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See detailPratiques de l'enquête (Ouvrage collectif aux Presses Universitaires de Liège, en cours d'élaboration)
Pieron, Julien ULg; Thoreau, François ULg

Book published by Presses Universitaires de Liège (2015)

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See detailBrain stimulation for patients with disorders of consciousness
Thibaut, Aurore ULg; BODART, Olivier ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg

in Canavero, Sergio (Ed.) Surgical Principles of Therapeutic Cortical Stimulation (2015)

There is a long history of brain stimulation in medical science, and it was tested for years to try to treat several neurological diseases. Research has long been focused on some cortical areas and deep ... [more ▼]

There is a long history of brain stimulation in medical science, and it was tested for years to try to treat several neurological diseases. Research has long been focused on some cortical areas and deep brain structures like the prefrontal cortex and the thalamus. On the other hand, the treatment choices for patients with severe brain injury resulting in disorders of consciousness are still limited and research in this field remains challenging. In the current literature, only a few techniques of brain stimulation were studied scientifically in this population of patients. We will here describe noninvasive techniques, namely transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, which permit to stimulate the brain through the scalp. Next, we will discuss the current status of deep brain stimulation as treatment for patients with disorders of consciousness. Finally we will develop hypothesis to explain the mechanism of action of these means of brain stimulation. We will see that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation studies showed encouraging results, with improvements in the behavioral signs of consciousness of severely brain injured patients, both chronic and acute, traumatic or non-traumatic, without influence of the stimulation side. Deep brain stimulation showed more impressive and extensive behavioral improvement after the implantation of an electrical stimulator in the intralaminar nuclei. However, this procedure is riskier and the number of patients who can benefit from this intervention are still limited. These therapeutic approaches are still in their infancy. In the years to follow, interventions should multiply and therapeutic measures should be more accessible, controlled and effective. [less ▲]

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See detailInscriptiones Lesbi, Tenedi, Nesi. Concordance des éditions
Famerie, Etienne ULg

in Horos (2015), 26-29

Concordance of the whole corpus of inscriptions of Lesbus, in relation with the inventory of the collection stored in the Archaeological Museum (Lesbus)

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See detailArts en diaspora Congolese en Belgique: imaginaires et relations postcoloniales
Demart, Sarah ULg; Baumerder, Joelle; Gilsoul, Sarah

Book published by Africulture (2015)

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See detailAssessment of contaminant levels and trophic relations at a World Heritage Site by measurements in a characteristic shorebird species
Schwemmer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Das, Krishna ULg et al

in Environmental Research (2015), 136

The River Elbe is responsible for influxes of contaminants into the Wadden Sea World Heritage Site. We investigated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), oxychlordane (OxC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB ... [more ▼]

The River Elbe is responsible for influxes of contaminants into the Wadden Sea World Heritage Site. We investigated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), oxychlordane (OxC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ-HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood and feathers from Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus; n=28) at the Elbe and compared it with a non-riverine site about 90 km further north. (1) Mean levels of all contaminants in feathers and serum were significantly higher at the river (ƩPCBs: 27.6 ng/g feather, 37.0 ng/ml serum; ƩDDTs: 5.3 ng/g feather, 4.4 ng/ml serum) compared with the non-riverine site (ƩPCBs: 6.5 ng/g feather, 1.2 ng/ml serum; ƩDDTs: 1.4 ng/g feather, 0.5 ng/ml serum). Mean ƩHCH and HCB levels were <1.8 ng/g in feather and <1.8 ng/ml in serum at both sites. (2) Levels of most detectable compounds in serum and feathers were significantly related, but levels were not consistently higher in either tissue. (3) There was no significant relationship between trophic level in individual oystercatchers (expressed as δ15N) or the degree of terrestrial feeding (expressed as δ13C) and contaminant loads. (4) PBDEs were not detected in significant amounts at either site. The results of this study indicate that the outflow from one of Europe’s largest river systems is associated with significant historical contamination, reflected by the accumulation of contaminants in body tissues in a coastal benthivore predator. [less ▲]

