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See detailRelating pessimistic memory predictions to Alzheimer’s disease brain structure
Genon, Sarah ULg; Simon, Jessica ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg et al

Poster (2017, March 23)

Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) show impairment of episodic memory and related metacognitive processes. The present study examined subjective metacognitive judgments preceding objective memory ... [more ▼]

Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) show impairment of episodic memory and related metacognitive processes. The present study examined subjective metacognitive judgments preceding objective memory retrieval and investigated the neural correlates of pessimistic predictions for successfully retrieved memories in AD patients. AD patients and healthy older participants provided predictive judgements on their recognition performance before retrieval of famous (semantic) and recently learned (episodic) names. Correlations between grey matter volume (GMV) in T1 images and behavioural scores were examined with multivariate (PLS) and univariate (GLM) analyses in AD patients. AD patients showed a significant proportion of successful name recognition preceded by pessimistic prediction (Prediction_low_hits) in episodic memory. PLS revealed that behavioural pattern in AD patients was related with a mainly right lateralized pattern of GMV decrease including medial temporal lobe and posterior cingulate cortex, but also right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). GLM further confirmed that pessimistic prediction negatively correlated with GMV in VLPFC. Thus, impaired monitoring processes (possibly influenced by inaccurate beliefs) allowing inferences about one’s own memory performance are primarily related to decrease GMV in VLPFC in AD patients. [less ▲]

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See detailCréer des applications graphiques en Python avec PyQt5
Denis, Pierre; Cuvelier, Thibaut ULg

Book published by D-BookeR - 1st (2017)

Ce livre s'adresse à toute personne souhaitant développer des interfaces graphiques en Python, de la simple boîte de dialogue à la création d'applications graphiques élaborées, avec menus, barre d'outils ... [more ▼]

Ce livre s'adresse à toute personne souhaitant développer des interfaces graphiques en Python, de la simple boîte de dialogue à la création d'applications graphiques élaborées, avec menus, barre d'outils, redimensionnement à la taille de l'écran, accès à une base de données, etc. Il part du principe que vous connaissez Python et avez des notions en programmation orientée objet, mais que vous débutez avec Qt et la conception d'interfaces graphiques. Qt est une bibliothèque multiplateforme extrêmement complète écrite en C++. PyQt sert de couche de liaison entre ces deux mondes et apporte Qt à l'environnement Python. Ce livre s'appuie sur la version 5.6 de Qt, destinée à être maintenue sur le long terme, tout en signalant le cas échéant d'éventuelles divergences avec la version 5.7. Tous les exemples sont donc réalisés avec PyQt5. Deux approches de développement vous sont proposées : la manière impérative par assemblage de composants (aussi appelés widgets) et la manière déclarative à l'aide du langage QML (Qt Quick). Une même application de gestion de bibliothèque sera développée à titre d'exemple avec chacune des méthodes. Pour aller plus loin, vous aborderez dans une troisième partie, l'affichage 2D interactif avec des vues graphiques (dans une application Qt Widget) et différents types d'affichages avancés avec Qt Quick (Canvas, Qt3D). Eric6 a été choisi comme environnement de développement par défaut. Vous utiliserez également Qt Creator pour développer en QML. [less ▲]

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See detail"888" Tweets on the Art and Science of Internet-Based Investing
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULg

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Here we are! "888" Tweets on The Art and Science of Investing to “show you the way”, to share some observations on the evolution of the world, the behavior of the financial markets, and to illustrate the ... [more ▼]

Here we are! "888" Tweets on The Art and Science of Investing to “show you the way”, to share some observations on the evolution of the world, the behavior of the financial markets, and to illustrate the key heuristics that I learned over the last twenty years. As, without any doubt, I am no Warren Buffett, feel free to disagree and develop you own “theory” of investing. Painful and solitary work... Success is at that price! And, based on what I did - and did not! - achieve, it shouldn’t be hard to do much better... That’s my wish for you! [less ▲]

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See detailThe Belgian election system
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2017, March 21)

