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See detailThe effect of deforestation on land tenure in Central Africa
Gillet, Pauline ULg; Feintrenie, Laurène; Codina Llavinia, Elisabet et al

Conference (2015, March 23)

The CoForTips project aims at the promotion of better management of the forest of the Congo Basin by presenting to the policy makers plausible scenarios of social and ecological systems evolution. In this ... [more ▼]

The CoForTips project aims at the promotion of better management of the forest of the Congo Basin by presenting to the policy makers plausible scenarios of social and ecological systems evolution. In this paper, we focused on the impact of deforestation on land tenure mutation in Central Africa. Land tenure defines the level of ownership and management experienced by the local population on defined areas (Le Roy et al., 1996). We assume that the rules acting on objects of land tenure evolve from loose land control to privatization and the ability to dispose of resources when we progress on the forest transition curve designed by Mather (1992). We demonstrate that individual land tenure increases along with the deforestation process, and continue along with the reforestation process where this one is a consequence of agricultural plantations on deforested lands. We then draw a theoretical land tenure evolution with variation of population density in relation to forest cover that could be used as an indicator of SES shifting more sensitive than the evolution of forest cover to appreciate forest transition at the SES level and predict the presence and intensity of tipping points. [less ▲]

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See detailEsquisse d’un modèle clinique à trois dimensions : Identité et schizophrénie
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Scientific conference (2015, March 23)

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See detailMettre la biomédecine en politique: le nouvel eugénisme est-il arrivé avec la génétique?
Delvenne, Pierre ULg

Scientific conference (2015, March 23)

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See detailDispreferred structures through language change: the diachrony of affix ordering in Ancient Egyptian - Coptic
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2015, March 23)

Given a worldwide preference for suffixes over prefixes, why do some languages nonetheless have a macro-preference for prefixes? In this talk, we show that Ancient Egyptian-Coptic (Afroasiatic) shows a ... [more ▼]

Given a worldwide preference for suffixes over prefixes, why do some languages nonetheless have a macro-preference for prefixes? In this talk, we show that Ancient Egyptian-Coptic (Afroasiatic) shows a long-term diachronic macro-change from mixed suffixing-prefixing to an overwhel¬ming preference for prefixing. We argue that each of the micro-changes implicated in this macro-change are better understood in terms of regular changes at the level of individual constructions, via, e.g., grammaticalization, rather than in terms of a broad Sapirian ‘drift.’ Crucially, it is the particular constellation of structural features of the language at a particular moment in time, together with regular mechanisms of language change, that give rise to the cross-linguistically unusual ‘macro-preference’ of the language. [less ▲]

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See detailComment optimiser l’efficience de l’aide internationale, dans le domaine de la santé, en République Démocratique du Congo
Manzambi Kuwekita, Joseph ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Guillaume, Michèle ULg et al

in Santé Publique : Revue Multidisciplinaire pour la Recherche et l'Action (2015), 27(Janvier-Févier), 129-134

Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularly for the funding of general referral ... [more ▼]

Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularly for the funding of general referral hospitals, the management of inpatients with AIDS, administration of health zones and funding of preventive care providers. It The targeted changes described in this article could possibly optimize the efficiency of international aid for the DRC population, mainly for disorders considered to be a health care priority (i.e. malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis) as well as in the fight against malnutrition. Recommendations target the implementation of procedures for control of food chain security, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits of the population but also comprise extensive restructuring of the health care administration. A dramatic change of the structure in charge of drug distribution as well as eradication of the transfer of part of public health structure income to public health administrative personnel could result in the allocation of significant funds to the fight against the most important diseases. Better collaboration between the various departments in charge of health care professional training, together with enhanced responsibility of health care personnel is essential. Independent and respected non-governmental organizations should be involved in an audit process, targeting all aspects of the current DRC health system. Eventually, in an equal opportunity perspective, taking into consideration the very high degree of poverty of DRC inhabitants, implementation of health insurance programmes, use of generic drugs and generalization of micro-credit initiatives should also be implemented. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of large-scale in situ ventilation test in clayey rock
Pardoen, Benoît ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Talandier, Jean

Poster (2015, March 23)

see attached file

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See detailEntorse de cheville aigüe - Le traitement fonctionnel
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2015, March 21)

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See detailThe role of tree species diversity in drought resistance of oak and beech sapling
Rahman, Md Masudur ULg; Carnol, Monique ULg

