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See detailSMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES
Poux, Florent ULg; Neuville, Romain ULg; Hallot, Pierre ULg et al

in ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (2016, October 05), IV-2(W1), 119-127

Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the ... [more ▼]

Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure [less ▲]

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See detailNature in Japanese Daily Life
Goto, Kanako ULg

Learning material (2016)

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See detailScreening for the metabolic syndrome in subjects with migraine
Streel, Sylvie ULg; Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg; Dardenne, Nadia ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2016)

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See detailMise en place de pratiques agricoles de conservation: quel impact sur la vie du sol
Degrune, Florine ULg; Boeraeve, Fanny ULg; Vandenbol, Micheline ULg et al

Poster (2016, October 04)

Le projet Farm4Future a été lancé en 2015 et consiste en un suivi intégré d’un réseau d’exploitations agricoles belges en cours de transition vers des pratiques dites « de conservation ». Les ... [more ▼]

Le projet Farm4Future a été lancé en 2015 et consiste en un suivi intégré d’un réseau d’exploitations agricoles belges en cours de transition vers des pratiques dites « de conservation ». Les exploitations étudiées dans le cadre de ce projet sont caractérisées par des changements de gestion incluant notamment : (1) des associations de culture, (2) des couverts permanents, (3) une réduction du travail du sol et (4) l’introduction de structures vertes telles que les haies ou les bandes fleuries. Afin d’évaluer le potentiel agronomique et écologique de ces systèmes agricoles, une série de mesures ont été effectuées dans deux types de sol aux propriétés texturales contrastées : sable limoneux et un limon sableux. Afin d’obtenir un point de comparaison, les mêmes mesures ont été effectuées sur les parcelles des agriculteurs voisins restés en intensif et conventionnel. Parmi ces mesures, nous étudions la réponse de plusieurs indicateurs biologiques de qualité des sols telle que la diversité microbienne. L’étude a démontré un effet du type de pratiques agricoles sur la diversité microbienne en fonction du type de sol. Nous avons également identifié les microorganismes sensibles au type de pratiques agricoles. Cependant, l’étude nous amène à démontrer une grande hétérogénéité de réponses au sein de chacun de ces groupes. En effet, même si certains grands groupes sont globalement plus abondants sous pratiques de conservation (ou conventionnel), la réponse des microorganismes au sein de ces groupes à des niveaux taxonomiques plus fins (genre ou espèce) n’est pas uniforme. Aujourd’hui, même si les outils moléculaires de séquençage à haut débit ont permis de mettre en lumière l’incroyable diversité microbienne des sols, les services écosystémiques rendus par ces microorganismes sont encore très peu connus car moins de 1% des organismes est cultivable en laboratoire. [less ▲]

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See detailInterprétation des souffles et arythmies chez le cheval: Quand faut-il s'inquiéter?
Leroux, Aurélia ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailMaize plants can enter a standby mode to cope with chilling stress
Riva-Roveda, Laetitia ULg; Escale, Brigitte; Giauffret, Catherine et al

in BMC Plant Biology (2016), 16

Background European Flint maize inbred lines are used as a source of adaptation to cold in most breeding programs in Northern Europe. A deep understanding of their adaptation strategy could thus provide ... [more ▼]

Background European Flint maize inbred lines are used as a source of adaptation to cold in most breeding programs in Northern Europe. A deep understanding of their adaptation strategy could thus provide valuable clues for further improvement, which is required in the current context of climate change. We therefore compared six inbreds and two derived Flint x Dent hybrids for their response to one-week at low temperature (10°C day/7 or 4°C night) during steady-state vegetative growth. Results Leaf growth was arrested during chilling treatment but recovered fast upon return to warm temperature, so that no negative effect on shoot biomass was measured. Gene expression analyses of the emerging leaf in the hybrids suggest that plants maintained a ‘ready-to-grow’ state during chilling since cell cycle genes were not differentially expressed in the division zone and genes coding for expansins were on the opposite up-regulated in the elongation zone. In photosynthetic tissues, a strong reduction in PSII efficiency was measured. Chilling repressed chlorophyll biosynthesis; we detected accumulation of the precursor geranylgeranyl chlorophyll a and down-regulation of GERANYLGERANYL REDUCTASE (GGR) in mature leaf tissues. Excess light energy was mostly dissipated through fluorescence and constitutive thermal dissipation processes, rather than by light-regulated thermal dissipation. Consistently, only weak clues of xanthophyll cycle activation were found. CO2 assimilation was reduced by chilling, as well as the expression levels of genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), and the small subunit of Rubisco. Accumulation of sugars was correlated with a strong decrease of the specific leaf area (SLA). Conclusions Altogether, our study reveals good tolerance of the photosynthetic machinery of Northern European maize to chilling and suggests that growth arrest might be their strategy for fast recovery after a mild stress. [less ▲]

