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See detailHydraulic determination of dam releases to generate warning waves in a mountain stream: performance of an analytical kinematic wave model
Stilmant, Frédéric; Pirotton, Michel ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (in press)

In this case study, we study the generation of warning waves with prescribed characteristics in a mountain stream. We determine which dam release will generate the desired warning wave. We solve this ... [more ▼]

In this case study, we study the generation of warning waves with prescribed characteristics in a mountain stream. We determine which dam release will generate the desired warning wave. We solve this inverse problem following a two-model approach. An analytical kinematic model is used for a preliminary design of the dam release and a detailed two-dimensional (2D) fully dynamic model is used to converge to the final solution. Although the presented case study is far from an idealized academic case, the analytical model performs well and, beyond its role for preliminary design, turns out to be of prime interest for both understanding and discussing the results of the detailed 2D model. The complex interactions between the release hydrograph, the geometry of the river and the friction formula are brought to light by the analytical model, which highlights the complementarity of both models and the usefulness of such a two-model approach. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychopathologie et monde social : les limites de l'empathie et de la sympathie
Englebert, Jérôme ULiege

in Philosophie (in press)

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See detailIntensity and memory characteristics of near-death experiences
Martial, Charlotte ULiege; Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULiege; Cassol, Helena ULiege et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (in press)

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) seem to be very detailed and stable over time. At present, there is still no satisfactory explanation for the NDEs’ rich phenomenology. Here we compared ... [more ▼]

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) seem to be very detailed and stable over time. At present, there is still no satisfactory explanation for the NDEs’ rich phenomenology. Here we compared phenomenological characteristics of NDE memories with the reported experience’s intensity. We included 152 individuals with a self-reported “classical” NDE (i.e. occurring in life-threatening conditions). All participants completed a mailed questionnaire that included a measure of phenomenological characteristics of memories (the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire; MCQ) and a measure of NDE’s intensity (the Greyson NDE scale). Greyson NDE scale total score was positively correlated with MCQ total score, suggesting that participants who described more intense NDEs also reported more phenomenological memory characteristics of NDE. Using MCQ items, our study also showed that NDE’s intensity is associated in particular with sensory details, personal importance and reactivation frequency variables. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating the impact of river floods on travel demand based on an agent-based modeling approach: The case of Liège, Belgium
Saadi, Ismaïl ULiege; El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege et al

in Transport Policy (in press)

In Belgium, river floods are among the most frequent natural disasters and they may have important consequences on travel demand. In order to better understand how the travel patterns vary, we propose to ... [more ▼]

In Belgium, river floods are among the most frequent natural disasters and they may have important consequences on travel demand. In order to better understand how the travel patterns vary, we propose to set up a large scale scenario based on MATSim for guarantying an accurate assessment of the impact of river floods on the transportation system. As inputs, the current agent-based model requires a base year population. A synthetic population with respective set of attributes is generated as a key input. Afterwards, agents are assigned activity chains through an activity-based generation process. Finally, the synthetic population and the transportation network are integrated into MATSim. Regarding data, households travel surveys, OD matrix of Belgium have been used to set up the demand. For simulating river floods effects, a steady-state inundation map has been integrated within MATSim. In the current study, five scenarios have been tested where critical links are associated various levels of service, i.e. 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (base case scenario). They are systematically compared to the standard scenario to estimate the deviations in terms of traffic patterns and travel times. The results suggest that compared to the standard scenario, the average trip travel time increased by 16.36%, 44.44%, 126.77% and 144.44% with respect to scenarios 75%, 50%, 25% and 10% respectively. Also, the traffic flows have been re-distributed more uniformly across the transportation network. Roads with important traffic volumes are subjected to a decrease of activity on the contrary of roads with low traffic volumes. A very few studies have focused on how river floods affect transportation systems, this paper provided new insights in term of methodology and traffic patterns analysis under disruptions. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential contributions of default and dorsal attention networks to remembering thoughts and external stimuli from real-life events
Stawarczyk, David ULiege; Jeunehomme, Olivier ULiege; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULiege

in Cerebral Cortex (in press)

Episodic memories are typically composed of perceptual information derived from the external environment and representations of internal states (e.g., one’s thoughts during prior episodes). To date ... [more ▼]

