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See detailAssessment of damage and residual load bearing capacity of a concrete slab after fire: Applied reliability-based methodology
Molkens, Tom; Van Coile, Ruben; Gernay, Thomas ULiege

in Engineering Structures (2017), 150

For most fires occurring in buildings with a concrete structural frame, the structural elements do not collapse during fire exposure, and further use of the building after fire may be possible. Fire can ... [more ▼]

For most fires occurring in buildings with a concrete structural frame, the structural elements do not collapse during fire exposure, and further use of the building after fire may be possible. Fire can nevertheless result in a permanent loss of strength and thus a post-fire evaluation of the residual load bearing capacity has to be made to inform decisions on continued use and the need for structural repairs. This evaluation is however particularly difficult due to the many uncertainties associated with both the fire exposure and the characteristics of the structural elements. These uncertainties cannot be neglected when determining the residual capacity since adequate safety is a major societal concern as indicated by the predominance of safety in current design standards and guidance documents. In this paper a comprehensive methodology is presented for the assessment of the residual capacity of concrete structures after exposure to fire. The methodology is introduced through application to a real-life case study of an apartment fire with a focus on the end-span of the affected continuous concrete slab. It results in a reliability-based evaluation of the maximum allowable characteristic value for the imposed load on the slab. The presented methodology is useful to make informed decision about continued use of structures after a fire event. [less ▲]

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See detailCoordinated Supervisory Control of Multi-Terminal HVDC Grids: a Model Predictive Control Approach
Papangelis, Lampros ULiege; Debry, Marie-Sophie; Panciatici, Patrick et al

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2017), 32(6), 4673-4683

A coordinated supervisory control scheme for future multi-terminal High-Voltage Direct-Current (HVDC) grids is proposed. The purpose is to supervise the grid and take appropriate actions to ensure power ... [more ▼]

A coordinated supervisory control scheme for future multi-terminal High-Voltage Direct-Current (HVDC) grids is proposed. The purpose is to supervise the grid and take appropriate actions to ensure power balance and prevent or remove voltage or current limit violations. First, using DC current and voltage measurements, the power references of the various Voltage Sources Converters (VSC) are updated according to participation factors. Next, the setpoints of the converters are smoothly adjusted to track those power references, while avoiding or correcting limit violations. The latter function resorts to Model Predictive Control and a sensitivity model of the system. The efficiency of the proposed scheme has been tested through dynamic simulations of a five-terminal HVDC grid interconnecting two asynchronous AC areas and a wind farm. [less ▲]

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See detailCHAPTER 10 Measures of Wage Moderation in Times of Crisis: The Example of Belgium
Kéfer, Fabienne ULiege

in Laulom, Sylvaine (Ed.) Collective Bargaining Developments in Times of Crisis (2017)

The influence of the crisis on state interventionism in Belgian collective bargaining can be observed in various fields. Wage moderation lends itself particularly well to the demonstration, since a ... [more ▼]

The influence of the crisis on state interventionism in Belgian collective bargaining can be observed in various fields. Wage moderation lends itself particularly well to the demonstration, since a government intervention mechanism set up in 1996 was only activated from – and due to – the economic crisis and has been continuously in use between 2010 and 2016. The mesures of moderating wages are negociated by de representative organisations. The crosssectoral agreement concluded on 22 December 2008 only emerged after very difficult negotiations. It was not been possible to conclude any other agreement of this kind during the eight following years. Since 2010, interventions of public authority in the evolution of wages were subsidiary but reccurrent. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of loading scenarios on buildings due to column damage
Colomer, Carles Segura; Hamra, Lotfi; D'Antimo, Marina ULiege et al

in Structures (2017), Volume 12

The majority of imaginable (and relevant) accidental scenarios on building structures are initiated at the ground level by a column suffering damage, mainly due to a localized explosion or a vehicle ... [more ▼]

