Last 7 days
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEconomics of a decision-support system for managing the main fungal diseases of winter wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Beyer, Marco et al

in Field Crops Research (2015), 172(2), 32-41

We evaluated the cost effectiveness of a decision-support system (DSS) developed for assessing in real time the risk of progression of the main fungal diseases (i.e., Septoria leaf blotch, powdery mildew ... [more ▼]

We evaluated the cost effectiveness of a decision-support system (DSS) developed for assessing in real time the risk of progression of the main fungal diseases (i.e., Septoria leaf blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rusts and Fusarium head blight) of winter wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (GDL). The study was conducted in replicated field experiments located in four agricultural locations (representative of the main agro-ecological regions of the country) over a 10-year period (2003-2012). Three fungicide spray strategies were compared: a single DSS-based system and two commonly used spray practices in the GDL, a double- (2T)- and a triple- spray (3T) spray treatment; there was also a non-treated control. In years with a high disease pressure, the DSS-based recommendation resulted in protection of the three upper leaves comparable to that achieved with the 2T and 3T treatments, with significant grain yield increases (P > 0.05) compared to the control (a 4 to 42% increase, depending on the site and year). Overall, the financial gain in treated plots compared with the control ranged from 3 to 16% at the study sites. Furthermore, in seasons when dry weather conditions precluded epidemic development, no the DSS-basedDSS recommended no fungicide spray was recommended, reducing use of fungicide, and thus saving the cost of the product. The gain in yield for the 2T and 3T plots (compared with control) did not necessarily result in a financial gain during the duration of the experiment. This study demonstrates the potential advantages and profitability of using a DSS -based approach for disease management. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA comparison between visual estimates and image analysis measurements to determine Septoria leaf blotch severity in winter wheat
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Mackels, Christophe et al

in Plant Pathology (2015)

Methods to estimate disease severity vary in accuracy, reliability, ease of use and cost. Severity of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria graminicola) was estimated by four raters and by ... [more ▼]

Methods to estimate disease severity vary in accuracy, reliability, ease of use and cost. Severity of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria graminicola) was estimated by four raters and by image analysis (assumed actual values) on individual leaves of winter wheat in order to explore accuracy and reliability of estimates, and to ascertain whether there were any general characteristics of error. Specifically, (i) we determined the accuracy and reliability of visual assessments of SLB over the full range of severity from 0 to 100%, and we investigated (ii) whether certain 10% ranges in actual disease severity between 0 and 100% were more prone to estimation error compared with others, and (iii) whether leaf position affected accuracy within those ranges. Lin's concordance correlation analysis of all severities (0 to 100%) demonstrated that all raters had estimates close to the actual values (agreement: ρc = 0.92-0.99). However, agreement between actual SLB severities and estimates by raters was less good when compared over short 10% subdivisions within the 0-100% range (ρc = -0.12 to 0.99). Despite common rater imprecision at estimating low and high SLB severities, individual raters differed considerably in their accuracy over the short 10% subdivisions. There was no effect of leaf position on accuracy or precision of severity estimate on separate leaves (L1-L3). Pursuing efforts in understanding error in disease estimation should aid in improving the accuracy of assessments, making visual estimates of disease severity more useful for research and applied purposes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Review of Pharmaceutical Extrusion: Critical Process Parameters and Scaling-up
Thiry, Justine ULg; Krier, Fabrice ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2015), 479(1), 227-240

Hot melt extrusion has been a widely used process in the pharmaceutical area for three decades. In this field, it is important to optimize the formulation in order to meet specific requirements. However ... [more ▼]

Hot melt extrusion has been a widely used process in the pharmaceutical area for three decades. In this field, it is important to optimize the formulation in order to meet specific requirements. However, the process parameters of the extruder should be as much investigated as the formulation since they have a major impact on the final product characteristics. Moreover, a design space should be defined in order to obtain the expected product within the defined limits. This gives some freedom to operate as long as the processing parameters stay within the limits of the design space. Those limits can be investigated by varying randomly the process parameters but it is recommended to use design of experiments. An examination of the literature is reported in this review to summarize the impact of the variation of the process parameters on the final product properties. Indeed, the homogeneity of the mixing, the state of the drug (crystalline or amorphous), the dissolution rate, the residence time, can be influenced by variations in the process parameters. In particular, the impact of the following process parameters: temperature, screw design, screw speed and feeding, on the final product, has been reviewed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe summer 2012 Greenland heat wave: in situ and remote sensing observations of water vapour isotopic composition during an atmospheric river event†
Bonne, JL; Steen-Larsen, HC; Risi, C. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2015)