Episodic memories are typically composed of perceptual information derived from the external environment and representations of internal states (e.g., one’s thoughts during prior episodes). To date, however, research has mostly focused on the remembrance of external stimuli, such that little is known about how internal mentation is represented within episodic memory. In the present fMRI study, we examined the neural correlates of these two components of episodic memories using a novel method of cuing memories from photographs taken during real-life events. We found that, compared to corresponding semantic memory tasks, memories for internal thoughts and external elements were associated with activity in brain areas supporting episodic recollection. Most importantly, however, the two kinds of memories also showed differential activation in large-scale brain networks: the remembrance of external elements was associated with greater activity in the dorsal attention network, whereas memories of internal thoughts mainly recruited default network areas. These findings shed new light on the representation of internal and external aspects of prior experience within episodic memory. The default network may contribute to the reinstatement of thoughts experienced during past events, whereas the dorsal attention network may support the allocation of attention to visuo-spatial features within episodic memory representations. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuro-functional correlates of the protective effects of exercise against cocaine sensitization and dopamine D2 receptors density: a [18F]Fallypride microPET study.
Becker, Guillaume ULiege; Lespine, Louis-Ferdinand ULiege; Serrano Navacerrada, Maria Elisa ULiege et al

in Molecular Imaging & Biology (in press)

Preclinical studies suggest that free access to a running wheel can attenuate behavioural effects of addictive drugs such as psychomotor sensitization to cocaine in rodents. This phenomenon has an ... [more ▼]

Preclinical studies suggest that free access to a running wheel can attenuate behavioural effects of addictive drugs such as psychomotor sensitization to cocaine in rodents. This phenomenon has an integral role in the process of drug addiction in craving and relapse (Steketee and Kalivas, 2011). Free wheel-running was recently shown to be efficacious at preventing the initiation or the long-term expression of psychomotor sensitization to cocaine in mice or rats (Diaz et al., 2013; Geuzaine and Tirelli, 2014). In the present study, we investigated the neuro-functional correlates of the protection against psychomotor sensitization to cocaine afforded by free wheel-running on dopaminergic neurotransmission, using microPET imaging with [18F]Fallypride, a Dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) antagonist. Sixty-four 28-day-old female C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to one of the two housing conditions, defined by the presence or the absence of a running wheel in the cage over a 6-week pre-testing period. Since mice from the two types of housing received either saline (controls) or cocaine (8 mg/kg, i.p.) during testing (9 once-daily sessions to establish sensitization plus 1 single session to test its expression), a basic 2x2 randomized blocks design was generated (2-way ANOVA and planned comparisons; n=10). Experimentation lasted 85 days, with a 42-day period of pre-testing and a 3-week interval preceding the test for long-term expression of sensitization (LTES). All mice underwent a microPET (Focus 120, Siemens) the day after the LTES. The microPET protocol consisted of a 60 min. dynamic acquisition after the injection of 10 MBq of [18F]Fallypride in the tail vein. Wheel-running strongly and significantly attenuated LTES (interaction) to cocaine (Cohen’s d=1.63; t(21)=3.75, p<.001) and cocaine-treated mice exhibited a clear-cut and significant increase (main effect) of the [18F]Fallypride BP (d=0.88, t(31)=2.45, p =.02). Wheel-running induced an overall moderate-sized decrease (main effect) of the [18F]Fallypride BP, but without achieving statistical significance (d=0.64, t(31)=1.79, p =.08). These findings suggest that LTES is associated with an increase of the [18F]Fallypride BP in the mouse striatum, probably reflecting an increase in postsynaptic D2R density in this region. Also, the protecting effect of free running on psychomotor sensitization goes together with a decrease in D2R density in the striatum of exercised mice. We intend to complement the present study with an identical experiment to reach a total number of 80 mice (n=20). This will confer to our study a sufficient power (80%) for the main effect of wheel-running exercise on [18F]Fallypride BP to be detected at an alpha-level of 5%. Finally, autoradiography studies, performed on the same mice with [18F]Fallypride, will strengthen our in vivo results. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle du gymnase : espace, rituels et acteurs sociaux dans une perspective comparatiste
Caneva, Stefano ULiege

in Lenzo, Giuseppina; Nihan, Christophe (Eds.) Les cultes aux rois et aux héros dans l’antiquité : continuités et changements à l’époque hellénistique (in press)