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See detailTranscriptome analysis of pancreatic cells across distant species highlights novel important regulator genes.
tarifeno-Saldiva, estefania; Lavergne, Arnaud ULg; Bernard, Alice et al

in BMC Biology (2017), 15

Background Defining the transcriptome and the genetic pathways of pancreatic cells is of great interest for elucidating the molecular attributes of pancreas disorders such as diabetes and cancer. As the ... [more ▼]

Background Defining the transcriptome and the genetic pathways of pancreatic cells is of great interest for elucidating the molecular attributes of pancreas disorders such as diabetes and cancer. As the function of the different pancreatic cell types has been maintained during vertebrate evolution, the comparison of their transcriptomes across distant vertebrate species is a mean to pinpoint genes under strong evolutionary constrains due to their crucial function and which have preserved their selective expression in these pancreatic cell types. Results In this study, RNA-sequencing was performed on pancreatic alpha-, beta- and delta endocrine cells as well as the acinar and ductal exocrine cells isolated from adult zebrafish transgenic lines. Comparison of these transcriptomes identified many novel markers including transcription factors and signaling pathways components specific for each cell type. By performing interspecies comparisons, we identified hundreds of genes with conserved enriched expression in endocrine and exocrine cells among human, mouse and zebrafish. This list includes many genes known as crucial for pancreatic cell formation or function, but also pinpoints many factors whose pancreatic function is still unknown. A large set of endocrine-enriched genes can already be detected at early developmental stages as revealed by the transcriptomic profiling of embryonic endocrine cells, indicating a potential role in cell differentiation. The actual involvement of conserved endocrine genes in pancreatic cell differentiation was demonstrated in zebrafish for myt1b, whose invalidation leads to a reduction of alpha-cells, and for cdx4, selectively expressed in endocrine delta-cells and crucial for their specification. Intriguingly, comparison of the endocrine alpha- and beta-cell subtypes from human, mouse and zebrafish reveals a much lower conservation of the transcriptomic signatures for these two endocrine cell subtypes compared to the signatures of pan-endocrine and exocrine cells. These data suggest that the identity of the alpha- and beta-cells relies on a few key factors, corroborating numerous examples of inter-conversion between these two endocrine cell subtypes. Conclusion. This study highlights both evolutionary conserved and species-specific features that will help to unveil universal and fundamental regulatory pathways as well as pathways specific to human and laboratory animal models such as mouse and zebrafish. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous synthesis and chemical functionalization of emulsion-templated porous polymers using nitroxide-terminated macromolecular surfactants
Mathieu, Kevin ULg; De Winter, Julien; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2017), 8(11), 1850-1861

The design of functional 3D macroporous monoliths has become a necessity for a wide range of applications. Traditional post-modification strategies of porous materials are efficient but often consist in ... [more ▼]

The design of functional 3D macroporous monoliths has become a necessity for a wide range of applications. Traditional post-modification strategies of porous materials are efficient but often consist in tedious multi-steps processes. This work describes a straightforward macromolecular surfactant-assisted method for producing chemically functionalized macroporous polyHIPEs with interconnected structures. Accordingly, high internal phase emulsion-templated polymerizations were implemented in the presence of SG1-terminated amphiphilic copolymers prepared by nitroxide- mediated radical polymerization (NMP). The latter served as both stabilizers and functionalizing agents upon thermal activation of its terminal alkoxyamine and covalent anchoring of the released radical copolymer onto the walls of the scaffold. The effect of the polymerization temperature on the functionalization and openness of the final porous materials was explored. As a result, a range of open-cell styrene and acrylate-based polyHIPEs chemically grafted with PEO were obtained. Moreover, polyHIPEs were also decorated with alkyne-bearing PEO and subsequently modified via CuAAc click chemistry in order to demonstrate the potential of this macromolecular surfactants-assisted functionalization method. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of granular fraction and origin of recycled concrete aggregates on their properties
Zhao, Zengfeng ULg; Courard, Luc ULg; Michel, Frédéric ULg et al

in European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering (2017)

Large quantities of construction and demolition wastes are produced each year. In order to make good use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) in concrete, it is very important to study the influence of ... [more ▼]

