CHR. MOHRMANN, Studien zur Sprache der Briefe des hl. Cyprian, 2 vol., Nijmegen 1934 [less ▲]

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See detail4th Doctoral Seminar on Sustainability Research in the Built Environment Book of Abstracts
Attia, Shady ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg

Book published by SBD Lab (2017)

The DS2BE is a joint initiative of research groups working on sustainability issues at 8 Belgian universities: ULBruxelles, VUBrussel, KULeuven, UCLouvain, ULiège, UHasselt, UAntwerpen and UGent ... [more ▼]

The DS2BE is a joint initiative of research groups working on sustainability issues at 8 Belgian universities: ULBruxelles, VUBrussel, KULeuven, UCLouvain, ULiège, UHasselt, UAntwerpen and UGent. Conceived as a platform for PhD researchers whose work engages the built environment at different scales in the framework of sustainability, these seminars provide an excellent opportunity for the doctoral students of the partner institutions to present their ongoing research. They will get feedback from a broad panel of sustainability experts, including invited specialists and peers, for furthering their research. PhD candidates can provide submissions that concern topics, such as: - Sustainable Architecture and Resources, materials, re-cycling /re-use, building elements and envelope, building physics, building construction technology, building renovation, drawing lessons from vernacular, bioclimatic design, regenerative design, biomimetic and integrated design, …, - Sustainability theory, sustainability / environmental assessment at building and neighborhood scales, and at the scale of city and regions, - Sustainable urbanism, urban form, landscape and urban ecology, urban green infrastructure and ecosystem services, public space, density, urban infrastructure & transportation, water urbanism, retrofitting of buildings to the built environment, - Methodologically oriented PhDs focusing on issues related to LCA (Life Cycle Analysis), I-O (Input-Output Analysis), MFA (Material Flow Analysis), simulation techniques, to exploring urban metabolism, industrial ecology, environmental modelling, GIS-based land-use change modelling, to Research by Design. [less ▲]

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See detailDiabetes and the kidney disease risk
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2017, April 26)

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See detailLe financement des cultes selon Gwendolyn Rutten
Husson, Jean-François ULg

Article for general public (2017)

Analysis of the proposal from the chairwoman of the Flemish liberal party aiming at suppressing public finance for churches and philosophical organisations.

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See detailPressure flaking to serrate bifacial points for the hunt during the MIS5 at Sibudu Cave (South Africa)
Rots, Veerle ULg; Lentfer, Carol ULg; Schmid, Viola C. et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(4), 61

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See detailUtilisation du D-galactose et du D-tagatose chez Bacillus sp.: Etude des protéines GalM et PBP4a de B. subtilis et B. amyloliquefaciens et Etude de la voie catabolique PTS-dépendante du D-tagatose chez B. licheniformis.
Van der Heiden, Edwige ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Cette thèse s’intéresse à la métabolisation de deux sources de carbones, le galactose et le tagatose, dans des souches du genre Bacillus. La première partie de la thèse vise à montrer le rôle de GalM, une ... [more ▼]

Cette thèse s’intéresse à la métabolisation de deux sources de carbones, le galactose et le tagatose, dans des souches du genre Bacillus. La première partie de la thèse vise à montrer le rôle de GalM, une galactose mutarotase, dans la métabolisation du galactose chez B. subtilis ATCC 21332 et B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Le gène galM est organisé en opéron avec le gène dacC qui code pour un PBP de faible poids moléculaire, le PBP4a. Des mutants ponctuels et de délétion ont été générés dans le but d’étudier l’implication des produits de cet opéron dans la formation de biofilms in vitro, dans le remodelage de la paroi bactérienne et dans la colonisation de racines de plantes (plants de tomate et Arabidopsis thaliana). Une différence significative de colonisation a été mise en évidence entre la souche sauvage de B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 et son double mutant uniquement sur les racines de plants de tomate. Toutefois, il pourrait s’agir d’un effet indirect lié à la méthode. Après analyse des muropeptides composant le peptidoglycane isolé en phase végétative, aucun rôle in vivo n’a pu être attribué au PBP4a. Cependant, l’attachement de cette protéine à la membrane de la bactérie a pu être mis en évidence. Une couronne de charges positives en surface du domaine II du PBP4a est responsable de cette localisation. La seconde partie de la thèse présente la voie de métabolisation du tagatose découverte chez B. licheniformis. Cette source de carbone est transportée et phosphorylée par les composants du système phosphotransférase (PTS) : EIIAT AG (TagM) et EIIBCT AG (TagL). La fonctionnalité du cluster de gènes identifié dans le génome de la bactérie a été démontrée par des expériences de supplémentation dans deux souches initialement incapables de métaboliser cette source de carbone : B. subtilis et E. coli. Le tagatose est phosphorylé durant son transport au niveau du carbone C1. Le tagatose-1-phosphate, présent principalement sous la forme -pyranose, est ensuite phosphorylé par l’enzyme TagK, une tagatose-1-phosphate kinase. Les paramètres cinétiques de l’enzyme ont été déterminés et la spécificité en faveur du tagatose-1-phosphate a été démontrée. Le tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate généré par TagK est hydrolysé en DHAP et G3P par GatY, une tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase de classe II. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermining fine population structure using iterative pruning
Chaichoompu, Kridsadakorn ULg; Yazew, Fentaw Abegaz; Tongsima, Sissades et al

