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See detailHistoire politique de la construction européenne
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULiege

Learning material (2018)

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See detailCritical review of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applications in the pharmaceutical field
Cailletaud, Johan ULiege; De Bleye, Charlotte ULiege; Dumont, Elodie ULiege et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2018), 147

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive analytical tool used in the pharmaceutical field in recent years. SERS keeps all the advantages of classical Raman spectroscopy while being is ... [more ▼]

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive analytical tool used in the pharmaceutical field in recent years. SERS keeps all the advantages of classical Raman spectroscopy while being is more sensitive allowing its use for the detection and the quantification of low-dose substances contained in pharmaceutical samples. However, the analytical performance of SERS is limited due to the difficulty to implement a quantitative methodology correctly validated. Nevertheless, some studies reported the development of SERS quantitative methods especially in pharmaceutical approaches. In this context, this review presents the main concepts of the SERS technique. The different steps that need to be applied to develop a SERS quantitative method are also deeply described. The last part of the present manuscript gives a critical overview of the different SERS pharmaceutical applications that were developed for a non-exhaustive list of pharmaceutical compounds with the aim to highlights the validation criteria for each application. [less ▲]

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See detailMucoadhesive nanostructured polyelectrolytes complexes modulate the intestinal permeability of methotrexate
Boni, Fernanda Isadora; Almeida, Andreia; Lechanteur, Anna ULiege et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2018), 111

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See detailRegenerative and Positive Impact Architecture: Learning from Case Studies
Attia, Shady ULiege

Book published by Springer International Publishing (2018)

Regenerative design holds great promise for a new era of sustainable and positive impact architecture, sparking considerable interest among architects, building professionals and their clients. Until now ... [more ▼]

Regenerative design holds great promise for a new era of sustainable and positive impact architecture, sparking considerable interest among architects, building professionals and their clients. Until now there are no green buildings with an overall positive impact on environment and health. In this regard, the professional and scientific potential of regenerative architecture can only be fully realized by the setting a design framework that guides designers during projects design, construction and operation. This book introduces readers to key concepts of circularity in the built environment, highlight best practices, introduce opportunities to create value learn from real cutting edge case studies. In this book, we present a novel framework for regenerative building design that can be applied to future constructions based on professional expertise and exposure, towards healthy, resource efficient and green buildings in the AEC industry. We compare four state of the art buildings to address the critical principles, strategies and steps in the transition from the negative impact reduction architecture to the positive impact regenerative architecture, utilizing life cycle analysis. The case studies analysis and comparison can serve as an inspiring eye opener and provide a vision for architects and building professionals in the fields of high performance buildings, resource centered thinking and regenerative architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailLéon-Ernest Halkin (1906-1998), historien moderniste et professeur à l'ULg
Genin, Vincent ULiege

in Nouvelle Biographie Nationale (2018)

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See detailModelling built-up expansion and densification with multinomial logistic regression, cellular automata and genetic algorithm
El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULiege; Heppenstall, Alison; Omrani, Hichem et al

in Computers, Environment and Urban Systems (2018), 67

This paper presents a model to simulate built-up expansion and densification based on a combination of a non-ordered multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and cellular automata (CA). The probability for ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a model to simulate built-up expansion and densification based on a combination of a non-ordered multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and cellular automata (CA). The probability for built-up development is assessed based on (i) a set of built-up development causative factors and (ii) the land-use of neighboring cells. The model considers four built-up classes: non built-up, low-density, medium-density and high-density built-up. Unlike the most commonly used built-up/urban models which simulate built-up expansion, our approach considers expansion and the potential for densification within already built-up areas when their present density allows it. The model is built, calibrated, and validated for Wallonia region (Belgium) using cadastral data. Three 100 × 100 m raster-based built-up maps for 1990, 2000, and 2010 are developed to define one calibration interval (1990–2000) and one validation interval (2000 − 2010). The causative factors are calibrated using MLR whereas the CA neighboring effects are calibrated based on a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The calibrated model is applied to simulate the built-up pattern in 2010. The simulated map in 2010 is used to evaluate the model's performance against the actual 2010 map by means of fuzzy set theory. According to the findings, land-use policy, slope, and distance to roads are the most important determinants of the expansion process. The densification process is mainly driven by zoning, slope, distance to different roads and richness index. The results also show that the densification generally occurs where there are dense neighbors whereas areas with lower densities retain their densities over time. [less ▲]

