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See detailL'Université de Liège et l'Allemagne durant l'entre-deux-guerres
Brüll, Christoph ULg

Scientific conference (2016, February 17)

The European scientific world was deeply affected by the Great War. Most links between academics were disrupted, and scholars gathered in two opposing groups. “Cultural demobilization” was a difficult ... [more ▼]

The European scientific world was deeply affected by the Great War. Most links between academics were disrupted, and scholars gathered in two opposing groups. “Cultural demobilization” was a difficult process. Until the middle of the 1920s, institutions would impose a “boycott” on the adversary camp, and few dared to transgress or ignore this. Taking the example of the historians, the conference will evoke the controversies caused by the renewal of scientific relations in Germany, in France and in Belgium. The efforts for the rebuilding of a common intellectual horizon were again frustrated by the rise of the Nazis in 1933. [less ▲]

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See detailNanocarriers for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme: Current state-of-the-art
Karim, Reatul ULg; Palazzo, Claudio ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2016)

Glioblastoma multiforme, a grade IV glioma, is the most frequently occurring and invasive primary tumor of the central nervous system, which causes about 4% of cancer-associated-deaths, making it one of ... [more ▼]

Glioblastoma multiforme, a grade IV glioma, is the most frequently occurring and invasive primary tumor of the central nervous system, which causes about 4% of cancer-associated-deaths, making it one of the most fatal cancers. With present treatments, using state-of-theart technologies, the median survival is about 14 months and 2 year survival rate is merely 3–5%. Hence, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently necessary. However, most drug molecules are not able to cross the blood–brain barrier, which is one of the major difficulties in glioblastoma treatment. This review describes the features of blood–brain barrier, and its anatomical changes with different stages of tumor growth. Moreover, various strategies to improve brain drug delivery i.e. tight junction opening, chemical modification of the drug, efflux transporter inhibition, convection-enhanced delivery, craniotomy-based drug delivery and drug delivery nanosystems are discussed. Nanocarriers are one of the highly potential drug transport systems that have gained huge research focus over the last few decades for site specific drug delivery, including drug delivery to the brain. Properly designed nanocolloids are capable to cross the blood–brain barrier and specifically deliver the drug in the brain tumor tissue. They can carry both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, protect them from degradation, release the drug for sustained period, significantly improve the plasma circulation half-life and reduce toxic effects. Among various nanocarriers, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles and lipid nanocapsules are the most widely studied, and are discussed in this review. For each type of nanocarrier, a general discussion describing their composition, characteristics, types and various uses is followed by their specific application to glioblastoma treatment. Moreover, some of the main challenges regarding toxicity and standardized evaluation techniques are narrated in brief. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal and quantum depletion of superconductivity in narrow junctions created by controlled electromigration
Baumans, Xavier ULg; Cerbu, Dorin; Adami, Obaïd-Allah ULg et al

in Nature Communications (2016), 7

Superconducting nanowires currently attract great interest due to their application in single-photon detectors and quantum-computing circuits. In this context, it is of fundamental importance to ... [more ▼]

Superconducting nanowires currently attract great interest due to their application in single-photon detectors and quantum-computing circuits. In this context, it is of fundamental importance to understand the detrimental fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter as the wire width shrinks. In this paper, we use controlled electromigration to narrow down aluminium nanoconstrictions. We demonstrate that a transition from thermally assisted phase slips to quantum phase slips takes place when the cross section becomes less than 150 nm2 . In the regime dominated by quantum phase slips the nanowire loses its capacity to carry current without dissipation, even at the lowest possible temperature. We also show that the constrictions exhibit a negative magnetoresistance at low-magnetic fields, which can be attributed to the suppression of superconductivity in the contact leads. These findings reveal perspectives of the proposed fabrication method for exploring various fascinating superconducting phenomena in atomic-size contacts. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenotypic characterization of the indigenous chickens (Gallus gallus) in the northwest of Algeria
Dalhoum, L.; Moula, Nassim ULg; Halbouche, M. et al