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See detailThe origin and control of mega-gullies in Kinshasa (D.R. Congo)
Makanzu Imwangana, Fils; Vandecasteele, Ine; Trefois, Philippe et al

in Catena (2015), 125

This study aims to investigate the relation between mega-gully (> 5 m width) distribution and urbanization in Kinshasa (D.R. Congo), to establish what governs mega-gully location and plan form and to ... [more ▼]

This study aims to investigate the relation between mega-gully (> 5 m width) distribution and urbanization in Kinshasa (D.R. Congo), to establish what governs mega-gully location and plan form and to illustrate the concepts behind mega-gully treatment. For this purpose, the diachronic distribution of mega-gullies has been mapped in Kinshasa. All mega-gullies have been reported in ArcGis 9.3 on the orthorectified SPOT 2007 image. A newly elaborated DEM enables the mega-gullies to be placed in their natural topographical context. The GIS inventory on the SPOT 2006/2007 anaglyph indicates the mega-gully situation in the high town of Kinshasa 5 years ago: 308 mega-gullies with a cumulated length of 94.7 km, a mean drainage density of 0.4 km km− 2 and an average width and depth of 17 m and 6 m respectively. On the WorldView 1 (WV1) coverage, the number of mega-gullies has more than doubled between 2007 and 2010 from 160 to 334. The study shows that mega-gullies only develop within the urbanized perimeter of the high town of Kinshasa and only 5 to 10 years after incipient urbanization. The study also indicates that neither the location, the plan form or the downslope course of mega-gullies in Kinshasa are controlled by the natural topography. Forty-three point eight percent of the mega-gullies in Kinshasa are ‘axial’, occupying urban structures which function as artificial runoff drainage lines: roads, tarred or not, with or without side-road trenches, gutters in all forms and materials from concrete to sand, also foot paths and further all artificial runoff drainage lines. The study reveals that every mega-gully is directly or indirectly induced by human activities, but that every gully also finally ends to grow after an initial phase of sudden development. Mega-gully treatment follows two principles, often combined. The first is to stop the alimentation of the mega-gully head with water. The second includes a complete stabilization of the channel and walls inside the mega-gully. This study emphasizes that gully prevention can basically be achieved by control of the runoff discharges in the artificial stream network, as well as beside the roads. [less ▲]

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See detailResponse of plant functional traits during the restoration of calcareous grasslands from forest stands
Piqueray, Julien; Ferroni, Lucia; Delescaille, Louis-Marie et al

in Ecological Indicators (2015)

In this survey, we studied the response of plant functional traits to calcareous grassland restoration in the Calestienne region, Southern Belgium (restoration protocol: forest clear-cutting followed by ... [more ▼]

In this survey, we studied the response of plant functional traits to calcareous grassland restoration in the Calestienne region, Southern Belgium (restoration protocol: forest clear-cutting followed by grazing at all sites). We considered traits related to dispersal, establishment, and persistence that integrate the main challenges of plants to re-establish and survive in restored areas. Functional traits were compiled from databases and compared among (i) pre-restoration and young restoration forests; (ii) restoration areas of different ages; and (iii) old restorations and reference grasslands. The following questions were addressed: (i) What is the early response (2-4 years) in terms of plant functional trait following one restorative clear-cut event? (ii) What plants functional trait responses occur from restorative management (i.e. sheep and goat grazing)? (iii) Which differences still persist between the oldest restored parcels (10-15 years), and the historical reference grasslands? Forest clear-cuts induced several changes among functional traits, including decreased mean seed mass and certain vegetative traits (i.e. decreased phanerophytes, branching species; and increased short lifespan species i.e. annuals and biennials). During restorative management, clonal, epizoochorous and autumn germinating species were favored. Despite numerous other changes during this phase, many differences remained compared to reference grasslands. In particular, geophytes, mycorrhizal and evergreen species abundance were not approaching reference grassland values. The observed pattern helped to draw inferences on the possible mechanisms operating under vegetation recovery following restorative forest clear-cut and subsequent management were identified and described in this study. Results indicated grazing was an important factor, which increased epizoochorous species, and autumn germinating taxa that filled niches in vegetation opened by summer grazing animals. Finally, differences between old restoration and reference grasslands emphasized that management should focus on reduction in soil fertility, and geophyte rhizomatous grasses. Long-term monitoring is vital to assess if management plans are effective in the complete restoration of species functional trait assemblages. [less ▲]

