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See detailLa paix de Fexhe
Masson, Christophe ULg

Book published by Ville de Liège (2017)

Catalogue de l'exposition "La Paix de Fexhe" (Grand Curtius, 3 février-30 avril 2017)

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See detailCombattre le travail des enfants? Politiques et acteurs d'une lutte controversée au Burkina Faso
Wouango, Joséphine ULg

Book published by L'Harmattan (2017)

Malgré le renforcement de la législation depuis 1990 et la lutte engagée depuis 2000, le travail des enfants continue d’être une question préoccupante au Burkina Faso. Pourquoi ? Alors que la lutte pour ... [more ▼]

Malgré le renforcement de la législation depuis 1990 et la lutte engagée depuis 2000, le travail des enfants continue d’être une question préoccupante au Burkina Faso. Pourquoi ? Alors que la lutte pour son abolition, dans le pays, n’a jamais connu un tel intérêt, comment comprendre que de nombreux enfants continuent de travailler, souvent dans des conditions qui relèvent des « pires formes » de travail des enfants, selon les critères de l’OIT ? Que pensent et disent les enfants travailleurs sur cette lutte engagée contre leur travail ? Telles sont les questions que l’ouvrage se propose de développer. À partir d’une enquête de terrain de longue durée au Burkina Faso, cet ouvrage offre une analyse des conditions d’émergence, de traduction et d’application des politiques internationales de lutte contre le travail des enfants. En confrontant à un corpus empirique inédit les théories et les interprétations dominantes, l’ouvrage propose une relecture de la sociologie et de l’anthropologie de l’enfance et de l’analyse des politiques publiques. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenotypes to genetically reduce greenhouse gas emissions in dairying
de Haas, Yvette; Pszczola, Marcin; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2017), 100(2), 855-870

Phenotypes have been reviewed to select for lower-emitting animals in order to decrease the environmental footprint of dairy cattle products. This includes direct selection for breath measurements, as ... [more ▼]

Phenotypes have been reviewed to select for lower-emitting animals in order to decrease the environmental footprint of dairy cattle products. This includes direct selection for breath measurements, as well as indirect selection via indicator traits such as feed intake, milk spectral data, and rumen microbial communities. Many of these traits are expensive or difficult to record, or both, but with genomic selection, inclusion of methane emission as a breeding goal trait is feasible, even with a limited number of registrations. At present, methane emission is not included among breeding goals for dairy cattle worldwide. There is no incentive to include enteric methane in breeding goals, although global warming and the release of greenhouse gases is a much-debated political topic. However, if selection for reduced methane emission became a reality, there would be limited consensus as to which phenotype to select for: methane in liters per day or grams per day, methane in liters per kilogram of energy-corrected milk or dry matter intake, or a residual methane phenotype, where methane production is corrected for milk production and the weight of the cow. We have reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of these traits, and discuss the methods for selection and consequences for these phenotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailIs langdurig ziekteverzuim voorspelbaar en meetbaar ?
Goorts, Kaat; Duchesnes, Christiane ULg; Vandenbroeck, Sofie et al

in Tijdschrift voor Bedrijfs- en Verzekeringsgeneeskunde (2017), 25(2), 59-62

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See detailApplication of design space optimization strategy to the developmentof LC methods for simultaneous analysis of 18 antiretroviral medicinesand 4 major excipients used in various pharmaceutical formulations
Habyalimana, Védaste ULg; Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie ULg; Yemoa, Loconon ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2017), 139

tAs one of the world’s most significant public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries,HIV/AIDS deserves to be treated with appropriate medicines, however which are not spared from coun ... [more ▼]

tAs one of the world’s most significant public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries,HIV/AIDS deserves to be treated with appropriate medicines, however which are not spared from coun-terfeiting. For that, we developed screening and specific HPLC methods that can analyze 18 antiretroviralmedicines (ARV) and 4 major excipients. Design of experiments and design space methodology wereinitially applied for 15 ARV and the 4 excipients with prediction thanks to Monte Carlo simulations andfocusing on rapidity and affordability thus using short column and low cost organic solvent (methanol)in gradient mode with 10 mM buffer solutions of ammonium hydrogen carbonate. Two other specificmethods dedicated to ARV in liquid and in solid dosage formulations were also predicted and opti-mized. We checked the ability of one method for the analysis of a fixed-dose combination composedby emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz in tablet formulations. Satisfying validation results were obtainedby applying the total error approach taking into account the accuracy profile as decision tool. Then, thevalidated method was applied to test two samples coded A and B, and claimed to contain the tested ARV.Assay results were satisfying only for sample B. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l'évaluation des Enseignements à la régulation des pratiques des enseignants: quels possibles et quelles conditions ?
Detroz, Pascal ULg; Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