in Archiv für Tierzucht = Archives Animal Breeding (2016), 59

This study was conducted to characterize local chickens in the northwest of Algeria based on some phenotypic traits and to look at prediction of body weight from morphometric measurements (linear body ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted to characterize local chickens in the northwest of Algeria based on some phenotypic traits and to look at prediction of body weight from morphometric measurements (linear body). The results indicated that the predominant comb colour was dark red (77.8%), followed by light red (22.2%). Tarsus colour was either white (40.9%), grey (31%), yellow (15.39%), dark (8.05%), or green (4.51%). Most chickens (81.7%) had orange eyes, while 10.37 and 7.92% had yellow and dark-brown eyes, respectively. The dominant earlobe colour was white (73.96%), followed by red (16.81%). The remaining proportion included yellow and red-mottled yellow and black earlobes. Proportions of the adaptive genes were low. Incidences of Na, F, Pti, Cr, R, and P genes were 8.82, 0.45, 1.22, 5.54, 3.35, and 4.7%, respectively. The calculated gene frequencies ranged from 0.002 to 0.045. Variations were also found in quantitative morphological traits. Sex-associated differences (P<0.001) were observed in almost all the parameters evaluated with higher values recorded for males. Phenotypic correlations of body weight and biometric traits ranged from −0.13 to 0.88 and −0.15 to 0.97 for males and females, respectively. From the factor analysis with varimax rotation of the intercorrelated traits, three principal components which accounted for 71.6 and 73.2% of the total variance were extracted in males and females, respectively. Orthogonal body shape characters derived from the factor analysis accounted for 84.3 and 94.2% of the variation in body weight of males and females, respectively. Information obtained from this study could be useful in an appropriate management, breeding programmes for selection and utilization of Algerian chicken genetic resources. [less ▲]

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See detailQu'est-ce qu'un cycle arthurien en prose ?
Morato, Nicola ULg

Scientific conference (2016, February 16)

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See detailMise en recueil et cyclisation des textes de théâtre
Henrard, Nadine ULg

Conference (2016, February 16)

Sur la base de l'examen d'une variété de cas, cette étude s'intéresse à la manière dont se regroupent les textes de théâtre dans la tradition : rassemblement au sein des manuscrits, collections de textes ... [more ▼]

Sur la base de l'examen d'une variété de cas, cette étude s'intéresse à la manière dont se regroupent les textes de théâtre dans la tradition : rassemblement au sein des manuscrits, collections de textes, cyclisation. Les exemples s'étalent de la fin XIe au XVIe s.; ils sont puisés à des corpus variés (latin, langue d'oc ou d'oïl; théâtre religieux et théâtre profane). [less ▲]

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See detailCycle, cercle, compilation. Introduction
Henrard, Nadine ULg

Conference (2016, February 16)

Introduction à la journée "Cycle, cercle, compilation", s'intéressant à la constitution d'ensembles d'hommes (cercles littéraires) ou de textes (compilations, cycles) au Moyen Âge. Les questionnements ... [more ▼]

Introduction à la journée "Cycle, cercle, compilation", s'intéressant à la constitution d'ensembles d'hommes (cercles littéraires) ou de textes (compilations, cycles) au Moyen Âge. Les questionnements soulevés par cette journée touchent ainsi à tous les stades de la chaîne du texte, de l’écriture à la réception et nécessitent de conjuguer axes synchronique et diachronique, données codicologiques et littéraires, historiques et aussi sociologiques. Ils invitent à interroger la part du hasard et de l’intention qui joue dans le rassemblement des œuvres et montrent, si besoin en était encore, qu’il est indispensable d’inscrire le fait littéraire dans une dynamique globale, en rappelant que les œuvres ne sont que des pièces imbriquées dans divers systèmes avec lesquels elles entrent en dialogue. [less ▲]