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See detailReview on greenhouse gas emissions from pig houses: Production of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide by animals and manure
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment (2015)

The environmental impacts of livestock production are attracting increasing attention, especially the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Currently, pork is the most widely consumed meat product in the ... [more ▼]

The environmental impacts of livestock production are attracting increasing attention, especially the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Currently, pork is the most widely consumed meat product in the world, and its production is expected to grow in the next few decades. This paper deals with the production of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) by animals and by manure from pig buildings, with a focus on the influence of rearing techniques and nutrition. GHG emissions in piggeries originate from animals through CO2 exhalation and CH4 enteric fermentation, and from manure through the release of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The level of the CO2 exhalation (E-CO2, pig) depends on the physiological stage, the body weight (BW), the production level and the feed intake of the animals concerned. Enteric CH4 (E-CH4, pig) is principally related to dietary fibre intake and the fermentative capacity of the pig’s hindgut. Based on a review of the literature, the following equations are proposed in order to estimate E-CO2, pig (in kg day_1) and E-CH4,pig (in g day_1) for fattening pigs: E-CO2, pig = 0.136 _ BW0.573; E-CH4,pig = 0.012 _ dRes; with BW (in kg) and dRes for digestible residues (in g day_1). Numerous pathways are responsible for GHG production in manure. In addition, the microbial, physical and chemical properties of manure interact and modulate the level of emissions. Influencing factors for removal systems for both liquid and solid fractions of manure have been investigated. A large range of parameters showing an impact on the level of GHG production from pig houses has been reported. However, few of these can be considered unquestionably as GHG mitigation techniques because some strategies have shown contradictory effects depending on the gas, the circumstances and the study. Nevertheless, frequent manure removal seems to be an efficient means to reduce concurrently CO2-, CH4- and N2O-emissions from pig buildings for both slatted and bedded floor systems. Manure removal operations may be associated with specific storage conditions and efficient treatment in order to further reduce emissions. Several feeding strategies have been tested to decrease GHG emissions but they seem to be ineffective in reducing emissions both significantly and durably. In general, good management practices that enhance zootechnical performance will have beneficial consequences on GHG emission intensity. Taking into account the results described in the literature regarding CO2-, CH4- and N2O-production from animals and manure in pig houses, we estimate total GHG emissions to 448.3 kg CO2equiv. per slaughter pig produced or 4.87 kg CO2equiv. per kg carcass. The fattening period accounts for more than 70% of total emissions, while the gestation, lactation and weaning periods each contribute to about 10% of total emissions. Emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O contribute to 81, 17 and 2% of total emissions from pig buildings, representing 3.87, 0.83 and 0.11 kg CO2equiv. per kg carcass, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailMamlūk Cairo: A Crossroad for Embassies
Bauden, Frédéric ULg; Dekkiche, Malika

Book published by Brill Academic Publishers (2015)

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See detailDevelopment of thermal comfort models for various climatic zones of North-East India
Singh, Manoj Kumar; Mahapatra, Sadhan; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Sustainable Cities and Society (2015), 14

Thermal comfort study provides crucial information about thermal performance of naturally ventilated buildings. Humphreys and Auliciems comfort model uses indoor and outdoor temperatures to predict ... [more ▼]