During July 7-12, 2012, extreme moist and warm conditions occurred over Greenland, leading to widespread surface melt. To investigate the physical processes during the atmospheric moisture transport of ... [more ▼]

During July 7-12, 2012, extreme moist and warm conditions occurred over Greenland, leading to widespread surface melt. To investigate the physical processes during the atmospheric moisture transport of this event, we study the water vapour isotopic composition using surface in situ observations in Bermuda Island, South Greenland coast (Ivittuut) and Northwest Greenland ice sheet (NEEM), as well as remote sensing observations (IASI instrument on-board MetOp-A), depicting propagation of similar surface and mid-tropospheric humidity and δD signals. Simulations using Lagrangian moisture source diagnostic and water tagging in a regional model showed that Greenland was affected by an atmospheric river transporting moisture from the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, which is coherent with observations of snow pit impurities deposited at NEEM. At Ivittuut, surface air temperature, humidity and δD increases are observed. At NEEM, similar temperature increase is associated with a large and long-lasting ~100 δD enrichment and ~15 deuterium excess decrease, thereby reaching Ivittuut level. We assess the simulation of this event in two isotope-enabled atmospheric general circulation models (LMDz-iso and ECHAM5-wiso). LMDz-iso correctly captures the timing of propagation for this event identified in IASI data but depict too gradual variations when compared to surface data. Both models reproduce the surface meteorological and isotopic values during the event but underestimate the background deuterium excess at NEEM. Cloud liquid water content parametrization in LMDz-iso poorly impacts the vapour isotopic composition. Our data demonstrate that during this atmospheric river event the deuterium excess signal is conserved from the moisture source to Northwest Greenland. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLes PPP comme nouveau mode de régulation du marché de l'accompagnement des demandeurs d'emploi. A chaque modèle de partenariat son type de stratégie
Remy, Céline ULg

in Cahiers Loyola (2015, February), 1

Cette communication vise à montrer en quoi les partenariats publics-privés (PPP) constituent désormais un nouveau mode de régulation du marché de l’accompagnement des demandeurs d’emploi. Les services ... [more ▼]

Cette communication vise à montrer en quoi les partenariats publics-privés (PPP) constituent désormais un nouveau mode de régulation du marché de l’accompagnement des demandeurs d’emploi. Les services publics de l’emploi (SPE) doivent établir des PPP avec des prestataires de service pour la mise en place de formation à destination des demandeurs d’emploi. La réalisation de trois études de cas au sein des SPE, dont deux en Belgique et une en Suisse, nous permet de mettre en évidence une forte influence du modèle de gestion du PPP sur la collaboration entre les parties-prenantes mais aussi sur les stratégies développées par les prestataires pour surmonter les problèmes liés à la collaboration avec l’Office de l’Emploi et à la mise en place de la prestation de service. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of low dose endosulfan exposure on brain neurotransmitter levels in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis
Preud'Homme, Valérie; Milla, Sylvain; Gillardin, Virginie et al

in Chemosphere (2015), 120(2), 357-364

Understanding the impact of pesticides in amphibians is of growing concern to assess the causes of their decline. Among pesticides, endosulfan belongs to one of the potential sources of danger because of ... [more ▼]

