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See detailAlbertina, más viva que muerta
Dubois, Jacques ULg; Mogollon Zapata, Juan Manuel ULg

in Revista Linguística y Literatura (2017), 72(2),

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See detailEU cultural policy : between economic paradigm and rhetoric on cultural diversity
Vlassis, Antonios ULg; Calligaro, Oriane

Book published by Scientific Journal: Politique européenne (2017)

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See detailIntroduction : La politique européenne de la culture. Entre paradigme économique et rhétorique de la diversité
Calligaro, Oriane; Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in Politique Européenne (2017)

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See detailDu texte à la pratique : pour une sémiotique expérimentale
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Semiotica (2017), 218

Our essay aims at continuing the work of Jacques Fontanille, who developed a Semiotics of Practice next to a Semiotics of Text. This work, and especially Pratiques sémiotiques (2008), takes up a problem ... [more ▼]

Our essay aims at continuing the work of Jacques Fontanille, who developed a Semiotics of Practice next to a Semiotics of Text. This work, and especially Pratiques sémiotiques (2008), takes up a problem already formulated by Jean-Marie Floch in the article « Êtes-vous arpenteurs ou somnambules ? L’élaboration d’une typologie comportementale des voyageurs du métro » (1990). We will initially retrace the debate about the epistemological relationship between text and practice, outlining the forms of enunciative praxis. Secondly, we propose the concept of we will consider the visualization that we call ‘notation’: this analytical form of mediation between text and practice does not have the same status of in-vivo textualisations, but it works like an ex-post reconstruction which highlights the main gestures and exchanges while performing their grammaticalization. A more general aim of this essay is an enquiry into the legitimate objects of textual semiotics: what are the objects that it can analyze without betraying its principle of immanence, but also without being unable to analyze practice [less ▲]

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See detailSepsis prediction in critically ill patients by platelet activation markers on ICU admission: a prospective pilot study
LAYIOS, Nathalie ULg; Delierneux, Céline ULg; Hego, Alexandre ULg et al

in Intensive Care Medicine Experimental (2017), 5(1), 32

Background: Platelets have been involved in both surveillance and host defense against severe infection. To date, whether platelet phenotype or other hemostasis components could be associated with ... [more ▼]

Background: Platelets have been involved in both surveillance and host defense against severe infection. To date, whether platelet phenotype or other hemostasis components could be associated with predisposition to sepsis in critical illness remains unknown. The aim of this work was to identify platelet markers that could predict sepsis occurrence in critically ill injured patients. Results: This single-center, prospective, observational, 7-month study was based on a cohort of 99 non-infected adult patients admitted to ICUs for elective cardiac surgery, trauma, acute brain injury and post-operative prolonged ventilation and followed up during ICU stay. Clinical characteristics and severity score (SOFA) were recorded on admission. Platelet activation markers, including fibrinogen binding to platelets, platelet membrane P-selectin expression, plasma soluble CD40L, and platelet-leukocytes aggregates were assayed by flow cytometry at admission and 48h later, and also at the time of sepsis diagnosis (Sepsis-3 criteria) and 7 days later for sepsis patients. Hospitalization data and outcomes were also recorded. Of the 99 patients, 19 developed sepsis after a median time of 5 days. SOFA at admission was higher; their levels of fibrinogen binding to platelets (platelet-Fg) and of D-dimers were significantly increased compared to the other patients. Levels 48h after ICU admission were no longer significant. Platelet-Fg % was an independent predictor of sepsis (P = 0.030). By ROC curve analysis cutoff points for SOFA (AUC=0.85) and Platelet-Fg (AUC=0.75) were 8 and 50%, respectively. The prior risk of sepsis (19%) increased to 50% when SOFA was above 8, to 46% when Platelet-Fg was above 50%, and to 87% when both SOFA and Platelet-Fg were above their cutoff values. By contrast, when the two parameters were below their cutoffs, the risk of sepsis was negligible (3.8%). Patients with sepsis had longer ICU and hospital stays and higher death rate. Conclusion: In addition to SOFA, platelet-bound fibrinogen levels assayed by flow cytometry within 24h of ICU admission help identifying critically ill patients at risk of developing sepsis. [less ▲]

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See detailLa terminologie grecque et latine du plurilinguisme
Rochette, Bruno ULg

Conference (2017, November 24)

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See detailHarmful tax competition within the European Union: from tax rulings to financial transaction taxes
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg

Scientific conference (2017, November 24)

In this presentation, I will outline how the EU constitutional framework reacts against harmful tax competition, in addition to showcasing the limits and negative consequences of that approach.