Thermal comfort study provides crucial information about thermal performance of naturally ventilated buildings. Humphreys and Auliciems comfort model uses indoor and outdoor temperatures to predict comfort temperatures. It is found that the comfort temperatures obtained by using these methods do not take into account the occupant behavioral adaptability to a particular climatic zone. This demands development of new set of comfort models based on local environmental parameters, socio-cultural setup and behavioral action. Analysis shows that four major variables like indoor and outdoor temperature, relative humidity and clothing pattern plays an important role in defining comfort and greatly influence the occupant’s perception and acceptance on thermal comfort. In this study, comfort models are developed based on these variables. The computed neutral temperatures based on the models are compared with the comfort temperatures obtained through comfort survey. The models are developed using the measured data of January and July months and validated with the measured data of April and October months. This study also concludes that it is not possible to obtain a generalized thermal comfort model for all climatic zone because adaptation process, expectation and perception of people are region specific and governed by local socio-cultural requirement. [less ▲]

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See detailPour une pensée politique des émotions : Kluge et Ferenczi dans Die Macht der Gefühle
Cormann, Grégory ULg; Hamers, Jérémy ULg

in Caeymaex, Florence; Goddard, Jean-Christophe (Eds.) Critiques en crise. Enjeux et significations de la critique aujourd'hui (2015)

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See detailEnfance, culture, morale. Sartre et les relectures d'Alain
Cormann, Grégory ULg

in Depraz, Natalie (Ed.) Alain philosophe rouennais (2015)

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See detailInscriptiones Lesbi, Nesi, Tenedi
Famerie, Etienne ULg

Report (2015)

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See detailEtudes sartriennes, n° 19 : Jean-Paul Sartre, Morale et Histoire. Conférence à l’institut Gramsci 1964
Bourgault, Jean; Cormann, Grégory ULg

Book published by Ousia (2015)

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See detailActive faulting at the western tip of the Gulf of Corinth, Greece, from high-resolution seismic data
Beckers, Arnaud ULg; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Beck, Christian et al

in Marine Geology (2015)

The Gulf of Corinth is one of the fastest-spreading intra-continental rifts on Earth. GPS data indicate that the rift is currently opening in a NNE-SSW direction, with a rate of extension reaching up to ... [more ▼]

The Gulf of Corinth is one of the fastest-spreading intra-continental rifts on Earth. GPS data indicate that the rift is currently opening in a NNE-SSW direction, with a rate of extension reaching up to 16 mm yr-1 in its westernmost part. Although the rest of the offshore rift has been well studied, the western tip of the rift is still poorly explored. We present an accurate map of submarine faults in this area based on two high-resolution seismic reflection surveys (single channel sparker). In the eastern part of the studied area, the sedimentary infill is affected by the known North Eratini, South Eratini and West Channel faults. Further to the west, the seafloor is mostly flat, and is bounded to the north by the normal, south-dipping, Trizonia fault. To the north, the shallower part of the Gulf shows to the east a diffuse pattern of normal and strike-slip deformation which is replaced to the west by a 7.5 km long SE striking strike-slip fault zone, called the Managouli fault zone. To the westernmost tip of the Gulf, in the Nafpaktos Basin, two fault sets with different strikes are encountered; the one with aNE-SW strike exhibits a clear strike-slip component. The western tip of the Gulf of Corinth is the only part of the Corinth Rift where convincing evidence for strike-slip movement has been found. This fault pattern is likely related to the complex deformation occurring at the diffuse junction at the western tip of the Rift between three crustal blocks: Continental Greece, Peloponnese, and the Ionian Island-Akarnia block. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Harmonic Balance Method for Bifurcation Analysis of Nonlinear Mechanical Systems
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Masset, Luc ULg et al

in Proceedings of the SEM IMAC XXXIII (2015)

Because nowadays structural engineers are willing to use or at least understand nonlinearities instead of simply avoiding them, there is a need for numerical tools performing analysis of nonlinear large ... [more ▼]