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See detailInvasive occipital nerve stimulation for refractory chronic cluster headache: what evolution at long-term? Strengths and weaknesses of the method.
MAGIS, Delphine ULg; Gerard, Pascale; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Journal of Headache & Pain (2016)

BACKGROUND: Invasive Occipital Nerve Stimulation (iONS) is a costly technique which appears effective in drug-refractory chronic cluster headache (drCCH) management. Available data on long-term ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Invasive Occipital Nerve Stimulation (iONS) is a costly technique which appears effective in drug-refractory chronic cluster headache (drCCH) management. Available data on long-term effectiveness and safety of iONS in this indication are scarce, though they could be useful to neurologists and patients in daily practice. The purpose of this short report is to discuss the very long-term outcome of a drCCH cohort, including adverse events. FINDINGS: Previously, favourable results were obtained with iONS in 15 drCCH patients: 80 % were significantly improved and 60 % were pain free. We report here the very long-term follow-up (up to nine years) of 10 patients belonging to this cohort. Meanwhile 5 patients had to be definitively explanted because of device infection (3) or paresthesia intolerance (2). Four patients (40 %) evolved to an episodic form of CH. Six remained chronic but their attack frequency was decreased by 70 % on average. Intake of preventive drugs is still necessary in 80 % of patients. All patients needed at least one battery replacement. CONCLUSIONS: Up to nine years after implantation, iONS is still effective in most patients with drCCH. Concomitant preventive drugs remain often necessary. Forty percent of patients reverse to episodic CH, possibly by natural history. iONS is not a benign procedure but device-related complications appear similar to those reported with other invasive neurostimulators. [less ▲]

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See detailDesiccation cracks formation in clay-barrier for nuclear waste disposal
Hubert, Julien ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Plougonven, Erwan ULg et al

Conference (2016, February 16)

In geotechnical engineering, the desiccation cracking of soil is commonly observed. This phenomenon is detrimental to the behavior of earth material and earth structure. Desiccation cracks can lead to the ... [more ▼]

In geotechnical engineering, the desiccation cracking of soil is commonly observed. This phenomenon is detrimental to the behavior of earth material and earth structure. Desiccation cracks can lead to the overall failure of many geotechnical structures: • They can affect the slope stability of earth dams or embankments; • They can initiate internal erosion of embankments due to water flow through the cracks; • They can compromise the efficiency of soil barriers such as landfill liners and top covers. Nowadays, the storage of nuclear waste in deep impermeable geological layers is considered. These storages are based on the multi-barrier principle, the last of which being the host rock, typically a clayey material. In this context, maintaining the very low hydraulic conductivity of the host rock is crucial. Unfortunately, the ventilation of excavated galleries causes convective drying of the host material and can lead to crack formation. This work aims to understand in which conditions exactly, during convective drying, does cracking occur in clayey materials. An experimental campaign has been carried out to characterize the drying behavior of Boom clay which is the host rock at the underground research facility in Mol (Belgium). X-Ray micro-tomography has been used to analyze crack development as well as shrinkage. The experiments are used to calibrate the transfer parameters of a convective drying law based on the limit layer model. This calibration is based on agreement of the drying kinetics. A numerical study is then performed and aims at reproducing the behavior observed during the experiments. A thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model is used to determine the stress distribution during the drying and a tensile failure criterion is suggested to predict crack genesis. Simulations are performed using the in-house built FEM code LAGAMINE. [less ▲]

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See detailLes caractéristiques du capitalisme industriel et financier belge dans la seconde moitié du 19e siècle
Geerkens, Eric ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailWerner Herzog : sur le chemin des corps
Cormann, Grégory ULg; Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Scientific conference (2016, February 15)

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See detailDynamique des flux de carbone entre l'atmosphère et des écosystèmes ouest-africains: cas des forêts et savanes sous climat soudanien au Bénin
Ago, Expédit Evariste ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

In West Africa as elsewhere in other parts of the world, natural and anthropogenic ecosystems are the main sources for energy, building poles and livestock fodder. They probably behave like some nets ... [more ▼]