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See detailInvestigating the effects of hydrodynamics and mixing on mass transfer through the free-surface in stirred tank bioreactors
de Lamotte, Anne ULg; Delafosse, Angélique ULg; Calvo, Sébastien ULg et al

in Chemical Engineering Science (2017), 172

In stirred-tank bioreactors, flow structures of various length and time scales are implied in scalar transport phenomena, such as gas species transfer through the liquid free-surface and their ... [more ▼]

In stirred-tank bioreactors, flow structures of various length and time scales are implied in scalar transport phenomena, such as gas species transfer through the liquid free-surface and their homogenization in the bulk. A proper understanding of the underlying mechanisms, i.e. hydrodynamics, mixing and mass transfer, and of their interactions is required to design and develop reliable and efficient production-scale bioprocesses. The objective of the present work is to experimentally investigate the coupling between gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen with mixing efficiency and circulation patterns inside an arbitrarily chosen stirred-tank configuration aerated through the liquid free-surface, a baffled 20 L-vessel agitated by two Rushton turbines. Based on global parameter values, the most appropriate rotating speed, N = 300 rpm, is selected in order to further study local hydrodynamic quantities using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), as well as mixing and mass transfer dynamics using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). The results obtained with these local experimental methods are analyzed in detail. Their averages are first successfully compared to global data. Statistical analysis of their spatial distributions show that large-scale flow patterns significantly influence mass transfer through the free-surface of the stirred tank. Even if global measurements show that global characteristic times for mixing and mass transfer differ by two orders of magnitude, local experimental characterization shows persistent vertical gradients of dissolved gas concentrations. So the dissolved gas concentration is not as perfectly uniform as one might expect. [less ▲]

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See detailUsage des boîtiers de vote électronique et développement professionnel de l’enseignant-universitaire
Detroz, Pascal ULg; Younes, Nathalie

Conference (2017, November 16)

Les boitiers de vote font l’objet de très nombreux articles. Les auteurs cherchent par exemple à voir si l’utilisation de cet outil a un effet sur la motivation des étudiants et leur participation au ... [more ▼]

Les boitiers de vote font l’objet de très nombreux articles. Les auteurs cherchent par exemple à voir si l’utilisation de cet outil a un effet sur la motivation des étudiants et leur participation au cours (Caldwell, 2007), sur leur engagement (Mc Gowan et Gunderson,2010), sur le climat de classe (Bain et Przybyla, 2009) ou encore sur les apprentissages qu’ils réalisent (Preszler et al., 2007). Au final, comme souvent lorsqu’il s’agit de technologie, il semble que ce soit la pédagogie supportée par l’outil qui fasse la différence : l’usage sera pertinent s’il entre en résonance et en concordance avec une pédagogie efficace. Certes, l’outil en lui-même peut avoir un effet sur la pédagogie. Influencer, de par son fonctionnement - les possibilités qu’il offre, parfois les contraintes qu’il fait peser - la manière de concevoir des dispositifs pédagogiques. Il peut ainsi modifier le rapport des enseignants à leur pédagogie, c’est-à-dire, finalement, stimuler ou catalyser le développement professionnel des enseignants dans le domaine de la pédagogie universitaire. L’effet de l’outil et de son usage sur ce développement professionnel est au cœur de notre article. En effet, nous avons greffé - sur deux dispositifs d’accompagnement technopédagogique d’enseignants novices dans le domaine des BVE - un dispositif de recherche observant l’effet de cet usage accompagné. L’un de ces dispositifs d’accompagnement était court : l’enseignant est interviewé à deux reprises et observé lors d’une séance de cours durant laquelle les BVE sont utilisés. L’autre est plus long et comprend des autoconfrontations, des interviews, le recueil de l’avis des étudiants… La méthodologie utilisée dans cette étude, de type qualitatif, confirme notre intuition de départ : l’usage accompagné de BVE chez des enseignants novices peut, sous certaines conditions dont nous ferons état lors de la communication, accélérer le développement professionnel de ces derniers. [less ▲]