The majority of imaginable (and relevant) accidental scenarios on building structures are initiated at the ground level by a column suffering damage, mainly due to a localized explosion or a vehicle impact. The transmitted vertical forces from the column to the structure are decisive in understanding the response of the building and are the subject of analysis of this paper. The classic definition of a column loss scenario is extended here by means of a simplified analytical approach to characterize the axial forces appearing in the column during the damage process. A simple closed-form solution is proposed to define the loading scenario on the structure and compared to the classic rectangular (un)loading approach. In certain cases, the proposed analysis shows a more unfavorable loading situation for the structure, which needs to be accounted for during design. [less ▲]

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See detailAnycast on the Move - A First Look at Mobile Anycast Performance
Wassermann, Sarah ULiege; Rula, John P.; Bustamante, Fabian

Poster (2017, November)

Service providers rely on replication to improve service performance and reliability, placing instances in multiple locations and redirecting clients to nearby copies. Anycast is a common mechanism used ... [more ▼]

Service providers rely on replication to improve service performance and reliability, placing instances in multiple locations and redirecting clients to nearby copies. Anycast is a common mechanism used for redirecting clients in a variety of domains from naming to CDNs and video streaming. IP anycast offers a method for making a service IP address available to a routing system from several locations at once, and clients' requests are directed based on BGP routing policies. For operators, IP anycast offers an economic, scalable, and simple approach to replicated services; BGP provides considerable robustness, adapting to changes in service and network availability. For clients, however, the mapping can be suboptimal, unstable, and seemingly chaotic, as routing policies have not only technical motivations, and routing changes can silently shift traffic from one site to another with a consequent loss of shared state and potential performance impact. Given its wide deployment and interesting tradeoffs, IP anycast has been the focus of much recent measurement work. All prior studies have, nevertheless, focused on wired networks despite the growing dominance of mobile Internet. Today, the number of mobile subscriptions is over 7.4 billion, and users spend over 2x times more hours browsing on their smartphones than on any other device, with the corresponding increase on cellular traffic. We present early results on the first study of anycast performance for mobile users. Our evaluation focuses on two distinct anycast services, K-and F-Root, each providing part the DNS Root zone. Both services are widely replicated with publicly available site locations and unicast IP addresses that allow us to evaluate the relative performance of anycast routing to its "optimal" (in terms of unicast) site location. We collected active measurements from geographically distributed clients on both cellular and WiFi networks from September 2016 until April 2017, using the Aqualab’s ALICE engine [1]. In each experiment clients launched ping and traceroute measurements towards the root servers’ anycast addresses, as well as to five chosen unicast addresses determined to be the closest to the client in terms of geographic distance, at an hourly rate. Clients also recorded their geographic location, anonymized to a 10 km² area. Our findings show that mobile clients are routed to suboptimal replicas in terms of geographical distance, more frequently while on a cellular connection than on WiFi, with a significant impact on perceived service performance. The phenomenon seems to be more pronounced for K-Root than for F-Root. A possible explanation for the long distances would be that our cellular clients are simply far away from all the available replicas. However, our investigations demonstrate that this is not necessarily the case. Finally, we start to explore the root causes for anycast anomalies in cellular networks. We reveal three classes of anomalies: distant client packet gateways, poor anycast routing within Tier-1 networks, and improper routing out of cellular networks. [1] http://aqualab.cs.northwestern.edu/projects/261-alice [less ▲]

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See detailPoésie et cosmologie
Delville, Michel ULiege; Bertrand, Jean-Pierre ULiege

Conference (2017, October 25)

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See detailEffets de la fertilisation NP et de l'irrigation à des périodes critiques sur le rendement et la qualité des fruits du figuier de Barbarie (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.)
Arba, Mohamed ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Selon la classification révisée récemment, les cactus appartiennent à la famille des Opuntiaceae Desv. (Synon. Cactaceae Juss.), dont le genre-type Opuntia Mill. est économiquement le plus important car ... [more ▼]