Scientific conference (2015, March 21)

Drier condition during the growing season have been predicted in the future. It has been suggested that diverse forest could maintain productivity and provide better ecosystem services under stress ... [more ▼]

Drier condition during the growing season have been predicted in the future. It has been suggested that diverse forest could maintain productivity and provide better ecosystem services under stress condition such as drought. However, those studies focused mainly on mature forest and little known about young forest. Oak and beech are the important species in European forestry, and may face a strong challenge in the future. Drought effects on young ( ̴5yr) oak and beech saplings in monoculture and mixed with other species are not known. Moreover, single studies evaluating both above- and below-ground ecosystem response to drought are scarce. A two-year manipulative field experiment has been planned to answer the following questions. (i) Can species mixtures improve oak and beech sapling performances under drought conditions? (ii) What are the mechanisms underlying ecosystem functioning and sapling performance in mixed species stands subjected to drought? A 3m × 3m rainout shelter will be placed only in growing season in Zedelgem sites of FORBIO experimental platform (http://www.treedivbelgium.ugent.be/pl_forbio.html). Tree diversity vary from 1 to 4 species and about 50% of precipitation will be taken off. Both aboveground sapling performance and belowground microbial properties and biogeochemical processes will be investigated. We will present the design of the experimental tree species diversity plantation of Zedelgem site, the setting of the drought experiment and planned analysis [less ▲]

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See detailDommage psychique par répercussion chez l'enfant
Malchair, Alain ULg

Conference (2015, March 21)

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See detailThe need for site-specific height-diameter allometry of Central African moist forests
Loubota Panzou, Grâce Jopaul ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg

Conference (2015, March 21)

L’utilisation de l’allométrie hauteur-diamètre globale ou régionale en milieu tropical pourrait avoir des conséquences importantes dans les estimations de biomasse et des stocks de carbone. L’objectif de ... [more ▼]

L’utilisation de l’allométrie hauteur-diamètre globale ou régionale en milieu tropical pourrait avoir des conséquences importantes dans les estimations de biomasse et des stocks de carbone. L’objectif de ce travail est d’identifier les variations de l’allométrie hauteur-diamètre au sein de deux types de forêts (forêt sempervirente et forêt semi-décidue) au sud du Cameroun et d’examiner leurs conséquences sur les estimations de biomasse. Le diamètre et la hauteur ont été mesurés sur un total de 521 arbres appartenant à 15 espèces et couvrant une gamme de diamètre de 10 à 240 cm. Une calibration des mesures non destructives et destructives de la hauteur a été réalisée sur 60 arbres. Dix modèles allométriques ont été ajustés sur ces données. Le meilleur modèle a été sélectionné avec Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). L’allométrie hauteur-diamètre au niveau des sites et entre les espèces a montré une tendance asymptotique (Modèle de Michaelis-Menten). Pour un même diamètre, les arbres étaient plus hauts dans les forêts semi-décidues que dans les forêts sempervirentes. Les différences de biomasse entre les deux types de forêts sont dues par les variations de l’allométrie hauteur-diamètre. Les variations de l’allométrie hauteur-diamètre sont donc d’une extrême importance dans les estimations de biomasse et des stocks de carbone des forêts denses humides tropicales d’Afrique centrale. [less ▲]

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See detailCulture and hallucinations: what we know so far and what needs to be addressed
Laroi, Frank ULg

Conference (2015, March 21)

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See detailVoltaire as a playwright, an off-centered strategy?
Daubercies, Laurence ULg

Conference (2015, March 21)

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See detailAge and WHO Performance Score are major clinical prognostic factors in glioblastoma
Lambert, Jérémy ULg; Scholtes, Félix ULg; MARTIN, Didier ULg

Conference (2015, March 21)

In glioblastoma patients with similar prognostic factors—like age, performance status and extent of surgical resection—clinical evolution is still variable. In addition, the benefit of resection of ... [more ▼]