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See detailPratiques d’évaluation des acquis, ancienneté et attitudes face à l’évaluation
Romainville, Marc; Detroz, Pascal ULg; Auquière, Amélie ULg et al

Conference (2017, November 16)

La présente communication est issue d’une recherche plus globale visant à identifier et à mieux comprendre les pratiques d’évaluation des acquis des étudiants auxquelles recourent les enseignants de ... [more ▼]

La présente communication est issue d’une recherche plus globale visant à identifier et à mieux comprendre les pratiques d’évaluation des acquis des étudiants auxquelles recourent les enseignants de l’enseignement supérieur et en particulier les facteurs personnels (ancienneté, attitudes vis-à-vis de l’évaluation…) et contextuels (année d’étude, taille du groupe, disciplines…) qui influencent ces pratiques. Les données ont été recueillies en 2016, d’une part, via une enquête en ligne (élaborée à l’aide du logiciel d’enquêtes Qualtrics) auprès d’enseignants de l’enseignement supérieur belge francophone que ce soit à l’Université ou en Hautes écoles (2292 réponses) et, d’autre part, via 37 entretiens semi-structurés individuels réalisés auprès d’un échantillon de ces mêmes enseignants dans des filières d’études contrastées. Les résultats présentés dans le cadre de cette communication ont trait à l’impact de deux variables personnelles : l’ancienneté des enseignants et leurs attitudes vis-à-vis de l’évaluation. Autrement dit, on cherchera à savoir si l’ancienneté et le développement professionnel qui l’accompagne traditionnellement ont des incidences sur le type de pratiques d’évaluation des acquis des enseignants. En particulier, recourent-ils à des outils de plus en plus diversifiés ou ont-ils tendance à se spécialiser dans l’un ou l’autre ? Et si oui, pourquoi ? Accentuent-ils par ailleurs le recours à l’évaluation continue par rapport au poids du contrôle terminal ? On cherchera ensuite à comprendre comment les pratiques se reconfigurent en fonction des attitudes des enseignants vis-à-vis de l’évaluation et en particulier vis-à-vis de sa fonction et de son rapport à l’apprentissage : dans quel sens une conception davantage intégrative de l’évaluation colore-t-elle les pratiques déclarées d’évaluation ? [less ▲]

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See detailDwelling on Dwelling: Home and Nature in (Native) American Literature
Lombard, David ULg

Conference (2017, November 16)

As Greg Garrard stresses, “[i]nterpretation and critique of the various inflections of dwelling is a major task for ecocritics interested in a predominantly political, rather than moral or spiritual ... [more ▼]

As Greg Garrard stresses, “[i]nterpretation and critique of the various inflections of dwelling is a major task for ecocritics interested in a predominantly political, rather than moral or spiritual, project of cultural critique that can take us beyond pastoral and nature writing, from the landscapes of leisure to the uneven terrain of real work” (2012). In this paper, I will examine American literary texts dealing with representations of dwelling or “home” as a refuge from the “tensions” or problems caused by modern civilisation and technology. Starting with Thoreau’s Walden (1854), I will focus on the relationships between such refuges, the natural environment, and socio-political critique. Indeed, Thoreau’s work displays a philosophy on nature and dwelling that has influenced other writers to ponder on the negative effects that modern technologies, capitalism and consumerism have had on the human self and, more largely, on our physical environment. Adopting an ecocritical perspective, I will therefore consider Thoreau’s stay in Walden Pond as well as Edward Abbey’s house trailer (Desert Solitaire, 1968), Christopher McCandless’s “magic bus” as depicted in Jon Krakauer’s Into the Wild (1992) or Ken Ilgunas’s “vandwelling” (Walden on Wheels, 2013) to study the socio-political and environmental concerns raised by dwelling experiences in such peculiar or isolated “homes”. Finally, I will also briefly discuss the Native American perspective through an analysis of Leslie Marmon Silko’s novel Ceremony (1977) as an example of the Laguna Pueblo’s perception of nature or the “land” as “home”. [less ▲]