Understanding the impact of pesticides in amphibians is of growing concern to assess the causes of their decline. Among pesticides, endosulfan belongs to one of the potential sources of danger because of its wide use and known effects, particularly neurotoxic, on a variety of organisms. However, the effect of endosulfan was not yet evaluated on amphibians at levels encompassing simultaneously brain neurotransmitters and behavioural endpoints. In this context, tadpoles of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis were submitted to four treatments during 27 d: one control, one ethanol control, and two low environmental concentrations of endosulfan (0.1 and 1 μg L−1). Endosulfan induced a significant increase of brain serotonin level at both concentrations and a significant increase of brain dopamine and GABA levels at the lower exposure but acetylcholinesterase activity was not modified by the treatment. The gene coding for the GABA transporter 1 was up-regulated in endosulfan contaminated tadpoles while the expression of other genes coding for the neurotransmitter receptors or for the enzymes involved in their metabolic pathways was not significantly modified by endosulfan exposure. Endosulfan also affected foraging, and locomotion in links with the results of the physiological assays, but no effects were seen on growth. These results show that low environmental concentrations of endosulfan can induce adverse responses in X. laevis tadpoles. At a broader perspective, this suggests that more research using and linking multiple markers should be used to understand the complex mode of action of pollutants. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 80 (29 ULg)
See detailLa démocratie sous expertise. Médias, think tanks et privatisation du débat européen (en préparation, parution début 2015)
Geuens, Geoffrey ULg

Book published by Éditions du Croquant, collection "Savoir / Agir" (2015)

L’ouvrage questionne la genèse des think tanks eurofédéralistes participant à la fabrication et à la légitimation des politiques d’intégration, avant de s’intéresser à ces autres agents sociaux de ... [more ▼]

L’ouvrage questionne la genèse des think tanks eurofédéralistes participant à la fabrication et à la légitimation des politiques d’intégration, avant de s’intéresser à ces autres agents sociaux de production et de diffusion de la pensée européenne que sont notamment les correspondants bruxellois et éditorialistes de quelques grands médias européens. L’ouvrage montre combien le discours journalistique sur l’Europe et le discours de certains « spécialistes » des questions européennes, qui trouve aussi à s’exprimer dans l’espace médiatique, sont la plupart du temps limités à quelques expressions stéréotypées et argumentaires clichés s’expliquant autant par la position occupée dans le champ du pouvoir par les agents qui s’en font les relais que par les dispositions de ces mêmes agents sociaux à l’égard du « projet européen ». [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 103 (37 ULg)
Full Text
See detailExperimental modal analysis of nonlinear structures using broadband data
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Grappasonni, Chiara ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC) XXXIII (2015, February)

The objective of the present paper is to develop a rigorous identification methodology of nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) of engineering structures. This is achieved by processing experimental measurements ... [more ▼]

The objective of the present paper is to develop a rigorous identification methodology of nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) of engineering structures. This is achieved by processing experimental measurements collected under broadband forcing. The use of such a type of forcing signal allows to excite multiple NNMs simultaneously and, in turn, to save testing time. A two-step methodology integrating nonlinear system identification and numerical continuation of periodic solutions is proposed for the extraction of the individual NNMs from broadband input and output data. It is demonstrated using a numerical cantilever beam possessing a cubic nonlinearity at its free end. The proposed methodology can be viewed as a nonlinear generalization of the phase separation techniques routinely utilized for experimental modal analysis of linear structures. The paper ends with a comparison between this new nonlinear phase separation technique and a previously-developed nonlinear phase resonance method. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (8 ULg)
Full Text
See detailExperimental nonlinear identification of an aircraft with bolted connections
De Filippis, Giovanni; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC) XXXIII (2015, February)

Aircraft structures are known to be prone to nonlinear phenomena, especially as they constantly become lighter and hence more flexible. One specific challenge that is regularly encountered is the modeling ... [more ▼]

Aircraft structures are known to be prone to nonlinear phenomena, especially as they constantly become lighter and hence more flexible. One specific challenge that is regularly encountered is the modeling of the mounting interfaces between aircraft subcomponents. Indeed, for large amplitudes of vibration, such interfaces may loosen and, in turn, trigger complex mechanisms such as friction and clearances. In this context, the present work intends to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of the Morane–Saulnier Paris aircraft, accessible at ONERA. This aircraft possesses multiple bolted connections between two external fuel tanks and wing tips. The objective of the paper is specifically to carry out an adequate identification of the numerous nonlinearities affecting the dynamics of this full-scale structure. Nonlinearity detection and the subsequent subspace-based parameter estimation have been performed on experimental data, collected during an on-ground test campaign. Nonlinearity detection is first achieved by the comparison of frequency response functions estimated at low excitation level, with those obtained at high amplitude level, yielding insight towards accurately characterizing the behavior of the bolted connections. Then, a nonlinear subspace identification method is applied to measured data to estimate the linear and nonlinear parameters of the structure and novel strategies and tools that overcome specific arisen problems are developed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNonlinear generalization of Den Hartog׳s equal-peak method
Habib, Giuseppe ULg; Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Viguié, Régis et al