in Education & Formation (2017), e307

Cet article propose une modélisation des divers usages des résultats de l’évaluation des enseignements par les étudiants (EEE). Nous considérons l’usage et les effets sur les enseignements, mais également ... [more ▼]

Cet article propose une modélisation des divers usages des résultats de l’évaluation des enseignements par les étudiants (EEE). Nous considérons l’usage et les effets sur les enseignements, mais également ceux produits sur le développement pédagogique des enseignants. Nous déterminons ensuite certains éléments du dispositif EEE favorisant une utilisation accrue et pertinente. [less ▲]

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See detailPédagogie universitaire et Evaluation de l’enseignement par les étudiants 
Younes, Nathalie; Paivendi, Saeed; Detroz, Pascal ULg

in Education & Formation (2017), e307

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See detailAn App-based Algorithmic Approach for Harvesting Local and Renewable Energy Using Electric Vehicles
Dubois, Antoine; Wehenkel, Antoine; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART 2017) (2017, February)

The emergence of electric vehicles (EVs), combined with the rise of renewable energy production capacities, will strongly impact the way electricity is produced, distributed and consumed in the very near ... [more ▼]

The emergence of electric vehicles (EVs), combined with the rise of renewable energy production capacities, will strongly impact the way electricity is produced, distributed and consumed in the very near future. This position paper focuses on the problem of optimizing charging strategies for a fleet of EVs in the context where a significant amount of electricity is generated by (distributed) renewable energy. It exposes how a mobile application may offer an efficient solution for addressing this problem. This app can play two main roles. Firstly, it would incite and help people to play a more active role in the energy sector by allowing photovoltaic (PV) panel owners to sell their electrical production directly to consumers, here the EVs’ agents. Secondly, it would help distribution system operators (DSOs) or transmission system operators (TSOs) to modulate more efficiently the load by allowing them to influence EV charging behaviour in real time. Finally, the present paper advocates for the introduction of a two-sided market-type model between EV drivers and electricity producers. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal changes in groundwater quality of the Saloum coastal aquifer
Dieng, Ndeye Maguette ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg; Otten, Joël ULg et al

in Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies (2017), 9

Abstract Study region: Groundwater in the southern part of the Saloum Basin in Senegal. Study focus: The Saloum estuary is a hypersaline and ‘inverse’ estuary where the salinity of river water increases ... [more ▼]

Abstract Study region: Groundwater in the southern part of the Saloum Basin in Senegal. Study focus: The Saloum estuary is a hypersaline and ‘inverse’ estuary where the salinity of river water increases in the upstream direction. This region is problematic in that due to the underlain superficial Continental Terminal aquifer bordered by the hypersaline estuary constitutes the unique fresh groundwater reservoir for water supply for its estimated 466,000 residents living in 18 rural districts (belonging to the regions of Fatick, Kaolack and Kaffrine). This is of high value given that the deep Maastrichtian aquifer (200-300m depth) is saline. This study aims to describe and understand temporal changes in the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater, the geochemical processes and especially the groundwater salinization. New hydrological insights for the region: The analytical data were discriminated into 3 groups on the basis of the water types. Na-Cl, Ca-Cl and Ca-SO4 rich waters derived from saline water intrusion at the vicinity of the Saloum River accompanied by ion exchange reactions and pollution dominate the first group. The second group located mainly in the centre and eastern parts of the region is featured fresh groundwater of Ca-HCO3 derived from calcite dissolution reactions. The third group of Na-HCO3 type and less mineralized indicates freshening processes by recently infiltrating rainwaters. Slight seasonal chemical variations are observed due to new infiltrating water reaching the water table. High variation in rainfall between the 2 reference years (2003 and 2012) also changes chemical patterns in the groundwater. Chemical evolution of the groundwater is geographically observed and is due to a combination of dilution by recharge, anthropic contamination and seawater intrusion. The results of environmental isotopes (δ18O, δ2H) compared with the local meteoric line indicate that the groundwater has been affected by evaporation processes before and during infiltration. The results also clearly indicate mixing with saltwater and an evolution towards relative freshening between 2003 and 2012 in some wells near the Saloum River. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a community-based concession model in the DRC
Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Karsenty, Alain

in International Forestry Review (2017)