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See detailUn autre regard sur la participation des écoles et des élèves à l’enquête du PISA
Raiche, Gilles; Béland, Sébastien; Magis, David ULg

Conference (2017, November 16)

Le Programme international pour le suivi des acquis des élèves (PISA) a pour objectif de produire des indicateurs sur les habiletés et les connaissances qui contribuent au succès des élèves, des écoles ... [more ▼]

Le Programme international pour le suivi des acquis des élèves (PISA) a pour objectif de produire des indicateurs sur les habiletés et les connaissances qui contribuent au succès des élèves, des écoles, des systèmes éducatifs et des environnements d’apprentissage (CMEC, 2015, p. 7). Depuis 2000, l’enquête du PISA est planifiée à tous les trois ans pour les élèves de 15 ans en ciblant spécifiquement les matières suivantes : la compréhension de l’écrit, la culture mathématique et la culture scientifique. Dans le cadre de la dernière passation, les résultats des Canadiens à cette enquête ont été salués dans l’ensemble du pays : les élèves se classent dans le groupe des pays les plus performants pour toutes les disciplines couvertes. Par contre, le taux de participation des écoles ainsi que les taux d’exclusions des élèves au regard de divers handicaps, qui pourraient éventuellement avoir un impact sur les résultats et le classement international, ont été critiqués à travers le pays. Cette présentation a comme objectif d’étudier le rendement des élèves canadiens au programme international des acquis scolaires (PISA) entre 2000 à 2015 en fonction de différentes caractéristiques relatives à la participation des écoles et au taux d’exclusion des élèves présentant certains handicaps. Des modèles de régression linéaire à niveaux multiples sont utilisés à cette fin. [less ▲]

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See detailX-ray study of bow shocks in runaway stars
De Becker, Michaël ULg; del Valle, M.V.; Romero, G.E. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 471(4), 4452-4464

Massive runaway stars produce bow shocks through the interaction of their winds with the interstellar medium, with the prospect for particle acceleration by the shocks. These objects are consequently ... [more ▼]

Massive runaway stars produce bow shocks through the interaction of their winds with the interstellar medium, with the prospect for particle acceleration by the shocks. These objects are consequently candidates for non-thermal emission. Our aim is to investigate the X-ray emission from these sources. We observed with XMM-Newton a sample of 5 bow shock runaways, which constitutes a significant improvement of the sample of bow shock runaways studied in X-rays so far. A careful analysis of the data did not reveal any X-ray emission related to the bow shocks. However, X-ray emission from the stars is detected, in agreement with the expected thermal emission from stellar winds. On the basis of background measurements we derive conservative upper limits between 0.3 and 10 keV on the bow shocks emission. Using a simple radiation model, these limits together with radio upper limits allow us to constrain some of the main physical quantities involved in the non-thermal emission processes, such as the magnetic field strength and the amount of incident infrared photons. The reasons likely responsible for the non-detection of non-thermal radiation are discussed. Finally, using energy budget arguments, we investigate the detectability of inverse Compton X-rays in a more extended sample of catalogued runaway star bow shocks. From our analysis we conclude that a clear identification of non-thermal X-rays from massive runaway bow shocks requires one order of magnitude (or higher) sensitivity improvement with respect to present observatories. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Rhetorik des Friedens von Romain Rolland: ein Einfluß von Nietzsche
Franck, Thomas ULg

Conference (2017, November 11)

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See detailLe corps, le territoire et le temps du sujet borderline
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2017, November 09)

