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See detailPoint de vue sur les difficultés de l'électroneuromyogramme en pathologie du pied
WANG, François-Charles ULg

in BOUYSSET, Maurice; DELMI, Marino; MORVAN, Gérard (Eds.) Le Pied et la Cheville : de la clinique aux examens complémentaires (2014)

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See detailNest grouping patterns of bonobos (Pan paniscus) in relation to fruit availability in a forest-savannah mosaic
Serckx, Adeline ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Bastin, Jean-François ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos’ grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the ... [more ▼]

A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos’ grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the different evolution in group cohesion seen in these sister species. We are still lacking, however, key information about bonobo social traits across their habitat range, in order to make accurate inter-species comparisons. In this study we investigated bonobo social cohesiveness at nesting sites depending on fruit availability in the forest-savannah mosaic of western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a bonobo habitat which has received little attention from researchers and is characterized by high food resource variation within years. We collected data on two bonobo communities. Nest counts at nesting sites were used as a proxy for night grouping patterns and were analysed with regard to fruit availability. We also modelled bonobo population density at the site in order to investigate yearly variation. We found that one community density varied across the three years of surveys, suggesting that this bonobo community has significant variability in use of its home range. This finding highlights the importance of forest connectivity, a likely prerequisite for the ability of bonobos to adapt their ranging patterns to fruit availability changes. We found no influence of overall fruit availability on bonobo cohesiveness. Only fruit availability at the nesting sites showed a positive influence, indicating that bonobos favour food ‘hot spots’ as sleeping sites. Our findings have confirmed the results obtained from previous studies carried out in the dense tropical forests of DRC. Nevertheless, in order to clarify the impact of environmental variability on bonobo social cohesiveness, we will need to make direct observations of the apes in the forest-savannah mosaic as well as make comparisons across the entirety of the bonobos’ range using systematic methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian inference of a dynamic vegetation model for grassland
Minet, Julien ULg; Laloy, Eric; Tychon, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2014, April 02)

As a part of the MACSUR task L2.4, we probabilistically calibrated the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation with the DREAMZS sampler.. CARAIB is a mechanistic ... [more ▼]

As a part of the MACSUR task L2.4, we probabilistically calibrated the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation with the DREAMZS sampler.. CARAIB is a mechanistic model that calculates the carbon assimilation of the vegetation as a function of the soil and climatic conditions, and can thus be used for simulating grassland production under cutting or grazing management. Bayesian model inversion was performed at 4 grassland sites across Europe: Oensingen, CH; Grillenburg, DE; Laqueuille, FR and Monte-Bodone, IT. Four daily measured variables from these sites: the Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Evapotranspiration (ET) and Soil Water Content (SWC) were used to sample 10 parameters related to rooting depth, stomatal conductance, specific leaf area, carbon-nitrogen ratio and water stresses. The maximized likelihood function therefore involved four objectives, whereas the applied Bayesian framework allowed for assessing the so called parameter posterior probability density function (pdf), which quantifies model parameter uncertainty caused by measurement and model errors. Sampling trials were performed using merged data from all sites (all-sites-sampling) and for each site (site-specific sampling) separately. The derived posterior parameter pdfs from the all-sites sampling and site-specific sampling runs showed differences in relation with the specificities of each site. Analysis of these distributions also revealed model sensitivity to parameters conditioned on the measured data, as well as parameter correlations. [less ▲]

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See detailWill top-down interactions be affacted by climate change?
Boullis, Antoine ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

Poster (2014, April 02)

Greenhouse gas emissions are rising since the beginning of the industrial era: atmospheric carbon dioxide now exceeds 400 ppm (30% increase since the mid-1800s) and tropospheric ozone has reached 40 ppb ... [more ▼]