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See detailExpanding the scope of cobalt-mediated radical polymerization towards the synthesis of novel poly(vinyl acetate-alt-tert-butyl-2-trifluoromethacrylate) alternating fluorocopolymers
Banerjee; Ladmiral, Vincent; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

Conference (2016, October 04)

Cobalt mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) is a nice technique to control the radical polymerization of vinyl acetate, VAc, but has never been reported on fluoromonomers. This presentation aims at ... [more ▼]

Cobalt mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) is a nice technique to control the radical polymerization of vinyl acetate, VAc, but has never been reported on fluoromonomers. This presentation aims at showing recent works on the use of CRMP to prepare well-defined unprecedented 1:1 alternating fluorocopolymers with narrow dispersity (≤1.3) comprised of a polar monomer (VAc) and a non-homopolymerizable fluoromonomer (tert-butyl-2-trifluoromethacrylate, MAF-TBE), under mild conditions.[1] The resulting poly(VAc-alt-MAF-TBE) copolymers have a precise 1:1 alternating structure over a wide range of the comonomer feed compositions in CMRP conditions as well as under free radical polymerization conditions,[2] as confirmed by NMR spectroscopies. Kinetics of radical copolymerization led to their reactivity ratios: rVAc = 0.014; rMAF-TBE = 0 at 40 °C). Simple adjustments of the monomer feed ratio and of the polymerization time, allow the synthesis of well-defined alternating copolymer or of novel poly(VAc- alt- MAF-TBE)-b-PVAc block copolymer composed of an alternating block and of a PVAc block. The block copolymer exhibited two glass transition temperatures (Tg) at 43 and 67 °C, which correspond to those of PVAc segment and poly(VAc-alt-MAF-TBE) alternating sequences, respectively. In contrast, the poly(VAc-alt-MAF-TBE) alternating copolymer displayed only one Tg at 40 °C. For the first time, CMRP of fluorinated monomer was achieved and this fluorine-containing alternating monomer system provides access to a wide range of new polymer materials, under progress. [less ▲]

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See detailRisques et catastrophes climatiques en Afrique de l’Ouest : Gérer l’inéluctable
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Scientific conference (2016, October 03)

L’Afrique de l’Ouest compte de plus en plus de personnes affectées par les catastrophes climatiques. Cette conférence présentera quelques études de cas en Afrique de l’Ouest pour finalement s’interroger ... [more ▼]

L’Afrique de l’Ouest compte de plus en plus de personnes affectées par les catastrophes climatiques. Cette conférence présentera quelques études de cas en Afrique de l’Ouest pour finalement s’interroger sur l’immunité du Niger confrontée à de multiples stress endogènes et exogènes dont la juxtaposition pourrait éroder sa résilience sur le long terme et entraîner le pays dans une spirale de ‘maladaptation’. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributed learning: Developing a predictive model based on data from multiple hospitals without data leaving the hospital – A real life proof of concept
JOCHEMS, Arthur; DEIST, Timo M.; VAN SOEST, Johan et al

in Radiotherapy & Oncology (2016)

Purpose: One of the major hurdles in enabling personalized medicine is obtaining sufficient patient data to feed into predictive models. Combining data originating from multiple hospitals is difficult ... [more ▼]