In glioblastoma patients with similar prognostic factors—like age, performance status and extent of surgical resection—clinical evolution is still variable. In addition, the benefit of resection of recurrent tumours is uncertain. In this study, prognostic subgroups are established on a clinical basis and the benefit of surgery for recurrence is compared between them. Recursive partitioning analysis on EORTC sample 26981 (n=239) identified clinical factors influencing Progression-Free Survival (PFS), in order to create prognostic subgroups, whose PFS and survival after recurrence were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Results were validated on a sample from Liège University Hospital (n=92). WHO Performance Status (WHO-PS) and age at first intervention (“age”) defined 4 subgroups. PFS was shorter in WHO-PS 2–3 than WHO PS 0–1 patients. In both groups, age was the second classifying factor (cut-off: 47.5y for WHO-PS 0–1, 60.5y for WHO-PS 2–3). The 4 subgroups had significantly different median PFS (77.5, 144, 234.5 and 346.5 days) and median overall survival (126, 330, 476 and 675 days). Survival after recurrence was correlated with PFS, and recurrence resection was associated with longer survival, regardless of the prognostic subgroup. Clinical prognostic glioblastoma subgroups with distinct PFS exist and can be defined by WHO-PS and age. This classification can be used as a clinical basis to identify molecular patterns associated with prognosis. In addition, in all subgroups, this retrospective analysis suggests a benefit of surgical resection when feasible. [less ▲]

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See detailDie "Preußische Wallonie im Ersten Weltkrieg" (1914-1920)
Brüll, Christoph ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Die deutschsprachigen Belgier betrachten ihre jüngere Geschichte zumeist aus der Perspektive einer Minderheit. Die Erinnerung an den Ersten Weltkrieg vor hundert Jahren bietet Christoph Brüll den Anlass ... [more ▼]

Die deutschsprachigen Belgier betrachten ihre jüngere Geschichte zumeist aus der Perspektive einer Minderheit. Die Erinnerung an den Ersten Weltkrieg vor hundert Jahren bietet Christoph Brüll den Anlass, sich mit der damals wohl kleinsten Minderheit des deutschen Kaiserreiches zu befassen: den rund 10.000 „preußischen Wallonen“ im Kreis Malmedy. Der Vortrag fragt nach deren Identität im Kaiserreich, wo sie zu Kollateralopfern der gegen größere Minderheiten gerichteten Germanisierungspolitik wurden, woraus ein wallonischer Kulturpartikularismus an der deutsch-belgischen Grenze resultierte. Dabei wird auch die Offenheit dieser Grenze vor dem August 1914 deutlich, die durch intensive grenzüberschreitende soziale, wirtschaftliche und auch kulturelle Kontakte gekennzeichnet ist. Umso dramatischer wurde dort der Beginn des Ersten Weltkriegs empfunden. Die Haltung der Bevölkerung während dieses Kriegs ist jedoch von der Forschung bisher kaum in den Blick genommen worden. Der Prozess einer sich beschleunigenden Nationalisierung der kleinen Region und die Reaktion der Bevölkerung darauf werden anhand verschiedener Aspekte wie Militär, Kirche und Schule dargestellt. Der Vortrag geht auch auf die Erfahrung des Kriegsendes und der darauf folgenden Besatzungszeit durch britische Truppen, die im August 1919 von belgischen Soldaten abgelöst wurden, ein. Nicht zuletzt unternimmt er den Versuch, die Entwicklung der Jahre 1914-1920 nicht von ihrem Ende – d.h. aus der Sicht des Staatenwechsels von 1920 – zu betrachten, womit die Kriegs- und Nachkriegserfahrung der Bevölkerung in den Mittelpunkt der Betrachtung rückt . [less ▲]

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See detailImproving knowledge on Forest elephant’s ecophysiology (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) for better wildlife conservation
Ngama, Steeve ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg

Poster (2015, March 21)

Conservation of large wildlife species is currently a major issue in Africa. Protected areas dedicated for biodiversity conservation unfortunately do not suffice and conservation practices must be ... [more ▼]

Conservation of large wildlife species is currently a major issue in Africa. Protected areas dedicated for biodiversity conservation unfortunately do not suffice and conservation practices must be extended to man-used areas. But in those areas conservation actions are limited because of conflicts between human and wildlife especially due to damages on crops. The worst crop raiders known are elephants because they can destroy the yearly harvest of a field in a single visit. This threatens not only people livelihoods but also elephants themselves when angry farmers retaliate by shooting or trapping them. After decades of investigations crop raiding drivers related to elephants’ ecophysiology remain largely unknown. A pilot study was conducted between July and November 2014 in Monts de Cristal National Park (Gabon, central Africa) to have a first view on environmental drivers to crop raiding. While the presence of some fruiting trees around crop fields lead to more damages, high slopes discouraged elephants. In further experiments, the link between the nutritive value of raided plants and the animal’s physiological requirements and status will be assessed through hormones and parasites measurements; while tracking of individual elephants’ movements using DNA analyses in feces will be done. [less ▲]