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See detail355nm UV laser patterning and post-processing of FR4 PCB for fine pitch components integration
Dupont, François ULiege; Stoukatch, Serguei ULiege; Laurent, Philippe ULiege et al

in Optics & Lasers in Engineering (2018), 100

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See detailElectric Power Network State Tracking from Multirate Measurements
Alcaide-Moreno, Boris; Fuerte-Esquivel, Claudio; Glavic, Mevludin et al

in IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement (2018), 67

This paper proposes a novel tracking state estimator to process both fast-rate synchronized phasor and slow rate SCADA measurements. The former are assumed to be in limited number. The latter are ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a novel tracking state estimator to process both fast-rate synchronized phasor and slow rate SCADA measurements. The former are assumed to be in limited number. The latter are exploited as and when they arrive to the control center. In order to restore observability, after each execution of the tracking state estimator, forecasted SCADA measurements are used as pseudo-measurements in the next estimation. An event detection analysis allows assessing if the system is in quasi steady-state. If so, an innovation analysis is performed to identify and eliminate erroneous SCADA measurements. The system state is computed by Hachtel’s augmented matrix method. The option of exploiting time-tagged SCADA measurements is also considered. The method is illustrated through detailed dynamic simulations of a test system evolving towards voltage collapse, with and without emergency control. [less ▲]

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See detailPartenariats transrégionaux, technologies numériques et culture : de la convergence numérique aux divergences normatives
Vlassis, Antonios ULiege

in Deblock, Chrstian; Levesque, Céline; Paquin, Stephane (Eds.) et al Les partenariats commerciaux à l'ére de l'interconnexion (2018)

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See detailEnergy harvesting from different aeroelastic instabilities of a square cylinder
Andrianne, Thomas ULiege; Aryoputro, Renar; Laurent, Philippe ULiege et al

in Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics (2018), 172

This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of the power extraction from the oscillations of a square beam due to aeroelastic instabilities. The energy harvesting is performed using a ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of the power extraction from the oscillations of a square beam due to aeroelastic instabilities. The energy harvesting is performed using a coil-magnet arrangement connected to a variable resistance load with the target objective to auto-power a remote sensor. Two aeroelastic phenomena are investigated: Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) and cross-flow galloping. The first instability (VIV) is analyzed on a free-standing vertical structure. A second experimental set-up is developed on a horizontal square cylinder supported by springs, free to oscillate vertically as a rigid body. In this case, both galloping and VIV interact, leading to interesting characteristics in order to harvest energy from the wind. The behavior of each electro-mechanical aeroelastic system is investigated for different reduced wind speeds and load resistances in a wind tunnel. Observed efficiencies are rather low, but large enough to power a remote sensor with an adapted measuring strategy. Both harvesting systems are then studied numerically using a wake oscillator model (for VIV) coupled to a quasi-steady model (for galloping) and an electric model (for the harvester). This mathematical model is used to extend the parametric space and to highlight the effectiveness of the high stable branch of the VIV-galloping curve to harvest energy. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneous incidence and propagation of spreading depolarizations
Kaufmann, D; SCHOENEN, Jean ULiege

in Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (2018)

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See detailHow does STICS crop model simulate crop growth and productivity under shade conditions?
Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Dumont, Benjamin ULiege; Ruget, Francois et al

in Field Crops Research (2018), 215

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See detailOccurrence of greenhouse gases in the aquifers of the Walloon Region (Belgium)
Jurado Elices, Anna ULiege; Borges, Alberto ULiege; Pujades, Estanislao ULiege et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2018)

This work aims to (1) identify the most conductive conditions for the generation of greenhouses gases (GHGs) in groundwater (e.g., hydrogeological contexts and geochemical processes) and (2) evaluate the ... [more ▼]

This work aims to (1) identify the most conductive conditions for the generation of greenhouses gases (GHGs) in groundwater (e.g., hydrogeological contexts and geochemical processes) and (2) evaluate the indirect emissions of GHGs from groundwater at a regional scale in Wallonia (Belgium). To this end, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and the stable isotopes of nitrate (NO3−) and sulphate were monitored in 12 aquifers of the Walloon Region (Belgium). The concentrations of GHGs range from 0.05 µg/L to 1631.2 µg/L for N2O, 0 µg/L to 17.1 µg/L for CH4, and 1769 to 100,514 ppm for the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). The highest average concentrations of N2O and pCO2 are found in a chalky aquifer. The coupled use of statistical techniques and stable isotopes is a useful approach to identify the geochemical conditions that control the occurrence of GHGs in the aquifers of the Walloon Region. The accumulation of N2O is most likely due to nitrification (high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and NO3− and null concentrations of ammonium) and, to a lesser extent, initial denitrification in a few sampling locations (medium concentrations of dissolved oxygen and NO3−). The oxic character found in groundwater is not prone to the accumulation of CH4 in Walloon aquifers. Nevertheless, groundwater is oversaturated with GHGs with respect to atmospheric equilibrium (especially for N2O and pCO2); the fluxes of N2O (0.32 kg N2O-N Ha-1 y-1) and CO2 (27 kg CO2 Ha-1 y-1) from groundwater are much lower than the direct emissions of N2O from agricultural soils and fossil-fuel-related CO2 emissions. Thus, indirect GHG emissions from the aquifers of the Walloon Region are likely to be a minor contributor to atmospheric GHG emissions, but their quantification would help to better constrain the nitrogen and carbon budgets. [less ▲]