Large quantities of construction and demolition wastes are produced each year. In order to make good use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) in concrete, it is very important to study the influence of the granular fraction and the origin of RCA on their properties. In this study, RCA from industrial produced blocks (RCA_Blocks) and slabs (RCA_Slabs) were crushed and then separated into four granular fractions (0/2, 2/6.3, 6.3/14, 14/20 mm). Each granular fraction of RCA was physically characterised. Real RCA from recycling plant were also used for comparison. The results showed that recycled sands offered significantly higher cement paste content (higher bound water content) than coarse recycled aggregates. The fine RCA had therefore a higher water absorption coefficient compared to coarser fractions of RCA. The water absorption of finer fraction of RCA could be extrapolated precisely from the relationship between water absorption and cement paste content (or bound water content) of three coarse fractions of RCA. The values of hardened cement paste content obtained for the RCA_Blocks were lower than those measured on the RCA_Slabs, which was due to a smaller amount of initial cement paste content in blocks. The results showed that RCA_Slabs were more angular than RCA_Blocks. [less ▲]

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See detailConférence-débat avec le Raoul Collectif
Cormann, Grégory ULg; Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailApprentissage et mémoire chez l'enfant et l'adulte trisomique 21
Comblain, Annick ULg

Conference (2017, March 17)

Si le profil langagier des personnes trisomiques 21 est de mieux en mieux connu et décrit, certains aspects du développement et du fonctionnement cognitif des personnes atteintes demeurent encore peu ... [more ▼]

Si le profil langagier des personnes trisomiques 21 est de mieux en mieux connu et décrit, certains aspects du développement et du fonctionnement cognitif des personnes atteintes demeurent encore peu étudiés. Ainsi, les conséquences de la présence d’un chromosome surnuméraire dans leur patrimoine génétique, sur des domaines tels que le développement mnésique, les apprentissages académiques (lecture et arithmétique) ou la problématique du vieillissement cognitif restent peu étudiés et encore sujets à controverse. Même si depuis plusieurs décennies, on sait que la mémoire à court terme verbale des personnes trisomiques 21 est déficitaire, son fonctionnement exact et les conséquences de ce déficit sur le développement d’autres domaines comme le langage oral et la lecture restent relativement peu explorés en regard des nombreuses études descriptives sur les déficits observés dans la maîtrise langage oral. A l'heure ou l'inclusion des personnes atteintes d'une déficience intellectuelle devient une pratique de plus en plus courante et recommandée, il semble essentiel d'approfondir notre connaissance du développement cognitif de ces personnes de manière à mettre en place des moyens adaptés au sein des classes et de potentialiser apprentissages. Par ailleurs, la problématique du vieillissement et plus particulièrement de l’incidence de la maladie d’Alzheimer est devenue, de par l’espérance de vie accrue des personnes trisomiques 21, un sujet de recherche de plus en plus développé. [less ▲]

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See detailMusique et plaisanterie. Ethnographie de trois groupes sociaux (coolooji, ñeeñɓe et mbiruuji) à Djéwol (Mauritanie)
Sow, Aboubakry ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

The village of Djéwol (Mauritania) is located on the right bank of the Sénégal river and its' population is estimated to approximately 9000 inhabitants that are split to two communities, the Haalpulaar ... [more ▼]