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2015), 52-53

This study addresses the mitigation of a nonlinear resonance of a mechanical system. In view of the narrow bandwidth of the classical linear tuned vibration absorber, a nonlinear absorber, termed the ... [more ▼]

This study addresses the mitigation of a nonlinear resonance of a mechanical system. In view of the narrow bandwidth of the classical linear tuned vibration absorber, a nonlinear absorber, termed the nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA), is introduced in this paper. An unconventional aspect of the NLTVA is that the mathematical form of its restoring force is tailored according to the nonlinear restoring force of the primary system. The NLTVA parameters are then determined using a nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog׳s equal-peak method. The mitigation of the resonant vibrations of a Duffing oscillator is considered to illustrate the proposed developments. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (6 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailApproaches for analyzing the roles of mast cells and their proteases in vivo.
Galli, Stephen J; Tsai, Mindy; Marichal, Thomas ULg et al

in Advances in Immunology (2015)

The roles of mast cells in health and disease remain incompletely understood. While the evidence that mast cells are critical effector cells in IgE-dependent anaphylaxis and other acute IgE-mediated ... [more ▼]

The roles of mast cells in health and disease remain incompletely understood. While the evidence that mast cells are critical effector cells in IgE-dependent anaphylaxis and other acute IgE-mediated allergic reactions seems unassailable, studies employing various mice deficient in mast cells or mast cell-associated proteases have yielded divergent conclusions about the roles of mast cells or their proteases in certain other immunological responses. Such “controversial” results call into question the relative utility of various older versus newer approaches to ascertain the roles of mast cells and mast cell proteases in vivo. This review discusses how both older and more recent mouse models have been used to investigate the functions of mast cells and their proteases in health and disease. We particularly focus on settings in which divergent conclusions about the importance of mast cells and their proteases have been supported by studies that employed different models of mast cell or mast cell protease deficiency. We think that two major conclusions can be drawn from such findings: (1) no matter which models of mast cell or mast cell protease deficiency one employs, the conclusions drawn from the experiments always should take into account the potential limitations of the models (particularly abnormalities affecting cell types other than mast cells) and (2) even when analyzing a biological response using a single model of mast cell or mast cell protease deficiency, details of experimental design are critical in efforts to define those conditions under which important contributions of mast cells or their proteases can be identified. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailRepriser, c’est aussi réparer son âme. Texte de présentation de la performance proposée par Cathy Alvarez
Molina Marmol, Maïté ULg

in Catalogue de l’exposition « Noir Chantilly. Féminisme(s) » (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailBridging the gap between Nonlinear Normal Modes and Modal Derivatives
Sombroek, Cees; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Tiso, Paolo et al

in Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC) XXXIII (2015, February)

Nonlinear Normal Modes (NNMs) have a clear conceptual relation to the classical linear normal modes (LNMs), yet they offer a solid theoretical framework for interpreting a wide class of non-linear ... [more ▼]

Nonlinear Normal Modes (NNMs) have a clear conceptual relation to the classical linear normal modes (LNMs), yet they offer a solid theoretical framework for interpreting a wide class of non-linear dynamical phenomena with no linear counterpart. The main difficulty associated with NNMs is that their calculation for large-scale models is expensive, particularly for distributed nonlinearities. Repeated direct time integrations need to be carried out together with extensive sensitivity analysis to reproduce the frequency-energy dependence of the modes of interest. In the present paper, NNMs are computed from a reduced model obtained using a quadratic transformation comprising LNMs and Modal Derivatives (MDs). Previous studies have shown that MDs can capture the essential dynamics of geometrically nonlinear structures and can greatly reduce the computational cost of time integration. A direct comparison with the NNMs computed from another standard reduction technique highlights the capability of the proposed reduction method to capture the essential nonlinear phenomena. The methodology is demonstrated using simple examples with 2 and 4 degrees of freedom. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOn modular decompositions of system signatures
Marichal, Jean-Luc; Mathonet, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Multivariate Analysis (2015), 134