Purpose: One of the major hurdles in enabling personalized medicine is obtaining sufficient patient data to feed into predictive models. Combining data originating from multiple hospitals is difficult because of ethical, legal, political, and administrative barriers associated with data sharing. In order to avoid these issues, a distributed learning approach can be used. Distributed learning is defined as learning from data without the data leaving the hospital. Patients and methods:Clinical data from 287 lung cancer patients, treated with curative intent with chemoradiation (CRT) or radiotherapy (RT) alone were collected from and stored in 5 different medical institutes (123 patients at MAASTRO (Netherlands, Dutch), 24 at Jessa (Belgium, Dutch), 34 at Liege (Belgium, Dutch and French), 48 at Aachen (Germany, German) and 58 at Eindhoven (Netherlands, Dutch)). A Bayesian network model is adapted for distributed learning (watch the animation: http://youtu.be/nQpqMIuHyOk). The model predicts dyspnea, which is a common side effect after radiotherapy treatment of lung cancer. Results:We show that it is possible to use the distributed learning approach to train a Bayesian network model on patient data originating from multiple hospitals without these data leaving the individual hospital. The AUC of the model is 0.61 (95%CI, 0.51–0.70) on a 5-fold cross-validation and ranges from 0.59 to 0.71 on external validation sets. Conclusion: Distributed learning can allow the learning of predictive models on data originating from multiple hospitals while avoiding many of the data sharing barriers. Furthermore, the distributed learning approach can be used to extract and employ knowledge from routine patient data from multiple hospitals while being compliant to the various national and European privacy laws. [less ▲]

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See detailThe functional-biogeography of the reef fishes in the Gulf of California: over-importance of a handful of sites
Olivier, Damien ULg; Reyes Bonilla, Hector

Poster (2016, October 03)

Functional biogeography is a new discipline allowing to link biogeographical patterns of trait and species diversity. This new area of research has a role in conservation policy because it permits to ... [more ▼]

Functional biogeography is a new discipline allowing to link biogeographical patterns of trait and species diversity. This new area of research has a role in conservation policy because it permits to create functional maps to highlight hotspots of biodiversity. In this study, we evaluate the taxonomic and functional diversity of the reef-fishes in 30 “archipelagoes” widespread along the Gulf of California (GOC). The question before us is to highlight areas requiring a particular intention in conservation policy because they represent a large part of the legacy of reef-fish diversity in the GOC. To do so, we used a recently developed method to classify the reef-fishes species of the GOC in functional entities (FEs). The FEs are based on unique combinations of six categorical traits known to influence the functional role of fishes (e.g. size, diet…) and their number represent the level of functional diversity of the community. The results showed that the Baja California Sur has the most diversified reef-fishes community, both taxonomically and functionally (more than 90% of the species and of the functional diversity are represented). This result is mainly due to four archipelagoes that present a dazzling diversity, i.e. Carmen, San José, Espiritu Santo and Cerralvo. Each of these islands includes 60% or more of the taxonomic and functional diversity of the GOC. Two of these archipelagoes benefit of a protection level through the National Parks of Loreto and Espiritu Santo. However, the former is poorly functioning and the latter is under evaluation. The outcomes of the present study provide a global map of the reef-fishes diversity through the GOC, in term of species number and functional diversity. These results allow the identification of four major hotspots of diversity that should require a particular attention to preserve the legacy of reef-fishes diversity in the GOC. [less ▲]

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See detailChaises mobiles, murs qui deviennent des tableaux...: les auditoires sont à repenser
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

Article for general public (2016)

A l’heure où le numérique s’affirme comme une préoccupation majeur pour l’enseignement supérieur, la réflexion sur les nouveaux espaces physiques d’apprentissage représente un autre défi.

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See detailTowards a new vision on power relations inside fieldwork: Like Haraway's Mutated Witness
Vivas Romero, Maria ULg

Scientific conference (2016, October 03)

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See detailDe la carte à la géovisualisation 3D
Billen, Roland ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailA Stochastic Multi-Scale Approach for the Modeling of Thermo-Elastic Damping in Micro-Resonators
Wu, Ling ULg; Lucas, Vincent ULg; Nguyen, Van Dung ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2016), 310