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See detailPulse-Based Control Using Koopman Operator Under Parametric Uncertainty
Sootla, Aivar; Ernst, Damien ULiege

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (in press)

In applications, such as biomedicine and systems/synthetic biology, technical limitations in actuation complicate implementation of time-varying control signals. In order to alleviate some of these ... [more ▼]

In applications, such as biomedicine and systems/synthetic biology, technical limitations in actuation complicate implementation of time-varying control signals. In order to alleviate some of these limitations, it may be desirable to derive simple control policies, such as step functions with fixed magnitude and length (or temporal pulses). In this technical note, we further develop a recently proposed pulse-based solution to the convergence problem, i.e., minimizing the convergence time to the target exponentially stable equilibrium, for monotone systems. In particular, we extend this solution to monotone systems with parametric uncertainty. Our solutions also provide worst-case estimates on convergence times. Furthermore, we indicate how our tools can be used for a class of non-monotone systems, and more importantly how these tools can be extended to other control problems. We illustrate our approach on switching under parametric uncertainty and regulation around a saddle point problems in a genetic toggle switch system. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal structural integrity and effective connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness
BODART, Olivier ULiege; Amico, Enrico; Gomez, Francisco et al

in Brain Stimulation (in press)

Background Previous studies have separately reported impaired functional, structural, and effective connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). The perturbational complexity index (PCI ... [more ▼]

Background Previous studies have separately reported impaired functional, structural, and effective connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). The perturbational complexity index (PCI) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) derived marker of effective connectivity. The global fractional anisotropy (FA) is a marker of structural integrity. Little is known about how these parameters are related to each other. Objective We aimed at testing the relationship between structural integrity and effective connectivity. Methods We assessed 23 patients with severe brain injury more than 4 weeks post-onset, leading to DOC or locked-in syndrome, and 14 healthy subjects. We calculated PCI using repeated single pulse TMS coupled with high-density electroencephalography, and used it as a surrogate of effective connectivity. Structural integrity was measured using the global FA, derived from diffusion weighted imaging. We used linear regression modelling to test our hypothesis, and computed the correlation between PCI and FA in different groups. Results Global FA could predict 74% of PCI variance in the whole sample and 56% in the patients' group. No other predictors (age, gender, time since onset, behavioural score) improved the models. FA and PCI were correlated in the whole population (r = 0.86, p < 0.0001), the patients, and the healthy subjects subgroups. Conclusion We here demonstrated that effective connectivity correlates with structural integrity in brain-injured patients. Increased structural damage level decreases effective connectivity, which could prevent the emergence of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgian and Swiss service providers faced with the challenge of jobseeker guidance. Predominance of stakeholder games or of the collaborative framework?
Remy, Céline ULiege

in International Review of Administrative Sciences (in press)

The public employment services have contracted out their jobseeker guidance role to service providers. The paper focuses on how the collaboration between the public services and private employment ... [more ▼]

The public employment services have contracted out their jobseeker guidance role to service providers. The paper focuses on how the collaboration between the public services and private employment operators is organised in Belgium and Switzerland. These partnerships have to contend with two challenges, which are the recruitment of candidates for training projects and the measurement of the results of the service. Our initial hypothesis supports the idea that stakeholder games are more effective in solving critical situations than the collaborative framework. The international comparison allows us to vary the partnership creation methods and to show a particular articulation between the stakeholder games and collaborative framework. [less ▲]

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See detailLiving and Printing in Antwerp in the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Centuries: a Social Enquiry
Adam, Renaud ULiege

in Van Bruaene, Anne-Laure; Kavaler, Ethan Matt (Eds.) Urban Perspectives on Sixteenth-Century Netherlandish Art & Culture (in press)

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See detailThe Distribution of Spanish Books in Brussels during the 16th century
Adam, Renaud ULiege

in Quaerendo: A Journal Devoted to Manuscripts and Printed Books (in press)