Selon la classification révisée récemment, les cactus appartiennent à la famille des Opuntiaceae Desv. (Synon. Cactaceae Juss.), dont le genre-type Opuntia Mill. est économiquement le plus important car il comprend un ensemble de variétés qui participent à la plupart des systèmes agricoles des régions arides et semi-arides. Récemment, dans le Maghreb, la culture de plusieurs espèces et variétés s'est développée à de fins de production fruitière commercialisable, c’est-à-dire répondant à des critères de qualité de plus en plus sévères et exigeant des technologies culturales précises. La partie expérimentale de notre étude s'est déroulée pendant deux années dans le Sud du Maroc, région d'Agadir, sur trois variétés représentatives. Les essais ont été réalisés à la ferme expérimentale de l'Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Complexe Horticole d'Agadir (30°36' Nord, 9°36' Est; altitude: 32 m). Le site est caractérisé par des températures moyennes mensuelles qui varient de 8°C en janvier à 31°C en juillet, la température journalière maximale pouvant atteindre 45°C en juillet-aout. La pluviométrie annuelle varie de 100 à 200 mm. La durée moyenne d'ensoleillement est de 8 heures par jour. Un premier objectif de notre étude a été de préciser les réponses quantitatives (rendement en fruits) et qualitatives à des apports modérés d'eau d'irrigation. Un deuxième objectif consistait à évaluer les effets d'apports limités de fertilisation minérale azotée et phosphatée, ces deux éléments majeurs étant les plus susceptibles de se trouver déficitaires dans le contexte pédoclimatique propre à la région. Un troisième objectif a été de préciser la phénologie des trois variétés - surtout les phases de développement floral et fruitier - afin de mettre en évidence d'éventuels impacts des interventions culturales sur la phénologie et de mieux situer les moments de ces interventions en les reliant de manière plus objective à la physiologie du développement. Dans l'étude sur l'irrigation, les variétés utilisées ont été les inermes 'Aissa' et 'Moussa' d'Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. et l'épineuse 'Achefri’ d’O. megacantha Salm Dyck. En première année, caractérisée par un printemps pluvieux, les traitements d'irrigation ont été: (T1) 0 mm, (T2) 30 mm à la floraison et 30 mm au grossissement des fruits et (T3) 30 mm seulement au grossissement des fruits; les irrigations ont été appliquées entre la mi-avril et la mi-juin. Les irrigations T2 et T3 ont eu un effet négatif sur le rendement en fruits des variétés inermes 'Aissa' et 'Moussa' (-2,8 kg/plant) et T2 a eu un effet positif hautement significatif (p <0,01) sur la variété épineuse 'Achefri’ (+ 2,7 kg/plant ou +18 %). La qualité des fruits n'a pas été affectée par l'irrigation. En deuxième année, caractérisée par un printemps sec, les traitements d’irrigation ont été: (T1) 0 mm, (T2) 60 mm à la floraison et 60 mm au grossissement des fruits et (T3) 60 mm seulement au grossissement des fruits; les irrigations ont été apportées entre février et mai. Toutes les variétés ont répondu positivement à l'irrigation, les augmentations de rendement très significatives (p <0,01) ont varié entre 30% pour 'Moussa' avec T2 et 63 % pour 'Achefri' avec T3 par rapport au témoin non irrigué. Toutes les irrigations ont augmenté le nombre et la taille des fruits et ont provoqué une légère diminution de la teneur en sucres totaux et de l'acidité titrable. Les irrigations n'ont eu aucun effet significatif sur les autres paramètres physiques, chimiques et organoleptiques participant à la définition de la qualité. L'essai sur la fertilisation minérale azotée-phosphorique sur le cultivar ‘Moussa’, mettait en comparaison cinq traitements: 0N-0P; 0N-80P; 40N-40P; 60N-0P et 60N-80P (en kg N ha-1- kg P2O5 ha-1). En première année, l'application de N et/ou de P n'a eu aucun effet sur le rendement en fruits. En deuxième année, les apports de 60 unités de N ou de 80 unités de P2O5 ont augmenté (p <0,01) le rendement de resp. 3,0 et 6,1 kg par plante (+ 18% et + 36%), par rapport au témoin. L'apport simultané des deux éléments N et P (60N-80P2O5) a conduit à une augmentation très significative (p <0,01) de 14,9 kg/plante (+ 90%) mettant en évidence une interaction positive très significative (p <0,01) entre ces deux éléments. Les apports de N et de P ont eu des effets positifs sur le nombre de fruits et leurs poids moyens mais ils n'ont pas modifié le contenu de la pulpe, la teneur en jus, l'épaisseur de l’écorce, la matière sèche du jus, le pH, l’acidité titrable, les sucres totaux, ni le °Brix. L'étude portant sur la phénologie et le développement a été effectuée simultanément dans un essai spécifique reprenant les trois variétés et dans chacun des essais d'irrigation et de fertilisation. Elle a d'une part permis de préciser la variabilité du déroulement des phénologies comme résultant des conditions de milieu (climat), de la génétique, des techniques culturales (fumure et irrigation), et de certaines de leurs interactions. Notre attention s'est portée prioritairement sur les effets des techniques culturales maîtrisables. En première année, les essais ont montré que l'émission de bourgeons est plus élevée (p<0,05) chez la variété épineuse que chez les inermes (plus de 6 bourgeons émis/cladode contre moins de 4,5 chez les variétés inermes). En 2ème année, l'irrigation a augmenté (p <0,05) l'émission de bourgeons chez les trois variétés (plus de 7 bourgeons émis/cladode pour chacun des traitements T2 et T3 vs pas plus que 5 pour T1). L'irrigation a aussi allongé la durée de la phase de floraison de ces variétés. La fertilisation a montré des effets allant dans le même sens. Cependant, ni l'irrigation, ni la fertilisation minérale n'ont modifié significativement la durée de la réalisation du stade maturité du fruit, ne permettant pas ainsi d'allonger la saison de récolte. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractérisations phénotypiques des populations de pintades (Numida meleagris) locales élevées au Bénin
Houndonougbo, Pascal ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