In 2014 Decree 14/018 laying down the rules for granting forest concessions to local communities, followed by Ministerial Order 0/25 on the same issue, was published in the DRC. This paper aims to analyse ... [more ▼]

In 2014 Decree 14/018 laying down the rules for granting forest concessions to local communities, followed by Ministerial Order 0/25 on the same issue, was published in the DRC. This paper aims to analyse the abovementioned legislation with respect to participatory management of forests. The explicit recognition of the duality of a customary de facto local community forest and a modern legal entity (concession) is an innovation. However, viewed from the perspective of the long-established habits within the country, the question remains whether these legal measures can be sufficient for ensuring the sustainable development of these community-held forested areas. Allowing community concessions up to 50,000 ha demonstrated a shift in the government policy away from the industrial timber cultivation model. However, an area this size is much larger than the communities can monitor, particularly in the case of artisanal charcoal or wood exploitation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Martian diffuse aurora: a model of ultraviolet and visible emissions
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Soret, Lauriane ULg; Shematovich, V.I. et al

in Icarus (2017), 288

A new type of Martian aurora, characterized by an extended spatial distribution, an altitude lower than the discrete aurora and electron precipitation up to 200 keV has been observed following solar ... [more ▼]

A new type of Martian aurora, characterized by an extended spatial distribution, an altitude lower than the discrete aurora and electron precipitation up to 200 keV has been observed following solar activity on several occasions from the MAVEN spacecraft. We describe the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the production of several ultraviolet and violet auroral emissions for initial electron energies extending from 0.25 to 200 keV. These include the CO2+ ultraviolet doublet (UVD) at 288.3 and 289.6 nm and the Fox–Duffendack–Barker (FDB) bands, CO Cameron and Fourth Positive bands, OI 130.4 and 297.2 nm and CI 156.1 nm and 165.7 nm multiplets. We calculate the nadir and limb production rates of several of these emissions for a unit precipitated energy flux. Our results indicate that electrons in the range 50-200 keV produce maximum CO2+ UVD emission below 75 km, in agreement with the MAVEN observations. We calculate the efficiency of photon production per unit precipitated electron power. The strongest emissions are the CO2+ FDB, UVD and CO Cameron bands and the oxygen mission at 297.2 nm. The metastable a 3Π state which radiates the Cameron bands is deactivated by collisions below about 110 km. As a consequence, we show that the Cameron band emission is expected to peak at a higher altitude than the CO2+ UVD and FDB bands. Collisional quenching also causes the intensity ratio of the CO2+ UVD to CO Cameron bands to increase below ∼100 km in the energetic diffuse aurora. [less ▲]

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See detailTraitement du pectus excavatum chez le chat
Hamon, Martin ULg; Claeys, Stéphanie ULg

in Monde Vétérinaire (Le) (2017), 166

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See detailPetite apologie de l'analogie en mathématiques
Bair, Jacques ULg

E-print/Working paper (2017)

L'analogie est souvent utilisée par les mathématiciens car elle s'avère déterminante très souvent dans la création de mathématiques nouvelles. Pour illustrer simplement ces propos, nous présentons deux ... [more ▼]

L'analogie est souvent utilisée par les mathématiciens car elle s'avère déterminante très souvent dans la création de mathématiques nouvelles. Pour illustrer simplement ces propos, nous présentons deux exemples, l'un de géométrie et l'autre d'analyse, qui ont été initialement développés par G. Polya. Une brève biographie de cet auteur est présentée en fin d'article. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between ambulatory physical activity assessed by activity trackers and physical frailty among nursing home residents.
Buckinx, Fanny ULg; Mouton, Alexandre ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Gait & Posture (2017), 54