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See detailConsidérations sur la construction et l’affirmation de l’identité patrimoniale de la Bibliothèque royale de Belgique
Adam, Renaud ULiege

in Henryot, Fabienne (Ed.) La fabrique du patrimoine écrit : objets, acteurs, usages sociaux (in press)

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See detailCreative Economy and Development: International Institution’s Perspectives
De Beukelaer, Christiaan; Vlassis, Antonios ULiege

in Labadi, Sophia (Ed.) The cultural turn in international aid: impacts and challenges for heritage and the creative industries' (2018)

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See detailNuovi culti eroici nell'alto Ellenismo: una riconsiderazione di destinatari, attori e contesti
Caneva, Stefano ULiege; Coppola, Alessandra

Conference (2018, November)

This paper explores the entanglement between social status and the bestowal of heroic honours upon deceased political leaders and elite members in the late-classical and early Hellenistic period ... [more ▼]

This paper explores the entanglement between social status and the bestowal of heroic honours upon deceased political leaders and elite members in the late-classical and early Hellenistic period. Epigraphic and literary sources shedding light on the establishment, justification and social impact of heroic honours practised by different social groups will be discussed, to investigate the implications of the social status of cult agents and recipients upon the definition of the position of honoured humans in relation to the superhuman sphere. This will also imply exploring the types of relationships existing between private heroic foundations and royal divine foundations in the studied period. Contrary to a generally accepted assumption, it will be argued that heroization was common for members of elite families, while it was not the primary option to reward local political leaders, since their honours were principally modelled after godlike honours. For instance, when they came into existence during the mid-Hellenistic period, cults for high-ranking civic leaders were largely modelled on godlike honours for monarchs, but were decreed after death – it will be argued – to preserve a hierarchical distinction between the social status of their recipients. The posthumous bestowal explains why honours for great civic benefactors also drew on typically heroic honours, such as public burial inside the city. However, similar contaminations of heroic and divine honours had already been exploited for the worshipped deceased kings of the early Hellenistic period (e.g. Alexander at Alexandria, Demetrius at Demetrias), so that a certain mixture of divine and heroic features could be said to have been directly transferred from royal to non-royal leaders. In neither case, however, did the presence of heroic features imply that cultic honours for Hellenistic political leaders would be commonly labelled as heroic. A revealing case is that of the Hellenistic leader Aratus, whose “fitting honours” decreed at Sicyon (Polyb. 8.12-7-8; Plut., Arat. 53) are labelled as heroic by moderns only because they were decreed posthumously. Similarly, at Megalopolis, the posthumous honours for the commander Philopoimen comprised a public tomb in the agora – a typically heroic honour – but were labelled as “honours equal to the gods”, not as heroic. We must wait for the late-Hellenistic and Imperial period to trace a significant multiplication of honours for political leaders explicitly labelled heroic. [less ▲]

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See detailRotational and continuous grazing does not affect the total net ecosystem exchange of a pasture grazed by cattle but modifies CO2 exchange dynamics
Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Mamadou, Ossenatou; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment (2018), 253

Grassland carbon budgets are known to be greatly dependent on management. In particular, grazing is known to directly affect CO2 exchange through consumption by plants, cattle respiration, natural ... [more ▼]

Grassland carbon budgets are known to be greatly dependent on management. In particular, grazing is known to directly affect CO2 exchange through consumption by plants, cattle respiration, natural fertilisation through excreta, and soil compaction. This study investigates the impact of two grazing methods on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics and carbon balance, by measuring CO2 fluxes using eddy covariance in two adjacent pastures located in southern Belgium during a complete grazing season. Rotational (RG) grazing consists of an alternation of rest periods and short high stock density grazing periods. Continuous grazing (CG) consists of uninterrupted grazing with variable stocking rates. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the impact of these grazing methods on total net ecosystem exchange and CO2 exchange dynamics using eddy covariance. The results showed that NEE dynamics were greatly impacted by the grazing method. Following grazing events on the RG parcel, net CO2 uptake on the RG parcel was reduced compared to the CG parcel. During the following rest periods, this phenomenon progressively shifted towards a higher assimilation for the RG treatment. This behaviour was attributed to sharp biomass changes in the RG treatment and therefore sharp changes in plant photosynthetic capacity. We found that differences in gross primary productivity at high radiation were strongly correlated to differences in standing biomass. In terms of carbon budgets, no significant difference was observed between the two treatments, neither in cumulative NEE, or in terms of estimated biomass production. The results of our study suggest that we should not expect major benefits in terms of CO2 uptake from rotational grazing management when compared to continuous grazing management in intensively managed temperate pastures. [less ▲]