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See detailImpact of spatio-temporal shade dynamics on wheat growth and yield, perspectives for temperate agroforestry
Artru, Sidonie ULg; Garré, Sarah ULg; Dupraz, Christian et al

in European Journal of Agronomy (2017)

A stumbling block to the adoption of silvoarable agroforestry systems is the lack of quantitative knowledge on the performance of different crops when competing for resources with trees. In North-Western ... [more ▼]

A stumbling block to the adoption of silvoarable agroforestry systems is the lack of quantitative knowledge on the performance of different crops when competing for resources with trees. In North-Western Europe, light is likely to be the principal limiting resource for understorey crops, and most agronomic studies show a systematic reduction of final yield as shade increases. However the intensity of the crop response depends on both the environmental conditions and the shade characteristics. This study addressed the issue by monitoring winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth, productivity and quality under artificial shade provided by military camouflage shade-netting, and using the Hi-sAFe model to relate the artificial shade conditions to those applying in agroforestry systems. The field experiment was carried out over two consecutive years (2013–14 and 2014–15) on the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium. The shade structures recreated two shade conditions: periodic shade (PS) and continuous shade (CS), with the former using overlapping military camouflage netting to provide discontinuous light through the day, and the latter using conventional shade cloth. The experiment simulated shading from a canopy of late-flushing hybrid walnut leaves above winter wheat. Shading was imposed 16 (2013–14) and 10 (2014–15) days before flowering and retained until harvest. The crop experienced full light conditions until the maximum leaf area index stage (LAImax) had been reached. In both years, LAI followed the same dynamics between the different treatments, but in 2013–2014 an attack of the take-all disease (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) reduced yields overall and prevented significant treatment effects. In season 2014–15 the decrease in global radiation reaching the crop during a period of 66 days (CS: – 61% and PS: – 43%) significantly affected final yield (CS: – 45% and PS: – 25%), mainly through a reduction of the average grain weight and the number of grain per m2. Grain protein content increased by up to 45% under the CS treatment in 2015. Nevertheless, at the plot scale, protein yield (t/ha) did not compensate for the final grain yield decrease. The Hi-sAFe model was used to simulate an agroforestry plot with two lines of walnut trees running either north-south or east-west. The levels of artificial shade levels applied in this experiment were compared to those predicted beneath trees growing with similar climatic conditions in Belgium. The levels used in the CS treatment are only likely to occur real agroforestry conditions on 10% of the cropped area until the trees are 30 years old and only with east-west tree row orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative profiling of endogenous polar metabolites from low volumes of blood samples
Kok, Miranda ULg; Fillet, Marianne ULg

Conference (2017, November 08)

The etiology of many diseases is not yet completely understood. The involved biological processes might be resolved using a metabolomics approach, because metabolomics provides unique challenging ... [more ▼]

The etiology of many diseases is not yet completely understood. The involved biological processes might be resolved using a metabolomics approach, because metabolomics provides unique challenging opportunities to correlate the metabolome with a physiological or pathophysiological status and provides a vision on the relationships between genes, gene expression, environment and lifestyle. Here, we present the development of two ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) methods coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) for the separation and quantitation of polar metabolites in blood samples. A reversed-phase UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed to quantify anionic energetic metabolites, whereas hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-MS/MS has been used to determine amino acids. Two sample pretreatment procedures have been developed for an optimal recovery of the respective metabolites from whole blood samples. One method involved the precipitation of proteins with organic solvents and acids. In addition, volumetric absorptive microsampling has been used for the sample preparation. Small and accurate quantities of biological fluids (10 or 20 µL) can be collected with this sampling technique, which is of great interest for volume-limited samples or serial collection of samples. The developed methods have been validated and will be applied to determine differences in metabolite concentrations between blood samples from patients and controls. This can lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of diseases and can open new therapeutic perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailConstructing A Green Circular Society
Attia, Shady ULg

in Moula, Munjur; Pekka, Oinas; Jaana, Sorvari (Eds.) et al Constructing A Green Circular Society (2017)