Greenhouse gas emissions are rising since the beginning of the industrial era: atmospheric carbon dioxide now exceeds 400 ppm (30% increase since the mid-1800s) and tropospheric ozone has reached 40 ppb in industrialized areas. According to forecasting models, these concentrations are expected to double by the end of the 21st century. To date, impacts of elevated greenhouse gases have been extensively studied in plant-insect interactions, whereas interactions between herbivores and their natural enemies have been neglected. Because most interactions between herbivorous insects and their natural enemies are orchestrated by natural molecules produced as semiochemicals, we hypothesize that modification in atmospheric gas composition will alter chemical communication in insects, and affect the performance of natural enemies to locate their prey. In this project, we shall attempt to analyze the effect of increase in greenhouse gas concentrations on insect communication, particularly in top-down interactions. The study model will consist in the interactions between the pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)) and their natural enemies Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer). Under elevated CO2 and/or O3 concentrations, we will quantify the production of several aphid semiochemicals that are currently used as kairomones by natural enemies, including the aphid alarm pheromone E-β-farnesene and honeydew volatile compounds. Olfactometry assays will then be set up to examine the ability of natural enemies to locate their prey in the predicted atmospheric conditions of the end of the 21st century. Finally, using an Ecotron structure to be built in Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, we will simulate a future ecosystem with the possibility to control additional biotic and abiotic parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailThe BANANA Project. V. Misaligned and Precessing Stellar Rotation Axes in CV Velorum
Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Torres, Guillermo et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2014), 785

As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin ... [more ▼]

As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of β[SUB]p[/SUB] = -52° ± 6° and β[SUB]s[/SUB] = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i [SUB]sstarf[/SUB]) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i [SUB]sstarf[/SUB]. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary. Based on observations made with ESOs 2.2 m Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-1008 and under MPIA guaranteed time. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation de biocapteurs microbiens GFP pour la caractérisation des performances des bioréacteurs
Brognaux, Alison ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

The scale-up of bioprocesses is a critical step during bioproducts development. Actually, the mixing operation’s efficiency drops when the reactor volume increases: gradients of glucose and oxygen appear ... [more ▼]

The scale-up of bioprocesses is a critical step during bioproducts development. Actually, the mixing operation’s efficiency drops when the reactor volume increases: gradients of glucose and oxygen appear when operating in fed-batch mode, causing losses of production. The aim of this project is the scale-up and sizing of bioreactors based on the direct physiological parameters to consider this heterogeneity. Concretely, it consists in obtaining an on-line signal of the physiological status of micro-organisms. The coding sequence of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) has been inserted after gene promoters of interest in Escherichia coli to built biosensors. A particular focus has been paid on promoters responding to general stress or specifically to lack of glucose and on those responding to cell growth rate. The GFP biosensors of interest have been tested in scale-down bioreactors, allowing to reproduce industrial hydrodynamic conditions at a laboratory scale. A mini-bioreactor platform has also been developed to enable a high throughput screening of biosensors. The intracellular accumulation of GFP has been measured by flow cytometry and GFP release has been monitored by western blot analyses. For biosensors sensitive to stress general response or glucose limitation, GFP has been induced during a glucose limitation and repressed by comparison when glucose heterogeneities appear. The use of a destabilized GFP has been considered in this project for ribosomal biosensors to approach more instantaneous physiological responses of microorganisms. For these ones, the response is proportional to growth rate during the batch phase, but more complex mechanisms take part during a prolonged glucose limitation. Membrane permeability has also been studied and has been noticed more important in homogeneous fed-batch bioreactors than in scale-down reactors. As GFP leakage has been noted in the extracellular medium, a study has also been carry out about proteins released in the extracellular medium (leakage), and correlated with the cell permeability. Finally, an on-line flow cytometer has been developed for the characterization of physiological status of micro-organisms during the bioprocess, and a 3D-ORM probe allowed to measure their viability on-line [less ▲]

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See detail« Penser avec et contre Fanon : sur Achille Mbembe, ‘’Le fouet de Dieu’’ (in De la postcolonie) »
Melice, Anne ULg

Conference (2014, April 01)

Achille Mbembe remarque, pour le regretter, que la réflexion qu’il a intitulée « Le fouet de Dieu » n’a guère fait l’objet de lectures critiques. C’est précisément à dégager les enjeux de ce chapitre de ... [more ▼]

Achille Mbembe remarque, pour le regretter, que la réflexion qu’il a intitulée « Le fouet de Dieu » n’a guère fait l’objet de lectures critiques. C’est précisément à dégager les enjeux de ce chapitre de son livre De la postcolonie que vise mon intervention. J’avais été très impressionnée, lors de mes recherches doctorales sur le kimbanguisme, par les analyses relatives au christianisme figurant dans Afriques indociles. Ces thèses sont tout à la fois creusées et déplacées dans « Le fouet de Dieu ». L’avant-propos de la deuxième édition du livre suggère brièvement une mise en perspective stimulante de ces pages. Prenant acte de la nécessité de désormais « penser avec et contre Fanon », Mbembe y souligne qu’elles ouvrent sur une conception du rapport éthique à autrui, qui prend chez lui la forme d’une prescription inconditionnelle : « donner la mort à la mort ». Mon interrogation se resserre autour de la thématique de l’altérité. En rassemblant en gerbe les problématiques du désir, de la domination et de la liberté, elle met au jour l’articulation profonde du religieux et du politique. [less ▲]