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See detailRiparian characterization from remote sensing in a multiple scale perspectives. A few examples
Piégay, Hervé; Michez, Adrien ULiege; Raepple, Bianca et al

Conference (2018, October 18)

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See detailA la table du souverain. Modération, excès et hiérarchie dans les banquets de cour hellénistiques et impériaux
Caneva, Stefano ULiege

Conference (2018, October 04)

A travers une sélection de sources littéraires grecques et latines, datant de l’époque d’Alexandre jusqu’à la haute période impériale, on se propose de discuter quelques aspects de la thématique ... [more ▼]

A travers une sélection de sources littéraires grecques et latines, datant de l’époque d’Alexandre jusqu’à la haute période impériale, on se propose de discuter quelques aspects de la thématique concernant l’existence (ou l’absence) de règles morales auxquelles la conduite des souverains devrait être sujette par rapport à la consommation de la nourriture et du vin. Plutôt que de prendre en considération l’aspect médical de la diète royale, l’étude se focalise sur ses implications sociales et symboliques : notamment, le rôle de la consommation sociale de la nourriture dans la définition d’une royauté qui accepte d’obéir à des règles partagées de modération et d’autocontrôle, promues et protégés par les élites, ou qui, par contre, prétend de manifester sa dimension charismatique à travers une conduite se plaçant consciemment au-delà des limites imposées aux sujets. Les textes analysés discutent le thème du rapport entre le souverain et la nourriture soit à travers les récits de banquets devenus célèbres dans la tradition historiographique et rhétorique, soit par le biais de scènes mythiques ou de banquets historiques imaginaires, où la fiction littéraire sert à thématiser le rapport entre le souverain et les élites ainsi que la mise en place d’une hiérarchie de cour. Un aspect crucial de cette analyse concerne l’identification des classes sociales appelées, dans les textes, à définir les règles du rapport entre le roi et la nourriture, ainsi qu’à exercer le rôle de contrôleurs du respect de ces règles. Un autre aspect à considérer est l’appartenance sociale des auteurs des textes qui prescrivent, approuvent ou stigmatisent certaines pratiques. Considérées ensemble, ces deux perspectives nous permettront de discuter les intérêts et l’agenda des groupes qui s’expriment à travers ces textes. Une attention particulière sera donnée à l’époque de transition entre la fin de la période hellénistique et le début du Principat, lorsque la réflexion sur la sobriété ou la tryphè (ou, selon une perspective critique, la débauche) du roi s’inscrit dans une discussion plus large sur le choix de continuité ou de rupture entre le modèle royal hellénistique et le type de pouvoir monarchique universel expérimenté par les premiers empereurs. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Adaptive Facades: A case study of the Swiss School in Dubai
Bilir, Senem; Attia, Shady ULiege

in Luible, Andreas (Ed.) Adaptive Facades (2018, October)

Adaptive facades are performance based envelopes that are able to respond dynamically to climatic conditions. One of the recognized adaptive façade technologies is electrochromic glazing. However, very ... [more ▼]

Adaptive facades are performance based envelopes that are able to respond dynamically to climatic conditions. One of the recognized adaptive façade technologies is electrochromic glazing. However, very few studies evaluated the performance of electrochromic glazing on the building level. Therefore, we selected a case study of a certified educational building with a nearly zero energy building performance that includes an electrochromic facade. The overall aim of the research is to understand the performance requirements of electrochromic glazing and its overall contribution to energy saving s and thermal and visual comfort improvement. The performance of the Swiss International School in Dubai was analyzed based on interviews with the design and build team, monitored data and post occupancy evaluation. A systematic process mapping took place to review the performance indicators, simulation tools and team responsibilities during the design, construction and operation stages of the building. The paper identifies the key performance criteria of electrochromic glazing in relation to energy and comfort. Finally, we assess the significance of using electrochromic glazing from a technical point of view and share the learned lessons for architects and facade engineers [less ▲]

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