La pintade (Numida meleagris) est une volaille d’origine africaine. Son élevage est répandu en Afrique subsaharienne dans un système traditionnel où plusieurs variétés sont élevées en liberté. Ces ... [more ▼]

La pintade (Numida meleagris) est une volaille d’origine africaine. Son élevage est répandu en Afrique subsaharienne dans un système traditionnel où plusieurs variétés sont élevées en liberté. Ces variétés qui diffèrent par le coloris de leur plumage sont très peu caractérisées. Au nord Bénin, l’élevage avicole moderne est peu rencontré et la pintade constitue la pondeuse d’œufs de table dans cette région. Mais, la mortalité élevée, la faible productivité de la pintade locale limitent fortement le développement de son élevage. Il est alors nécessaire de caractériser les variétés de pintades élevées pour mieux les valoriser dans un système amélioré. L’objectif de cette thèse est de caractériser phénotypiquement la population de pintade locale élevée au Bénin afin de mieux valoriser l’espèce dans des programmes d’amélioration et de développement du secteur avicole national. Une revue bibliographique (Article de synthèse) a permis de réaliser l’état des lieux de l’élevage de pintade au Bénin et de mieux orienter nos travaux pour une bonne caractérisation des variétés élevées. L’existence de plusieurs variétés dans les élevages a été soulignée dans la revue bibliographique et nous a amené à des enquêtes et un suivi des élevages de pintades en milieu villageois. Ces enquêtes et suivi nous ont permis de caractériser les pintades locales dans leur milieu d’élevage selon les dire des éleveurs. Ils nous ont aussi permis de dégager selon les éleveurs, les objectifs de production, l’importance socio-économique et culturelle des variétés élevées. L’influence de l’alimentation sur les performances technico-économiques des pintades locales a été soulignée dans l’Article de synthèse et l’Article I. Cette influence a été abordée en évaluant l’influence de l’alimentation sur le potentiel de croissance de la pintade locale en station (Article II). Enfin, des travaux ont été réalisés en station pour mieux caractériser les variétés de pintades rencontrées dans les élevages sur le plan morphologique, performances de croissance et de reproduction (Articles III, IV et V). Ces différents travaux nous ont permis de recenser les différentes variétés de pintades locales élevées au Bénin, les objectifs d’élevage des éleveurs ainsi que quelques difficultés liées au développement de cet élevage. Ces travaux nous ont surtout permis de mieux caractériser les variétés rencontrées. Cette caractérisation pourrait être valorisée pour améliorer la productivité des variétés par sélection. [less ▲]