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See detailL’antonymie. Définition de l’antonymie en langue et description des fonctions sémantico-référentielles de la co-présence antonymique en discours
Steffens, Marie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Grâce à un examen critique des travaux consacrés à l’antonymie, nous avons pu définir l’antonymie comme une relation multiforme qui touche des unités très différentes sur les plans sémantique et morpho ... [more ▼]

Grâce à un examen critique des travaux consacrés à l’antonymie, nous avons pu définir l’antonymie comme une relation multiforme qui touche des unités très différentes sur les plans sémantique et morpho-syntaxique mais dont l’unicité réside dans une opposition binaire fondamentale enracinée lexicalement. Nous avons ainsi dépassé la simple distinction entre contraires et contradictoires pour entrer dans la fascinante diversité de l’opposition et montrer comme les notions de graduation, de graduabilité, de scalarité, de borne et de seuil se combinent pour forger l’identité sémantique de chaque paire d’antonymes, la rapprocher ou la distinguer des autres. Grâce à l’analyse empirique d’énoncés extraits du journal Le Monde, nous avons montré que la co-présence antonymique en contexte s’appuie pour faire sens sur les relations antonymiques inscrites dans la mémoire linguistique des locuteurs, où sont fortement associées la forme et le sens des antonymes. Nous avons également montré comment la plongée de deux antonymes dans un contexte d’emploi peut moduler leur opposition et la définition du lexème neutre ou intermédiaire, lorsqu’il existe. Les antonymes co-présents, grâce aux rôles sémantico-syntaxiques qu’ils peuvent jouer, contribuent à la structuration des énoncés dans lesquels ils sont employés parce qu’ils organisent les unités qui les entourent sur le plan sémantico-référentiel. [less ▲]

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See detailTheoretical studies of gravitational lensing phenomena: the case of multiply imaged quasars
Wertz, Olivier ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

In the early 1960s, gravitational lensing has received a special attention when S. Liebes and S. Refsdal have derived in detail some of the basic equations of the theory. While Liebes (1964) discussed the ... [more ▼]

In the early 1960s, gravitational lensing has received a special attention when S. Liebes and S. Refsdal have derived in detail some of the basic equations of the theory. While Liebes (1964) discussed the probability of detecting these effects and considered several astrophysical applications, Refsdal (1964) derived, inter alia, his famous relation which links the Hubble parameter (H0) to the expected time delays between pairs of lensed images. From that moment, the scientific community fully realized that gravitational lensing effects offer a new way of probing cosmology. However, an important fact has been to accept that the determination of H0 seems to be model dependent, not only on the universe model, but also on the mass distribution of the deflector. The main topic of the present thesis constitutes a straight continuation of this inquiry. We have been sounding parts of the mathematical lensing framework on two fronts. First, considering to first order a very small misalignment between the source, the lens and the observer, we have derived the expressions of the lensed image positions along with their amplification ratios, for the case of power-law axially symmetric mass distributions, the so-called ε-γ family of models (Wertz, Pelgrims & Surdej, 2012). After combining these results, it has allowed us to derive an expression for H0 independently of the model parameters. We have extended this study to the ε-γ family of models with external shear, as well as to the singular isothermal ellipsoid (SIE) models. For both these types of models, we have obtained an expression of H0 which is once again independent, to first order, of the model parameters. Furthermore, even though these families of models remain rigorously distinct, except for the singular isothermal sphere (SIS) and the perfect alignment, the expression of H0 in terms of observable quantities and of the source position takes surprisingly the same simple form. In addition, we have demonstrated the feasibility of analytically constraining to first order the model parameters by only using the astrometric positions of the lensed images. Therefore, for the case of a small misalignment between the source, the deflector and the observer, it is straightforward to determine whether the ε-γ or SIE family of models constitutes a judicious representation of the mass distribution of the deflector. It is conceivable that similar results can be deduced for other families of models. Secondly, we have developed a new analytical approach in order to determine the expression of the deflection angle, hereafter α. Since the latter depends on the deflector mass distribution, there exists no global explicit expression but only an implicit definition of α. Therefore, the analytical methods used to obtain the explicit expression differ for different types of mass distribution. However, using the Fourier transform theory, one may basically express α in terms of the Fourier transform of the surface mass density. Such a method allows us to approach any mass distribution in a unique way. As a first application, we have separately derived the expression of the two components of α for the case of homoeoidal symmetric lenses (Wertz & Surdej, 2013). This original result constitutes a first proof that the Fourier approach constitutes a promising alternative to the complex formalism introduced by Bourassa & Kantowski (1975, corrected by Bray 1984). A particular case of homoeoidal symmetric lenses lies in the non-singular isothermal ellipsoid (NSIE) family of models for which the analytical treatment has been somewhat limited (Kormann & al. 1994). The use of the Fourier approach has made possible to derive a complete analytical treatment of the NSIE, i.e. the expressions of the deflection angle, the deflection potential, and the critical and caustic curves even off the axis (Wertz & Surdej, submitted to MNRAS in february 2014). This original result has allowed us to investigate and better understand this family of models. Furthermore, it is of great interest for mass distribution modeling and to rigorously determine the expected time delays between pairs of lensed images. The previous analytical treatments mainly consisted of parametrical models for the deflector. An alternative way to grasp lenses consists in modeling their mass distribution using non-parametric models. With this aim in mind, we have proceeded as follows: we tessellate the lens plane with squared pixels, and associate to each of them a constant surface mass density. Making use of the Fourier approach, we have derived the expression of the deflection angle for the whole grid. This result contains the main advantage of the non-parametric models, i.e. to model any type of mass distribution without any preconception, and the usefulness of handling quantities which can be described with analytical functions. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium
Nahayo, Adrien; Bardiau, Marjorie ULg; Volpe, Rosario ULg et al