The village of Djéwol (Mauritania) is located on the right bank of the Sénégal river and its' population is estimated to approximately 9000 inhabitants that are split to two communities, the Haalpulaar and the Soninké who are organinized into hierarchies. Straddling on both communities are the ñeeñɓe (social mediators) and the riimayɓe (servants), who are the main producers and actors of music. Although sometimes they declare themselves to be Haalpulaar, other times, they call themselves Soninké, mainly because of bilingualism and versatility of their music. For this reason, the ñeeñɓe and riimayɓe are conveyed to all manifestations and festivities that punctuate the life of the village. On such occasions, other genres of music are also played by coolooji (social protesters) and the mbiruuji (fighters), both of these being marginal subclasses who are constantly in conflict with the ñeeñɓe. Based on my position of researcher/musian/haalpulaar/dimo (noble) originating from this village and on my personal journey, while using a reflexive method, I will question the rôle and the place in the society of the three actors previously mentioned : The coolooji, the ñeeñɓe and the mbiruuji. Starting with an ethnological description and an anthropological analysis of the different operating modes of yano (pleasantry procedure) – which allow the denɗiraagal (similar to pleasantry) to be set into motion or not – in their articulation of music, it will be a matter of asking ourselves in which way the the coolooji, the ñeeñɓe and the mbiruuji define themselves and contribute to defining others through yano and music. Thus, the first part of this thesis suggests, beyond the presentation of the historical and social context of the community and Djéwol village, adopting a synoptic perspective on the Haalpulaar and Soninké music of the region near the Sénégal river. The second part, however, will focus on the origin of the different types of relations in jiidugal (kin) and of denɗiraagal (related of pleasantry) which proceed by using the yano, as well as the musical art associated with the later. Finally, the last part will be dedicated to analyzing the interactions, conflicting or not, as well as the absence of interactions between the coolooji, the ñeeñɓe and the mbiruuji while highlighting the similarities and the differences between these three significant figures. In conclusion, the situation will be analyzed in the light of the contemporary reconfigurations and of the evolution of the bounds tied between the denɗiraagal and the surrounding social networks. Le village de Djéwol (Mauritanie) se situe sur la rive droite du fleuve Sénégal et compte aujourd’hui 9000 habitants se répartissant en deux communautés, haalpulaar et soninké, fortement hiérarchisées en leur sein. À cheval sur les deux communautés, se trouvent les ñeeñɓe (médiateurs sociaux) et les riimayɓe (serviteurs) qui sont les principaux producteurs et acteurs de musique. Ceux-ci se déclarent tantôt haalpulaar tantôt soninké, notamment en raison de leur bilinguisme et de la polyvalence de leurs musiques. À ce titre, les ñeeñɓe et les riimayɓe sont conviés à toutes les manifestations et festivités qui rythment la vie du village. En ces occasions, d’autres genres de musiques sont également pratiqués par les coolooji (contestataires sociaux) et les mbiruuji (lutteurs), deux « sous-groupes marginaux » qui sont constamment en conflit avec les ñeeñɓe. En m’appuyant, de manière réflexive, sur ma position de chercheur/musicien/haalpulaar/dimo (noble) originaire du village et sur mon parcours, j’interrogerai le rôle et la place dans la société de trois des acteurs mentionnés : les coolooji, les ñeeñɓe et les mbiruuji. À partir de la description ethnographique et de l’analyse anthropologique des divers modes opératoires du yano (procédé de plaisanterie) – qui permettent d’activer ou de désactiver le denɗiraagal, parenté à plaisanterie – dans leur articulation avec la musique, il s’agira de se demander de quelle manière les coolooji, les ñeeñɓe et les mbiruuji se définissent et contribuent à définir autrui à travers le yano et la musique. Ainsi, la première partie de cette thèse proposera, au-delà de la présentation du contexte historique et social de la commune et du village de Djéwol, un regard synoptique sur les musiques haalpulaar et soninké de la région du fleuve Sénégal. La deuxième partie s’intéressera quant à elle à l’origine des différents types de parenté jiidugal (parenté) et de denɗiraagal (parenté à plaisanterie) procédant par le yano, ainsi qu’à l’art musical associé à ce dernier. Enfin, la dernière partie, consacrée à l’analyse des interactions, conflictuelles ou non, et de l’absence d’interactions entre les coolooji, les ñeeñɓe, et les mbiruuji, mettra en évidence les similitudes et les différences entre ces trois figures. La situation sera finalement analysée à la lumière des reconfigurations contemporaines et de l’évolution des liens de denɗiraagal sur les réseaux sociaux. [less ▲]

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See detailPrésentation du projet de thèse : Performance des entreprises et ressources territoriales multi-échelles en Belgique et Wallonie
Wilmotte, Pierre-François ULg

Conference (2017, March 16)

Présentation du projet doctoral dans le cadre du séminaire des doctorants de l'ASRDLF. L'objectif est de présenter le projet mais aussi de mettre en avant les difficultés éventuelles pour recueillir des ... [more ▼]