Considering a semicoherent system made up of $n$ components having i.i.d. continuous lifetimes, Samaniego defined its structural signature as the $n$-tuple whose $k$-th coordinate is the probability that ... [more ▼]

Considering a semicoherent system made up of $n$ components having i.i.d. continuous lifetimes, Samaniego defined its structural signature as the $n$-tuple whose $k$-th coordinate is the probability that the $k$-th component failure causes the system to fail. This $n$-tuple, which depends only on the structure of the system and not on the distribution of the component lifetimes, is a very useful tool in the theoretical analysis of coherent systems. It was shown in two independent recent papers how the structural signature of a system partitioned into two disjoint modules can be computed from the signatures of these modules. In this work we consider the general case of a system partitioned into an arbitrary number of disjoint modules organized in an arbitrary way and we provide a general formula for the signature of the system in terms of the signatures of the modules. The concept of signature was recently extended to the general case of semicoherent systems whose components may have dependent lifetimes. The same definition for the $n$-tuple gives rise to the probability signature, which may depend on both the structure of the system and the probability distribution of the component lifetimes. In this general setting, we show how under a natural condition on the distribution of the lifetimes, the probability signature of the system can be expressed in terms of the probability signatures of the modules. We finally discuss a few situations where this condition holds in the non-i.i.d. and nonexchangeable cases and provide some applications of the main results. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailExperimental demonstration of a 3D-printed nonlinear tuned vibration absorber
Grappasonni, Chiara ULg; Habib, Giuseppe ULg; Detroux, Thibaut ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC) XXXIII (2015, February)

Engineering structures are designed to be lighter and more flexible, hence reducing the extent of application of linear dynamic models. Concurrently, vibration mitigation is required for enhancing the ... [more ▼]

Engineering structures are designed to be lighter and more flexible, hence reducing the extent of application of linear dynamic models. Concurrently, vibration mitigation is required for enhancing the performance, comfort or safety in real-life applications. Passive linear vibration absorbers are purpose-built, often designed using Den Hartog's equal-peak strategy. However, nonlinear systems are known to exhibit frequency-energy-dependent oscillations which linear absorbers cannot effectively damp out. In this context, the paper introduces a new nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA) whose nonlinear functional form is tailored according to the frequency-energy dependence of the nonlinear primary structure. The NLTVA design aims at ensuring equal peaks in the nonlinear receptance function for an as large as possible range of forcing amplitudes, hence generalizing Den Hartog's method to nonlinear systems. Our focus in this study is on experimental demonstration of the NLTVA performance using a primary structure consisting of a cantilever beam with a geometrically nonlinear component at its free end. The absorber is implemented using a doubly-clamped beam fabricated thanks to 3D printing. The NLTVA performance is also compared with that of the classical linear tuned vibration absorber. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPlace de la vitamine D native en dialyse
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; BOUQUEGNEAU, Antoine ULg; KRZESINSKI, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Néphrologie & Thérapeutique (2015), 11(1), 5-15

Chronic kidney disease is frequent and usually responsible of mineral and bone disorder. These abnormalities lead to increased morbidity and mortality. To become active, native vitamin D needs a first ... [more ▼]