in BMC Veterinary Research (2014), 10(80),

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne pathogen of veterinary and human importance. Both ticks as vectors and vertebrates as reservoir hosts are essential for the cycle maintenance of this bacterium ... [more ▼]

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne pathogen of veterinary and human importance. Both ticks as vectors and vertebrates as reservoir hosts are essential for the cycle maintenance of this bacterium. Currently, the whole range of animal species reservoirs for A. phagocytophilum in natural environment is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum in the wild boar population in southern Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detail“Fairebel” fair milk: a multi-level innovation
Feyereisen, Marlène ULg; Melard, François ULg

Conference (2014, April)

The research focuses on the case study of the Belgian fair-trade milk “Fairebel”, which was created by dairy farmers a few months after the 2009 European milk crisis. This innovation is overseen by the ... [more ▼]

The research focuses on the case study of the Belgian fair-trade milk “Fairebel”, which was created by dairy farmers a few months after the 2009 European milk crisis. This innovation is overseen by the “Fair Milk” programme set up by the European Milk Board (EMB), a European organization of dairy farmers, which has established five fair-trade milk labels in European countries (Austria, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France). At the Belgian level, the case study of the “Fairebel” project shows how the dairy system is institutionally, politically, and technically locked in. In such an irreversible system, the developers of “Fairebel” have had to use cunning and espouse some contradictions (even inconsistencies) in order to build their idea of fair-trade milk and to achieve its commercialization in the real world of commodities. Also, the “Fairebel” project is trying to increase the market power of dairy farmers and by-passes entirely the dairy industry in Belgium, which refused to support the project. For example, the developers of “Fairebel” stock up on the spot market and the Fairebel” milk cartons are produced and filled by the Luxembourg co-operative dairy Luxlait. On this level, the “Fairebel” project is more a “reorientation of trajectories” than a radical transition of the system: It uses internal resources of the main system to try to change some of its detrimental consequences, such as the prices paid to dairy farmers, without forcing through associated structural transitions. On the European level of the EMB, in which “Fairebel” participates, the transition of the system is radicalized by changing the character and the structure of the regime itself (e.g. CAP): reversal of the balance of power between dairy farmers and dairy processors, re-appropriation of the means of production by the farmers, and modification of the economic and trade rules of the dairy products (e.g., monitoring agency). Taken together, these two levels of this fair-milk innovation strengthen each other, so that the transition that “Fairebel” has inspired is more radical than it would seem when the Belgian level is considered alone. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of synovitis in osteoarthritis: Evidence for the use of glycosaminoglycans against synovial inflammation.
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Lambert, Cécile ULg; Richette, Pascal

in Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism (2014), 43(5), 579-87

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See detailA geochemical and petrological study of the Late Cretaceous banatites from the Apuseni Mountains, Romania
Vander Auwera, Jacqueline ULg; Berza, Tudor; Dupont, Alain et al