The aim of this work is to study the thermo-elastic quality factor (Q) of micro-resonators with a stochastic multi-scale approach. In the design of high-Q micro-resonators, thermo-elastic damping is one ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work is to study the thermo-elastic quality factor (Q) of micro-resonators with a stochastic multi-scale approach. In the design of high-Q micro-resonators, thermo-elastic damping is one of the major dissipation mechanisms, which may have detrimental effects on the quality factor, and has to be predicted accurately. Since material uncertainties are inherent to and unavoidable in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), the effects of those variations have to be considered in the modeling in order to ensure the required MEMS performance. To this end, a coupled thermo-mechanical stochastic multi-scale approach is developed in this paper. Thermo-mechanical micro-models of polycrystalline materials are used to represent micro-structure realizations. A computational homogenization procedure is then applied on these statistical volume elements to obtain the stochastic characterizations of the elasticity tensor, thermal expansion, and conductivity tensors at the meso-scale. Spatially correlated meso-scale random fields can thus be generated to represent the stochastic behavior of the homogenized material properties. Finally, the distribution of the thermo-elastic quality factor of MEMS resonators is studied through a stochastic finite element method using as input the generated stochastic random field. [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs d’ambiance dans l’industrie textile en République Démocratique du Congo: état de lieu
Panda Lukongo, Kitronza ULg; Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

in Pan African Medical Journal (The) (2016), 25(44),

Introduction: This case study aims to make an assessment of environmental health nuisances in textile industry in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical ... [more ▼]

Introduction: This case study aims to make an assessment of environmental health nuisances in textile industry in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study. Out of 257 workers selected using systematic sampling, 229 workers were enrolled in the study. 223 workstations were subjected to measurements in order to determine the level of noise, lighting and heat. Data were collected from company documents, by means of a direct-question interview focusing on socio professional informations and through measurements. Descriptive analysis was used for sociodemographic and professional data and analytical approach was used for themeasurements. Results: In the company studied 88% of employees were workers. Weaving department included almost 68% of workers. The majority of employees worked as part of a three shift (85%). The study population was predominantly male (85%), aging (52%) over 40 years and educated (80%). In the company studied, only 12.1% of workstations met the noise standards and 18% of workstations met the lighting standards. 94% of workstations didn't meet the heat standards for heavy work. Conclusion: Our study highlighted the environmental health nuisances in textile industry, demonstrating the existence of significant gaps related to the prescribed standards for the measured nuisances. These results are a plea for the development of appropriate preventive measures. They should be confronted with other more detailed studies in this work environment. [less ▲]

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See detailOPTIMIZATION OF A FULLY AUTOMATED ELECTROPHORETICALLY MEDIATED MICROANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR CYP1A1 ACTIVITY MONITORING
Farcas, Elena ULg; Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg; Lamalle, Caroline et al

Conference (2016, October 01)

Objective of the study Since CYP1A1, a member of cytochrome P450 superfamily, has been described to be over expressed in various types of cancer, our study was focused on the optimization of a fully ... [more ▼]

Objective of the study Since CYP1A1, a member of cytochrome P450 superfamily, has been described to be over expressed in various types of cancer, our study was focused on the optimization of a fully automated system for the monitoring of this particularly interesting enzyme. Moreover, the potentiality of this approach to screen CYP1A1 inhibitors was investigated. Materials and methods The experiments were carried out on a HP3DCE system using an on-column DAD. The EMMA procedure was performed by injecting a plug containing the co-factor(NADPH) and the substrate(7-ethoxycoumarin) between two plugs of CYP1A1 supersomes. The reaction was triggered by the application of a voltage switch. The voltage was then turned off to allow the metabolic reaction to occur. The separation of the components was then performed. Results Satisfying results were obtained using CYP1A1 at a concentration of 200 pmol/mL, while the incubation time was settled to 15 min. A DoE was performed to find the best mixing conditions. The amount of metabolite obtained was comparable to the one detected after conventional off-line metabolization. The ability of our system to monitor CYP1A1 inhibition was then proven with apigenin, a well-known CYP1A1 inhibitor. Conclusions The present study describes the development of a fully automatized in-capillary method for CYP1A1 activity monitoring and proves the potentialy of our system to be used for the screening of CYP1A1 inhibitors. The advantages of performing inline metabolization assays are mainly the miniaturization and the automatization of the process. Besides, the reagents consumption is drastically reduced due to the injection of few tens of nanoliters. [less ▲]