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See detailNueva visión en las relaciones médico-paciente, de la Prevención Cuaternaria a la Actitud Cuaternaria.
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

Conference (2015, March 21)

Allocution plénière finale du congrès de Montevideo de la Wonca CIMF Description du concept de prévention quaternaire. Annonce de la parution et présentation des auteurs du numéro spécial de la revue ... [more ▼]

Allocution plénière finale du congrès de Montevideo de la Wonca CIMF Description du concept de prévention quaternaire. Annonce de la parution et présentation des auteurs du numéro spécial de la revue Brésilienne de médecin de famille et communautaire (RBMFC) qui va paraitre incessamment sur ce thème. Annonce de la création par les représentants des associations de médecine de famille de 15 pays, au sein de la branche ibéro américaine de la Wonca (Wonca CIMF), d'un groupe d'intérêt sur la prévention quaternaire [less ▲]

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See detailNiche modeling within and between species in the genus Erythrophleum : intergating phylogenetic data and environmental niche models to explore speciation mechanisms
Gorel, Anaïs ULg

Poster (2015, March 21)

In this study we investigated the climatic niche between and within closely related tropical tree species of the Erythrophleum genus (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae): E. ivorense, E. suaveolens and E ... [more ▼]

In this study we investigated the climatic niche between and within closely related tropical tree species of the Erythrophleum genus (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae): E. ivorense, E. suaveolens and E. africanum. Two major hypotheses, the refuge theory and the ecological gradient hypothesis, have been developed to explain the current distribution of tree clades across tropical Africa. To identify the speciation mechanisms, we used a combination of geographic data and environmental factors to quantify the degree of niche conservatism (or divergence). We used two sets of distribution data for the purpose of this study. Species distribution data for the whole of tropical Africa was gathered from herbarium records. Distribution data of the two sister species E. ivorense and E. suaveolens assigned to genetic cluster were available for the lowland tropical forests of western and central Africa. Using a Species Distribution Model approach based on MaxEnt algorithm we tested for the environmental differences between species and genetic clusters within species. At species level, the climatic niche significantly differed and only slightly overlapped, suggesting a parapatric speciation along a climatic gradient. Within the two sister species, the niche of the parapatric central African genetic clusters suggests mostly a secondary contact following the recolonization from different forest refugia. [less ▲]

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See detailSiltation and Pollution of Rivers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon: a Consequence of Farmland Erosion and Runoff
Djoukeng, Henri Grisseur ULg; Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh; Degré, Aurore ULg

in International Journal of Agricultural Research and Reviews (2015), 3(3), 206-212

In the Western Highlands agro-ecological zone of Cameroon, rivers are constantly silted and polluted with eroded sediment and waste from cultivated land. This study characterizes and quantifies the amount ... [more ▼]

In the Western Highlands agro-ecological zone of Cameroon, rivers are constantly silted and polluted with eroded sediment and waste from cultivated land. This study characterizes and quantifies the amount of material coming from plots cultivated in the Méloh Watershed. In a natural rocky-bottomed well measuring 0.90 m deep, 3 m long, and 2.5 m wide, for a period of three years we performed the collection, differentiation, and measurement of trapped sediment in the cultivated part of river that runs through the watershed. Both cultivated sides of the watershed had fairly regular slopes of 14% on one side and 17% on the other side. The material retrieved consisted of soil, plant residues, chemical packages, and plastic casing used for irrigation. During the years 2012 and 2013, farmers practiced both flatbed cultivation and ridging along the steepest slopes. These two methods of land preparation are inefficient in terms of water conservation, as evidenced by the collection of 10.429 t.ha-1 average total sediment per year during this period. Tied ridging cultivation method was experimented during the 2013 crop year and adopted on 75% of plots in 2014. We subsequently collected 3.586 t.ha-1 total sediment, a decrease of 65.61% compared to the average of previous years. The tied ridging cultivation method significantly reduced siltation of the Méloh River (p<0.05). This study showed that traditional agricultural practices are a principal cause of siltation and pollution of the Méloh River. By extrapolation, we can state that the problem must occur in almost all rivers in the study area with similar topography and agricultural practices [less ▲]

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