Présentation du projet doctoral dans le cadre du séminaire des doctorants de l'ASRDLF. L'objectif est de présenter le projet mais aussi de mettre en avant les difficultés éventuelles pour recueillir des conseils et suggestions de doctorants ou d'enseignants-chercheurs. Le projet a été présenté avec les éléments suivants : contexte, questions de recherche, méthodologie, premiers résultats et éléments attendus. [less ▲]

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See detailImages à entendre. Le vocabulaire sonore des fêtes de 1622 dans les anciens Pays Bas
De Marco, Rosa ULg; Heering, Caroline

Conference (2017, March 16)

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See detailObjectif Mars
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailAssessing microbial diversity changes associated with different tillage and crop residue managements: study case in a loamy soil
Degrune, Florine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

The major challenge of modern agriculture is to produce enough food for the growing population, and at the same time, minimize environmental harm. To meet this challenge, Agroecology aims to replace non ... [more ▼]

The major challenge of modern agriculture is to produce enough food for the growing population, and at the same time, minimize environmental harm. To meet this challenge, Agroecology aims to replace non-renewable external inputs with ecological processes to diversify the ecosystem services and attenuate the dis-services of agriculture. In this light, the ability to manage the soil microbiota, that has great effects on soil quality, is receiving attention. Plowing, the most widely used tillage practice in intensive agriculture has proven its efficiency in maximizing crop productivity, but its long term detrimental effects on soil quality, such as soil erosion and organic matter loss, have called for alternative tillage practices. However, the success of the implementation of these practices in Europe is still debated. In the upper part of Wallonia (Belgium), the soil is highly fertile and 80% of land is occupied mostly by intensive cropping systems. To date in Walloon cropping systems, few studies have explored the soil microbiota in association with different soil managements. Here, we used a meta-barcoding approach to explore differences in soil microbial community structure under two contrasting tillage regimes, conventional (CT) and reduced tillage (RT), either with or without crop residue retention. The effects of these soil treatments were explored at different depths and during the growing season of two crops. Our work demonstrated clear differences in microbial diversity between tillage regimes, but no clear differences between residue management practices. The observed differences appeared to be associated with differences in physical (e.g. structure and moisture) and chemical (nutrients) soil properties. Notably, the nutrient concentrations and moisture were higher under CT than under RT. Overall, soil under CT had higher or similar microbial diversity than under RT. Analysis of β-diversity revealed differences in the taxonomic structure of microbial communities. Certain microbial groups were more abundant under CT than under RT and vice versa. For example, mycorrhizal fungi, economically and ecologically important in agroecosystems, were more abundant under RT. Finally, the magnitude of tillage effects on the microbial diversity varied strongly with the sampling depth, whereas it varied moderately with the growing season. This work highlighted CT was not necessarily unfavourable in maintaining microbial diversity when compared to RT. However, the study raises new questions regarding the impacts of microbial diversity changes on soil functioning. We encourage researchers to undertake further investigations into the functional role of microbiota in order to improve our understanding of agroecosystem functioning and its sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailEnquête sur les pratiques de pâturage en Wallonie: Résultats et conclusions
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

The role of grasslands as a C sink is generally accepted. It is considered that permanent grasslands allow annual C storage rates between 22 and 44 g C/m2/y (Soussana et al., 2010) thereby contributing to ... [more ▼]

The role of grasslands as a C sink is generally accepted. It is considered that permanent grasslands allow annual C storage rates between 22 and 44 g C/m2/y (Soussana et al., 2010) thereby contributing to the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Grassland preservation has several other advantages including a decrease in feeding costs (Dillon et al., 2005), a positive effect on cows’ health (e.g.a decrease in lameness) (Burow et al., 2011) and the provision of a positive image to consumers. Despite these arguments, grazing is decreasing in Europe and grasslands are disappearing. A better understanding of grazing practices and of farmers’ expectations could suggest ways of improving these practices and limiting grassland disappearance. As a result, Walloon dairy farmers were surveyed in December 2015 and the preliminary results are presented below. [less ▲]

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