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See detailDroit matériel européen 2017-2018 - Agenda et plan du cours
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULiege

Learning material (2018)

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See detailEffects of agricultural land use on fluvial carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide concentrations in a large European river, the Meuse (Belgium)
Borges, Alberto ULiege; Darchambeau, F.; Lambert, T et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2018), 610–611

We report a data-set of CO2, CH4, and N2O concentrations in the surface waters of the Meuse river network in Belgium, obtained during four surveys covering 50 stations (summer 2013 and late winter 2013 ... [more ▼]

We report a data-set of CO2, CH4, and N2O concentrations in the surface waters of the Meuse river network in Belgium, obtained during four surveys covering 50 stations (summer 2013 and late winter 2013, 2014 and 2015), from yearly cycles in four rivers of variable size and catchment land cover, and from 111 groundwater samples. Surface waters of the Meuse river network were over-saturated in CO2, CH4, N2O with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, acting as sources of these greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, although the dissolved gases also showed marked seasonal and spatial variations. Seasonal variations were related to changes in freshwater discharge following the hydrological cycle, with highest concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O during low water owing to a longer water residence time and lower currents (i.e. lower gas transfer velocities), both contributing to the accumulation of gases in the water column, combined with higher temperatures favourable to microbial processes. Inter-annual differences of discharge also led to differences in CH4 and N2O that were higher in years with prolonged low water periods. Spatial variations were mostly due to differences in land cover over the catchments, with systems dominated by agriculture (croplands and pastures) having higher CO2, CH4, N2O levels than forested systems. This seemed to be related to higher levels of dissolved and particulate organic matter, as well as dissolved inorganic nitrogen in agriculture dominated systems compared to forested ones. Groundwater had very low CH4 concentrations in the shallow and unconfined aquifers (mostly fractured limestones) of the Meuse basin, hence, should not contribute significantly to the high CH4 levels in surface riverine waters. Owing to high dissolved concentrations, groundwater could potentially transfer important quantities of CO2 and N2O to surface waters of the Meuse basin, although this hypothesis remains to be tested. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding urban development types and drivers in Wallonia. A multi-density approach
El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULiege; Saadi, Ismaïl ULiege; Cools, Mario ULiege et al

in International Journal of Business Intelligence and Data Mining (2018), 13(Nos. 1/2/3), 309330

In this study, urban development process in the Walloon region (Belgium) has been analysed. Two main aspects of development are quantitatively measured: the development type and the definition of the main ... [more ▼]

In this study, urban development process in the Walloon region (Belgium) has been analysed. Two main aspects of development are quantitatively measured: the development type and the definition of the main drivers of the urbanisation process. Unlike most existing studies that consider the urban development as a binary process, this research considers the urban development as a continuous process, characterised by different levels of urban density. Eight urban classes are defined based on the Belgian cadastral data for years 2000 and 2010. A multinomial logistic regression model is employed to examine the main driving forces of the different densities. Sixteen drivers were selected, including accessibility, geo-physical features, policies and socio-economic factors. Finally, the changes from the non-urban to one of the urban density classes are detected and classified into different development types. The results indicate that zoning status (political factor), slope, distance to roads, population densities and mean land price, respectively, have impact on the urbanisation process whatever maybe the density. The results also show that the impact of these factors highly varies from one density to another. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of market-oriented institutions in the deployment of renewable energies: evidences from Europe
Jacqmin, Julien ULiege

in Applied Economics (2018), 50(2), 202-215

Focusing on European countries, this article investigates the link between market-oriented institutions, as measured by the Economic Freedom Index, and the production of energy from renewable sources. A ... [more ▼]

Focusing on European countries, this article investigates the link between market-oriented institutions, as measured by the Economic Freedom Index, and the production of energy from renewable sources. A dynamic panel approach shows that this correlation is positive and significant while the subcomponents of the Economic Freedom Index reveal that not all market-oriented institutions have a similar impact. Indeed, long-term price stability and freedom to trade boost the reliance on renewable energies whereas the importance given to markets rather than governments has no significant impact. [less ▲]

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See detailIdée et perception. Une recherche épistémologique à partir de Descartes
Twardowski, Kasimir; Dewalque, Arnaud ULiege

in Twardowski, Kasimir; Fisette, Denis (Eds.) TBA (recueil de textes de K. Twardowski) (2018)

La dissertation doctorale de Twardowski, originellement publiée à Vienne en 1892, est ici traduite en français pour la première fois. L'auteur y offre une exégèse des expressions "clara et distincta ... [more ▼]

La dissertation doctorale de Twardowski, originellement publiée à Vienne en 1892, est ici traduite en français pour la première fois. L'auteur y offre une exégèse des expressions "clara et distincta perceptio" et "clara et distincta idea" chez Descartes, en assignant à la perception et à l'idée le rôle qui leur revient dans la théorie cartésienne de la connaissance. [less ▲]

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