Poster (2014, April)

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See detailPhysical Education Stimulating a Healthy Lifestyle and Critical Sports Consumption in Belgium
De Martelaer, Kristine; Seghers, Jan; Cardon, Greet et al

in Chin, Ming-Kai; Edginton, Christopher (Eds.) Physical Education and Health Global Perspectives and Best Practice (2014)

In this chapter, the authors describe the situation and challenges of Physical Education (PE) in Flanders and Wallonia in order to encourage young people to adopt a healthy lifestyle and to become ... [more ▼]

In this chapter, the authors describe the situation and challenges of Physical Education (PE) in Flanders and Wallonia in order to encourage young people to adopt a healthy lifestyle and to become critical sports consumers. In school-age children, about one out of six has problems with obesity/overweight. Compared with earlier measurements there is a trend of increasing sedentary time per day and not enough physical activity (PA) to reach international norms. Girls can be definitely considered as a public at risk regarding the physical activity component of their healthy lifestyle. In recent years, the emphasis has shifted from motor- and/or physical-testing towards the development of a positive attitude towards physical activity and being socially engaged. The main concern of the course-specific final attainment levels is teaching how to deal with the current movement culture of games, sports, fitness, and daily activity. In both regions, it is expected that children are taught to transfer movement and personally-related competencies learned in PE to other contexts. Initiatives to develop and enhance links between PE and other opportunities to be physically active in the wider community are receiving more attention during the last few years, but the situation is still far from ideal. Because of the complex role of promoting a healthy lifestyle during PE and in the whole school, there is a need to educate teachers during their teacher training and lifelong education on how to provide relevant choices, satisfying the need for autonomy. [less ▲]

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See detailBrown rust disease control in winter wheat: I. Exploring an approach for disease progression based on night weather conditions
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg

in Environmental Science & Pollution Research (2014), 21(4), 4797-4808

An empirical approach for simulating the infection and progress of leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) during stem elongation on winter wheat was analysed for the 2000 to 2006 growing seasons. The ... [more ▼]

An empirical approach for simulating the infection and progress of leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) during stem elongation on winter wheat was analysed for the 2000 to 2006 growing seasons. The approach was elaborated based on night weather conditions (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and leaf rust occurrences. Data from three consecutive cropping seasons (2000-2002) at four representative sites of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg were used in the set-up phase. The capability to correctly simulate the occurrence expression of P. triticina infections on the upper leaf layers was then assessed over the 2003-2006 period. Our study revealed that the development of leaf rust required a period of at least 12 consecutive hours with air temperatures ranging between 8 and 16 °C, a relative humidity greater than 60 % (optimal values being 12-16 °C and up to 80 % for air temperatures and relative humidity, respectively) and rainfall less than 1 mm. Moreover, leaf rust occurrences and infections were satisfactorily simulated. The false alarm ratio was ranged from 0.06 to 0.20 in all the study sites. The probability of detection and critical success index for WLR infection were also close to 1 (perfect score). [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing meltwater discharge from the Nuuk region of the Greenland ice sheet and implications for mass balance (1960-2012)
Van As, D; Andersen, ML; Petersen, D et al

in Journal of Glaciology (2014), 60(220), 314-322

We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region ... [more ▼]

We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region encompasses six glaciers that drain into Godtha ̊bsfjord. RCM data (1960–2012) are resampled to a high spatial resolution to include the narrow (relative to the native grid spacing) glacier trunks in the ice mask. Comparing RCM gridded results with automatic weather station (AWS) point measurements reveals that locally models can underestimate ablation and overestimate accumulation by up to tens of per cent. However, comparison with lake discharge indicates that modelled regional runoff totals are more accurate. Model results show that melt and runoff in the Nuuk region have doubled over the past two decades. Regional SMB attained negative values in recent high-melt years. Taking into account frontal ablation of the marine-terminating glaciers, the region lost 10–20 km3 w.e. a–1 in 2010–12. If 2010 melting prevails during the remainder of this century, a low-end estimate of sea-level rise of 5 mm is expected by 2100 from this relatively small section (2.6%) of the ice sheet alone. [less ▲]

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