In West Africa as elsewhere in other parts of the world, natural and anthropogenic ecosystems are the main sources for energy, building poles and livestock fodder. They probably behave like some nets carbon sinks, but there are only few studies that have focused on their carbon exchanges with the atmosphere. Preserving terrestrial ecosystems has proven essential to any emissions mitigation policy of green house gases, notably CO2. This thesis focuses on the analysis of the CO2 fluxes in three contrasting types of the ecosystem under a Sudanian climate in Benin. Specifically, it was a cultivated forest, a protected forest and a cultivated savannah. Turbulent CO2 fluxes were measured by an eddy-covariance system placed above the ecosystems. The measurements were made during variable periods of 17 months (cultivated forest), 18 months (protected forest) and 29 months (cultivated savannah). The three studied sites have been equipped by the hydro-meteorological observatory AMMA-CATCH and the national project Ouémé 2025. The CO2 fluxes data were completed by some meteorological measurements and by an inventory of dominating species the three sites. Fluxes were examined on the basis of the two main seasons imposed by the cycle of West African Monsoon. The spatial (local and regional) and temporal (hour, seasonal, annual and inter-annual) scales were considered according to the sites. Water was the main factor controlling the dynamic of the terrestrial West African ecosystems. At the daily scales, the radiation was the main driving variable of the net CO2 fluxes. Besides that radiation control, a clear relationship was observed between the net CO2 fluxes and the canopy conductance. A limited impact of saturation deficit was observed, notably during the afternoon. The soil moisture was the main factor governing the ecosystem respiration. However, no clear dependency of the ecosystem respiration on the temperature was observed at hourly scale. After long dry periods, the ecosystem respiration increased immediately in response to the first significant rains. The CO2 fluxes and the characteristics of the protected forest were always higher than those of the cultivated savannah at the daily and seasonal scales. At the annual scale, while the protected forest (Bellefoungou) and cultivated savannah (Nalohou) sequestered an average of 640 ± 50 and 232 ± 27 g C m-2, respectively considering the period of the measurements, the cultivated forest was in equilibrium with 29 ± 16 g C m-2. Overall, the three studied ecosystems were more efficient during morning and wet season than during afternoon and dry season. Finally, this study revealed that the inter-annual variability of the carbon sequestration by the cultivated savannah was mainly controlled by the ecosystem respiration variability in relation to the soil water content variation. [less ▲]

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See detailForaging wireworms are attracted to root-produced volatile aldehydes
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Delory, Benjamin M.; Delaplace, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Pest Science (2016)

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host ... [more ▼]

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host plant remains, however, poorly understood. Here, we aimed at identifying chemical cues released by barley roots that attract Agriotes sordidus. In a first behavioral experiment, we assessed the ability of wireworms to orient towards live barley roots, using dual-choice olfactometers suitable for belowground insects. Then, we collected the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by barley roots using a dynamic head-space sampling approach. VOC were quantified and identified using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The odorant blend is composed of four aldehydes, namely hexanal, (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-non-2-enal, and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal. In a second set of dual-choice bioassays, wireworms were attracted towards a synthetic blend of these four major compounds. However, the synthetic blend was not as attractive as live roots, which is partially explained by the absence of CO2, commonly known as a strong attractant for soil-dwelling insects. While CO2 indicates the presence of living material in the vicinity, we hypothesize that additional VOC inform about the plant suitability. A better understanding of these belowground signals would contribute to the development of new integrated control strategies against wireworms. [less ▲]

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See detailLa littérature panoramique par ses éditeurs
Stienon, Valérie ULg

Conference (2016, February 13)

Phénomène de société et de mode, la littérature panoramique identifiée rétrospectivement par Walter Benjamin constitue surtout une entreprise éditoriale majeure. Elle mobilise un grand nombre d’acteurs ... [more ▼]