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See detailIndexing grey multilingual literature in General Practice in the era of Semantic Web
Jamoulle, Marc ULiege; Resnick, Melissa; Ittoo, Ashwin ULiege et al

in The Grey Journal (2017, October 23)

voir abstract ci-dessous

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See detailAnalyse comparée des chaines de valeur du riz dans la plaine de la Ruzizi de la Communauté Economique des pays des Grands Lacs (CEPGL)
Furaha Mirindi, Germaine ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

This thesis aims at carrying out a comparative study of three rice value chains in the Ruzizi plain shared between three countries of the Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL) namely ... [more ▼]

This thesis aims at carrying out a comparative study of three rice value chains in the Ruzizi plain shared between three countries of the Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL) namely Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda. These include the Burundi rice value chain (Imbo Plain), the Congolese rice value chain (Ruzizi Plain) and the Rwandan rice value chain (Bugarama Plain). The diagnostic analysis was about analyzing the rice-farming environment (ie policies and support services accessed by actors along the value chain), analyzing economic performance of these three value chains and to identify the factors that may foster the development of a value chain with a regional potential. For this purpose, the study adopted the field approach, which allowed carrying out investigations during three years (2013 to 2015). The data collection process involved a sample of 228 actors distributed equitably among the three countries. It combined several techniques, namely, direct stakeholder surveys (producers, processors, collectors, wholesalers and retailers), interviews with various support structures and state services, focus group discussions with producer groups and representatives of their organizations. The analysis of these three value chains driving conditions linked the policies implemented in each country and the access by the actors to certain production factors and services such as land, water, credit and the use of inputs. It also highlighted the issue of wage labor and its different roles in the sector. The analysis shows that land policy in Bugarama plain in Rwanda has reduced the cost of land to more than half compared to land costs in Burundi and the DRC. Moreover, this policy is accused by the producers of Bugarama of limiting their entrepreneurial innovations since they can not enlarge their farms (the cultivated area is 0.23 ha). Despite the high cost of water access and management, all rice plots access irrigation water in Rwanda, while the lack of organization and good water management is one of the factors behind low yields in Burundi and the DRC, where 25% and 40% of the rice plots have difficulties in accessing water. Regarding access to agricultural credit, the results reveal that the value chain of rice in the three countries experiences the lack of funding in spite of improvements observed in Rwanda. The rate of access to credit is 17.5% (in Burundi), 16% (in DRC) and 52.8% (in Rwanda), and among them rice farmers with access to formal credits account for only 8% (in Burundi), 10% (in the DRC) and 37.5% (in Rwanda). Analysis of the wage labour force shows that labor is not as widely available as was thought in the study area. Indeed, the DRC is the zone of deficit in wage labor due to the rural exodus and the diversity of economic activities. In the DRC, 60% of the rice workforce used is foreign, including 46% from Burundi and 14% from Rwanda. This mobility of the workforce leads to technology transfers, the supply of inputs at lower cost, but also to consolidate the social cohesion in a post-conflict context. The economic analysis of these three value chains reveals that production costs in the study area remain very high, varying between 292 and 388USD per ton. The highest costs are observed in the DRC where paradoxically there is a better financial performance in terms of profit and added value. The statistical tests carried out on certain parameters identified by the financial analysis undermines the policies regarding the inputs subsidies, agricultural financing and fixing sales prices. Indeed, there are no significant differences between the means of rice farmers who benefit from these policies and those who do not. Paradoxically, statistical analyzes reveal that rice farmers not affected by the pricing policy (they are not price takers) have a good financial performance in terms of income. The three studied areas are complementary in terms of the development potentials of a regional value chain. Indeed, Rwanda has modern underutilization peeling plants that are capable of responding almost entirely to the needs of the whole plain. In addition, Burundi and the DRC should develop land and water potentials to increase production. Several other regional structures in favor of the regional value chain have to be relaunched or strengthened in logic of rice development in the Ruzizi plain. These include the benefits of economic integration of the CEPGL countries. [less ▲]

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See detailVigne guida Confedilizia alla giornata di Varsavia
Gagliani Caputo, Giovanni; Grandjean, Geoffrey ULiege

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailUpscaling winter wheat above-ground biomass measurements using multispectral imagery and 3D data from unmanned aerial vehicle
Michez, Adrien ULiege; Bauwens, Sébastien ULiege; Heinesch, Bernard ULiege et al