Poster (2017, April 25)

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See detailReconstructions of the 1900–2015 Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance using the regional climate MAR model
Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Box, Jason; Agosta, Cécile ULg et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2017), 11

With the aim of studying the recent Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) decrease relative to the last century, we have forced the regional climate MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional ... [more ▼]

With the aim of studying the recent Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) decrease relative to the last century, we have forced the regional climate MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional; version 3.5.2) model with the ERA-Interim (ECMWF Interim Re-Analysis; 1979–2015), ERA-40 (1958–2001), NCEP–NCARv1 (National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis version 1; 1948–2015), NCEP–NCARv2 (1979–2015), JRA-55 (Japanese 55-year Reanalysis; 1958–2014), 20CRv2(c) (Twentieth Century Reanalysis version 2; 1900–2014) and ERA-20C (1900–2010) reanalyses. While all these forcing products are reanalyses that are assumed to represent the same climate, they produce significant differences in the MAR-simulated SMB over their common period. A temperature adjustment of +1 °C (respectively −1 °C) was, for example, needed at the MAR boundaries with ERA-20C (20CRv2) reanalysis, given that ERA-20C (20CRv2) is ∼ 1 °C colder (warmer) than ERA-Interim over Greenland during the period 1980–2010. Comparisons with daily PROMICE (Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet) near-surface observations support these adjustments. Comparisons with SMB measurements, ice cores and satellite-derived melt extent reveal the most accurate forcing datasets for the simulation of the GrIS SMB to be ERA-Interim and NCEP–NCARv1. However, some biases remain in MAR, suggesting that some improvements are still needed in its cloudiness and radiative schemes as well as in the representation of the bare ice albedo. Results from all MAR simulations indicate that (i) the period 1961–1990, commonly chosen as a stable reference period for Greenland SMB and ice dynamics, is actually a period of anomalously positive SMB (∼ +40 Gt yr−1) compared to 1900–2010; (ii) SMB has decreased significantly after this reference period due to increasing and unprecedented melt reaching the highest rates in the 120-year common period; (iii) before 1960, both ERA-20C and 20CRv2-forced MAR simulations suggest a significant precipitation increase over 1900–1950, but this increase could be the result of an artefact in the reanalyses that are not well-enough constrained by observations during this period and (iv) since the 1980s, snowfall is quite stable after having reached a maximum in the 1970s. These MAR-based SMB and accumulation reconstructions are, however, quite similar to those from Box (2013) after 1930 and confirm that SMB was quite stable from the 1940s to the 1990s. Finally, only the ERA-20C-forced simulation suggests that SMB during the 1920–1930 warm period over Greenland was comparable to the SMB of the 2000s, due to both higher melt and lower precipitation than normal. [less ▲]

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See detailBlended learning - Pedagogical success factors and development methodology
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg; Parlascino, Emmanuelle ULg; André, Marine ULg et al

Report (2017)

Pedagogical factors that make a blended learning course a success are numerous. But the most critical one is, for blended courses owners, to rely on a safe development methodology. This is why this ... [more ▼]

Pedagogical factors that make a blended learning course a success are numerous. But the most critical one is, for blended courses owners, to rely on a safe development methodology. This is why this document presents as a handbook usable as a ready reference for guiding teachers through the different steps and attention points to be considered in the making of their blended set up. [less ▲]

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