BACKGROUNDS: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the level of ambulatory physical activity, measured by physical activity tracker, and the clinical components of physical frailty ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUNDS: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the level of ambulatory physical activity, measured by physical activity tracker, and the clinical components of physical frailty, among nursing home residents. METHODS: We proceeded in 3 steps: (1) Validation of the physical activity tracker (i.e. the Pebble): 24 volunteer adults walked on a treadmill. The number of steps recorded by the Pebble worn by the subjects was compared with the number of steps counted by the investigators, by means of the Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). (2) Measurement of ambulatory physical activity, using the Pebble trackers, over a 7-day period. (3) Relationship between the results obtained with the Pebble trackers (step 2) and subjects' clinical characteristics, linked to physical frailty. RESULTS: ICC data, showed that the reliability of the Pebble was better when it was worn at the foot level (ICC ranged from 0.60 to 0.93 depending on the tested speed). Gait speed is also an important determinant of the reliability, which is better for low gait speed. On average, the 27 nursing home residents included in the second step of this study walked 1678.4+/-1621 (median=1300) steps per day. Most physical components of frailty measured in this study were significantly different between subjects who walked less than 1300 steps per day and those who were more active. CONCLUSION: This study showed that nursing home residents have a poor ambulatory physical activity, assessed using a physical activity tracker, which is associated with poorer physical performances and higher disability. [less ▲]

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See detailAdverse Health Events Related to Self-Medication Practices Among Elderly: A Systematic Review.
Locquet, Médéa ULg; Honvo, Germain ULg; Rabenda, Véronique ULg et al

in Drugs & Aging (2017)

BACKGROUND: Older adults often resort to self-medication to relieve symptoms of their current illnesses; however, the risks of this practice are multiplied in old age. In particular, this age group is ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Older adults often resort to self-medication to relieve symptoms of their current illnesses; however, the risks of this practice are multiplied in old age. In particular, this age group is more vulnerable to adverse drug events because of the physiological changes that occur due to senescence. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to obtain an overview of the adverse health events related to self-medication among subjects aged 60 years and over through a systematic review of the literature. METHODS: A study of relevant articles was conducted among databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EBM Reviews-Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews). Eligibility criteria were established and applied by two investigators to include suitable studies. The results and outcomes of interest were detailed in a descriptive report. RESULTS: The electronic search identified 4096 references, and the full texts of 74 were reviewed, of which four were retained in the analysis: three had a cross-sectional design and one prospectively followed elderly subjects. The first study showed a 26.7% prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among elders, the second study found a 75% prevalence of side effects, and, finally, a prospective study showed an ADR incidence of 4.5% among self-medicated elders. These studies showed that adverse health events related to self-medication are relatively frequently reported. They also highlighted that analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs are the most self-medicated products, while vitamins and dietary supplements also appear to be frequently self-administered, but by older individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Studies on self-medication in the elderly and its adverse health effects are clearly lacking. There is a need to perform prospective studies on this topic to gain a clear understanding of the extent of this problem and to enhance the awareness of health professionals to better inform seniors. [less ▲]

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See detailTransformation identitaire, quête de sens et définition de Soi dans l’engagement radical violent
Garcet, Serge ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailTHE IMPACT OF SURFACTANTS ON VEGETBLE WHIPPED CREAM PROPERTIES IN RELATION WITH THE EMPLOYED FAT
Petrut, Raul Flaviu ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Vegetable whipped creams are nowadays a popular alternative to the traditional dairy whipped creams. The emulsions standing at the base of vegetable whipped creams are classified as O/W emulsions. During ... [more ▼]

Vegetable whipped creams are nowadays a popular alternative to the traditional dairy whipped creams. The emulsions standing at the base of vegetable whipped creams are classified as O/W emulsions. During whipping air is incorporated and entrapped by a fat crystallize network. This is achieved by the fat droplets interaction through the partial coalescence mechanism. Hence the presence of a crystalline fat phase is imperative within the formulation of the whipped cream. In order to control the partial coalescence and stabilize both the emulsion and the whipped cream, emulsifiers are required. Therefore in such systems, proteins and LMW surfactants coexists and dictate the degree and rate of partial coalesce. This allows the tailoring of the sensorial attributes and physico-chemical properties of the whipped cream (e.g. stability, overrun, texture). Nevertheless the impact of the components on the whipped cream properties has to be understood as a whole and not as individual effects of fats, proteins and LMW surfactants. [less ▲]

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See detailL'énonciation d'une synthèse
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques (2017)

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