Poster (2017, October 20)

Field measurements in the ICOS program are spatially limited whereas the monitored gas fluxes may have a large footprint. Aerial remote sensing has the advantage to monitor large areas. The main goal of ... [more ▼]

Field measurements in the ICOS program are spatially limited whereas the monitored gas fluxes may have a large footprint. Aerial remote sensing has the advantage to monitor large areas. The main goal of our research was to test the potential of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to upscale parameters monitored through the ICOS program. In this study, we specifically focus on above-ground biomass (AGB) monitoring in a winter wheat crop. We used a octocopter drone (X frame type) to acquire a time series over the crop growing season (8 flights from the 14th of February 2017 to the 7th of July 2017) of multispectral imagery covering the ICOS candidate station of Lonzée (Wallonia, Belgium) and the surrounding field crop areas (ca. 0.25 km² per flight). The multispectral camera provides spectral information on the green (550 +/- 50 nm), red (660 +/- 50 nm), near infrared (735 +/- 50 nm) and red-edge (790 +/- 10 nm) wavelengths bands. The UAV also brought an off-the-shelf high resolution (20 Mpx) RGB camera to derive accurate 3D data. We performed a photogrammetric 3D reconstruction of the acquired imagery for every flight survey. The images provided by the RGB sensor (Sony RX100) were used to produce a high spatial resolution Digital Surface Model (0.05 m) and the images acquired by the multispectral sensor were used to derive reflectance maps (0.1 m) in the four wavelengths bands. The four reflectance layers were combined to produce two straight-forward vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Green NDVI). The photogrammetric DSM’s were combined to a LiDAR Digital Terrain Model (public database, survey in winter 2013) to produce Crop Height Models (CHM) of the study area. We used multiple linear regressions modelling in order to predict the AGB of the field crop monitored by the ICOS station of Lonzée with UAV imagery. AGB=a+b*GNDVI+c*NDVI+d *CHM The field crop data were provided by the ICOS program and by field research conducted in experimental field crops close to the flux tower. The field sampling consisted in destructive samples of the crop which were weighted after drying. For each field sample, an associated area was computed based on the outdistance sowing and the number of sampled crops in order to compute an AGB per area unit (t / Ha). Each AGB field estimation was associated to the closest flight date to build a multi date model presenting good performances (r² = 0.85, RMSE = 2.3 t/Ha). We used the same modelling approach to adjust a single date model to derive a predicted AGB map for the 7th of July. The performance of the single date model is lower but still highlights the biomass variation within the crop (r² = 0.71, RMSE = 1.9 t/Ha). The predicted AGB map displays a high spatial heterogeneity with some spatial patterns. Locally low AGB values are found along two old pedestrian whereas higher AGB values can be associated to areas which were sprayed twice (in-between two tractor tracks). Our results highlight the potential of UAV multispectral imagery to monitor the AGB variation within the footprint of the flux tower and highlight the need for repeated field sampling with a precise geolocation to improve the matching between the flight and the field surveys. [less ▲]

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See detailSun-Earth Interaction
Grodent, Denis ULiege

Learning material (2017)

Sun-Earth Interaction

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See detailRadiative Transfer
Grodent, Denis ULiege

Learning material (2017)

Radiative Transfer

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See detailLiaison externe et soignants du domicile: symphonie et fausses notes
Belche, Jean Luc ULiege

Conference (2017, October 20)

Analyser le processus en cours pour mieux le comprendre.

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See detailDo Property Rights and Equality Make Good Bedfellows ? European perspective
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULiege

Conference (2017, October 20)

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See detailLieu de vie, lieu de travail. L'institution et le bien-être
Nisen, Laurent ULiege

Conference (2017, October 20)

Présentation de la session Braises consacrée au bien-être (des travailleurs, des résidents) en institution

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See detailLooking for Smaug and the golden mountain. Are fictional objects Kripkean or Meinongian?
Leclercq, Bruno ULiege

Conference (2017, October 20)

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See detailQuelques en questions en lien avec la loi du 12 janvier 2007
Mormont, Hugo ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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