Phénomène de société et de mode, la littérature panoramique identifiée rétrospectivement par Walter Benjamin constitue surtout une entreprise éditoriale majeure. Elle mobilise un grand nombre d’acteurs (libraires, illustrateurs, graveurs, imprimeurs) à l’échelle européenne et prépare de nouveaux statuts pour la fonction même d’éditeur, qui voit naître un discours spécifique à son propos, dans une époque qui précède de peu sa professionnalisation et dans un contexte de circulation médiatique accrue de l’imprimé sous ses formes les plus variées. La communication se centrera sur deux éditeurs panoramiques français importants, Curmer et Aubert, pour mettre en évidence la nature de leurs projets, l’originalité de leurs méthodes et l’identité de leurs personnels. On reviendra sur le rôle de passeur culturel du premier et de rassembleur d’une équipe d’artistes du second, deux caractéristiques à l’origine du rayonnement de la littérature panoramique. On examinera aussi les particularités de certaines de leurs productions, entre texte et image, journal et livre, ouvrage de collection et fascicule éphémère, jouant sur les matériaux et les circuits de diffusion. [less ▲]

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See detailThermally induced magnetization switching in Gd/Fe multilayers
Xu, Chudong; Ostler, Thomas ULg; Chantrell, Roy

in Physical Review B (2016), 93

A theoretical model of Gd/Fe multilayers is constructed using the atomistic spin dynamics formalism. By varying the thicknesses and number of layers we have shown that a strong dependence of the energy ... [more ▼]

A theoretical model of Gd/Fe multilayers is constructed using the atomistic spin dynamics formalism. By varying the thicknesses and number of layers we have shown that a strong dependence of the energy required for thermally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) is present;with a larger number of interfaces, lower energy is required. The results of the layer resolved dynamics show that the reversal process of the multilayered structures, similar to that of a GdFeCo alloy, is driven by the antiferromagnetic interaction between the transition-metal and rare-earth components. Finally, while the presence of the interface drives the reversal process, we show here that the switching process does not initiate at the surface but from the layers furthest from it, a departure from the alloy behavior which expands the classes of material types exhibiting TIMS. [less ▲]

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See detailMercury and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins from Lower Keys and Coastal Everglades (South Florida)
Damseaux, France ULg; Kiszka, Jeremy; Heithaus, Michael et al

Poster (2016, February 12)

The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is a major apex predator and the most common cetacean species found in nearshore waters of South Florida, including the Lower Florida Keys (LFK) and the Florida ... [more ▼]

The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is a major apex predator and the most common cetacean species found in nearshore waters of South Florida, including the Lower Florida Keys (LFK) and the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE). The objective of this study was 1) to assess contamination levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in skin and persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, PBDEs, DDT, HCH, HCB, DLCs and PCDD/Fs) in blubber samples of bottlenose dolphins from the LFK (8 males and 16 females) and from the FCE (13 males and 9 females). Pollutants were analysed by the mean of Direct Mercury analyser (for T-Hg), GC-ECD (POPs) and GC-MS (DLCs and PCDD/Fs). The PCBs were the main compounds found in bottlenose dolphins from the LFK and FCE. The most present congeners where the CB no. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180 (ΣPCBs LFK males: 13420.5 ng.g-1 lipids, ΣPCBs LFK females: 9683.4 ng.g-1 lipids, ΣPCBs FCE males: 5637.9 ng.g-1 lipids, ΣPCBs FCE females: 1426.9 ng.g-1 lipids). PCBs concentrations were significantly higher in individuals from the LFK than those from the FCE but significantly lower than those from other locations in the south-eastern US. Unlike organic pollutants, T-Hg concentrations were significantly higher in FCE male dolphins (LFK: 2936.0 ng.g-1 dw, FCE: 10048.3 ng.g-1 dw). These high concentrations were the highest recorded in the south-eastern US and are most likely due to the presence of mangrove ecosystems. This study highlights the complexity of contaminant dynamics (inorganic vs. organic), even at small spatial scales. [less ▲]

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