Because nowadays structural engineers are willing to use or at least understand nonlinearities instead of simply avoiding them, there is a need for numerical tools performing analysis of nonlinear large-scale structures. Among these techniques, the harmonic balance (HB) method is certainly one of the most commonly used to study finite element models with reasonably complex nonlinearities. However, in its classical formulation the HB method is limited to the approximation of periodic solutions. For this reason, the present paper proposes to extend the method to the detection and tracking of codimension-1 bifurcations in the system parameters space. As an application, the frequency response of a spacecraft is studied, together with two nonlinear phenomena, namely quasiperiodic oscillations and detached resonance curves. This example illustrates how bifurcation tracking using the HB method can be employed as a promising design tool for detecting and eliminating such undesired behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailCatalogue of the types and illustrated specimens recovered from the ‘black marble’ of Denée, a marine conservation-Lagerstätte from the Mississippian of southern Belgium
Mottequin, Bernard ULg; Poty, Edouard; Prestianni, Cyrille

in Geologica Belgica (2015)

The Viséan ‘black marble’ of Denée is one of the best preserved Mississippian fossil assemblages. This Lagerstätte is famous for the exceptional preservation of several groups of macro-organisms (fishes ... [more ▼]

The Viséan ‘black marble’ of Denée is one of the best preserved Mississippian fossil assemblages. This Lagerstätte is famous for the exceptional preservation of several groups of macro-organisms (fishes, echinoids, graptolites). However, only a part of the fauna has received attention from specialists and most of the phyla may benefit from a modern revision based on new investigative techniques such as 3D imagery and CT-scanning. Almost all the specimens illustrated in the literature have been traced and we present here a comprehensive catalogue of this material. Representatives of several minor groups are photographically illustrated for the first time as well as five emblematic specimens of the styracopterid genus Benedenius (Pisces). For purposes of nomenclatural formality, the lectotypes of Benedenius deneensis Traquair (in de Koninck, 1878), B. soreili Fraipont, 1890, Oligoporus soreili Fraipont, 1904, Taeniaster? fournieri Fraipont, 1904, and Scaphiocrinus longicaudatus Fraipont, 1904 are here selected. [less ▲]

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See detailGIS-Based Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in the Great Lakes Region of Africa, Case Study of Bujumbura Burundi
Nibigira, L.; Draidia, Salah ULg; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg

in Engineering Geology for Society and Territory-Volume 2 (2015)

Abstract: Landslides in Central Africa represent a constant threat to the population. The present work took its motivation from the increasing number of recorded incidents in recent times. It is focused ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Landslides in Central Africa represent a constant threat to the population. The present work took its motivation from the increasing number of recorded incidents in recent times. It is focused on the analysis of mass movements in a regional context. Remote sensing based on the use of satellite images (Pleiades images of 2011) and aerial photographs (1957, 1958 and 1981) allowed us to identify instabilities at different scales. The study of these mass movements and the characterization of the processes governing ... [less ▲]

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See detailHazard and Risk Related to Earthquake-Triggered Landslides
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Fan, X.; Torgoev, A.

in Engineering Geology for Society and Territory-Volume 2 (2015)

Abstract This paper first analyses how important earthquake-induced landslide hazards are compared to other geohazards at world-wide scale. Further, we will outline where these hazards may have the ... [more ▼]

Abstract This paper first analyses how important earthquake-induced landslide hazards are compared to other geohazards at world-wide scale. Further, we will outline where these hazards may have the strongest impacts—at regional and local scale. In this regard, we consider the short-and long-term effects of geological, tectonic, climatic and morphological conditions. Hazard and risk related to these processes will also be analysed on the basis of a series of case histories: eg, the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake-landslide disaster in China. A ... [less ▲]

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See detailLandslide Susceptibility Mapping with Data Mining Methods—a Case Study from Maily-Say, Kyrgyzstan
Braun, A.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg et al

in Engineering Geology for Society and Territory-Volume 2 (2015)

Abstract: Multiple factors, such as geology, high mountain topography, seismic activity, climatic conditions and mining activities cause significant landslide hazard in the region around Maily-Say ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Multiple factors, such as geology, high mountain topography, seismic activity, climatic conditions and mining activities cause significant landslide hazard in the region around Maily-Say, Kyrgyzstan. To assess the landslide susceptibility a database containing landslide information and geological, morphological and hydrological parameters associated with landslide occurrence was established and analyzed with different data mining algorithms. The most promising results were achieved with an Artificial Neural ... [less ▲]

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