Chronic kidney disease is frequent and usually responsible of mineral and bone disorder. These abnormalities lead to increased morbidity and mortality. To become active, native vitamin D needs a first hydroxylation in the liver, and a second one in the kidney. Next to its action on bone metabolism, vitamin D also possesses pleiotropic actions on cardiovascular, immune and neurological systems as well as antineoplastic activities. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is also associated with a decrease in vitamin D activity by mechanisms including the increase of plasma phosphate concentration, secretion of FGF- 23 and decrease in 1a-hydroxylase activity. The prevalence of 25 hydroxy-vitamin D deficiency depends on the chosen cut-off value to define this lack. Currently it is well established that a patient has to be substituted when 25 hydroxy-vitamin D level is under 30 ng/mL. The use and monitoring of 1.25 hydroxy-vitamin D is still not recommended in routine practice. The goals of vitamin D treatment in case of ESRD are to substitute the deficiency and to prevent or treat hyperparathyroidism. Interest of native vitamin D in first intention is now well demonstrated. This review article describes the vitamin D metabolism and physiology and also the treatment for vitamin D deficiency in ESRD population. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe dosage de la vitamine D: considérations pré-analytiques et analytiques
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Delvin, Edgard et al

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2015), 73(1), 79-92

The constantly increasing requests for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D over the last years has led reagent manufacturers to market different automated and semi-automated methods, that being ... [more ▼]

The constantly increasing requests for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D over the last years has led reagent manufacturers to market different automated and semi-automated methods, that being unfortunately not fully harmonized, yield different results. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has more recently been introduced. This approach allows the distinction between the two forms of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and to measure other metabolites. This approach also requires harmonization to curtail the differences between the different analytical methods. To meet this requirement, the American national institutes of health (NIH), the CDC (Center for disease control and prevention) in Atlanta, the NIST (National institute of standards and technology) and the vitamin D Reference laboratory of Ghent University have pooled their expertise to develop a standardization program. This article reviews the main elements and the difficulties of the automated and semi-automated methods for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, from sample preparation to the analytical phase, as well as those related to mass spectrometry. It also addresses the issues related to the clinical decision thresholds and the possibility of measurements in different biological liquids. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (7 ULg)
Full Text
See detailGeräusch, Gerücht, Gerede. Formen und Funktionen der Fama in Erzähltexten Theodor Storms und Arthur Schnitzlers
Leyh, Valérie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Dans sa représentation allégorique de Fama, le poète latin Ovide évoque trois phénomènes précis : son aspect acoustique (le bruit), sa forme discursive (les racontars) et son lien au récit (la rumeur ... [more ▼]

Dans sa représentation allégorique de Fama, le poète latin Ovide évoque trois phénomènes précis : son aspect acoustique (le bruit), sa forme discursive (les racontars) et son lien au récit (la rumeur). Alors que ces phénomènes ont très souvent fait l'objet d’études sociologiques et anthropologiques, il s’agit ici de les étudier en tant qu’objets d’un processus d’esthétisation. La thèse vise ainsi à décrire une « poétique de Fama » par l’analyse d’un choix de textes narratifs des auteurs germanophones Theodor Storm (1817 – 1888) et Arthur Schnitzler (1862 – 1931). En effet, les recherches récentes sur l’anticipation de la psychologie et sur les questions de perception chez Storm soulignent l’importance de stratégies narratives au caractère indirect, voilé et mettant à mal la plausibilité ; elles révèlent la nécessité d’étudier la rumeur comme élément thématique mais aussi structurel et formel. Les nombreux aspects de Fama intimement liés aux processus narratifs (polyphonie, psychologisation, contournement de la censure) permettent ensuite de confronter les textes de Storm à ceux de Schnitzler et d'y préciser les interactions subtiles entre bruit, racontars et rumeur. Dans ce traitement littéraire de Fama, il s’avère en outre primordial de mettre en lumière ses multiples fonctions selon les différents niveaux textuels (personnages, narrateur, auteur) et d’accorder une place au lecteur qui, dans une approche interactionnelle du récit, prend souvent part à la communication rumorale. Ces distinctions permettent de mettre en exergue la dimension poétologique de Fama dans ses différentes formes : si celle-ci participe à la création d’effets paradoxaux et de structures équivoques au sein des textes, c’est parce que la rumeur, en tant que forme de narration à caractère ambivalent et protéiforme, est fortement autoréflexive. L’instabilité et la contingence, l’indétermination de seuils et de frontières sont autant de traits qui caractérisent non seulement la rumeur et les racontars mais aussi les textes d’une époque marquée par de grandes mutations et par la mise en doute de valeurs et données acquises jusque-là. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (9 ULg)