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See detailThe OD/OH Isotope Ratio in Comets 8P/Tuttle and C/2012 F6 (Lemmon)
Rousselot, Philippe; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg et al

in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2016, October 01), 48

The determination of isotopic ratios in solar system objects is an important source of information about their origin, especially for comets. Among these ratios the D/H is of particular importance because ... [more ▼]

The determination of isotopic ratios in solar system objects is an important source of information about their origin, especially for comets. Among these ratios the D/H is of particular importance because of its sensitivity to fractionation processes and physical environment, and the abundance of hydrogen in the solar system. The main molecule used to derive this ratio in comets is water. So far, apart water, only HCN has permitted to derive D/H ratio and not only upper limits.Most of the existing determinations of D/H in water molecules have been obtained by spectroscopic observations of water lines in the sub-mm or near infrared range [1,2]. So far only one measurement has been based on OD/OH emission lines radicals in the near-UV [3] and another one on the Lyman-alpha D emission [4]. In situ measurements have also been obtained in comets 1P/Halley and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using mass spectrometer [5,6,7,8].In this work we have used the OH and OD ultraviolet bands at 310 nm observed with the ESO 8-m Very Large Telescope feeding the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) for measuring the D/H ratio in comets 8P/Tuttle and C/2012 F6 (Lemmon). The OH and OD being the photodissociation products of H[SUB]2[/SUB]O and HDO such observations allow to derive D/H ratio for water molecules. This work constitutes an independant determination of the D/H ratios already published for these comets and based on observations performed in the sub-mm and near infrared range of H[SUB]2[/SUB]O and HDO lines. We present our modeling, data analysis and numerical values obtained for this ratio.[1] D. Bockelée-Morvan et al., 2015, SSR 197, 47-83 [2] N. Biver et al., 2016, A&A 589, id A78, 11p [3] D. Hutsemékers et al., 2008, A&A 490, L31 [4] H.A. Weaver et al., 2008, LPI Contributions 1405, 8216 [5] H. Balsiger, K. Altwegg, J. Geiss, 1995, JGR 100, 5827 [6] P. Eberhardt et al., 1995, A&A 302, 301 [7] R.H. Brown et al., 2012, PSS 60, 166 [8] K. Alwegg et al., 2015, Science 347, article id. 1261952 [less ▲]

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See detailSurvey for Ortho-to-Para Abundance Ratios (OPRs) of NH2 in Comets: Revisit to the Meaning of OPRs of Cometary Volatiles
Kawakita, Hideyo; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2016, October 01), 48

Since molecules having identical protons can be classified into nuclear-spin isomers (e.g., ortho-H[SUB]2[/SUB]O and para-H[SUB]2[/SUB]O for water) and their inter-conversions by radiative and non ... [more ▼]

Since molecules having identical protons can be classified into nuclear-spin isomers (e.g., ortho-H[SUB]2[/SUB]O and para-H[SUB]2[/SUB]O for water) and their inter-conversions by radiative and non-destructive collisional processes are believed to be very slow, the ortho-to-para abundance ratios (OPRs) of cometary volatiles such as H[SUB]2[/SUB]O, NH[SUB]3[/SUB] and CH[SUB]4[/SUB] in coma have been considered as primordial characters of cometary molecules [1]. Those ratios are usually interpreted as nuclear-spin temperatures although the real meaning of OPRs is in strong debate. Recent progress in laboratory studies about nuclear-spin conversion in gas- and solid-phases [2,3] revealed short-time nuclear-spin conversions for water, and we have to reconsider the interpretation for observed OPRs of cometary volatiles. We have already performed the survey for OPRs of NH[SUB]2[/SUB] in more than 20 comets by large aperture telescopes with high-resolution spectrographs (UVES/VLT, HDS/Subaru, etc.) in the optical wavelength region [4]. The observed OPRs of ammonia estimated from OPRs of NH[SUB]2[/SUB], cluster around ~1.1 (cf. 1.0 as a high-temperature limit), indicative of ~30 K as nuclear-spin temperatures. We present our latest results for OPRs of cometary NH[SUB]2[/SUB] and discuss about the real meaning of OPRs of cometary ammonia, in relation to OPRs of water in cometary coma. Chemical processes in the inner coma may play an important role to achieve un-equilibrated OPRs of cometary volatiles in coma.This work was financially supported by MEXT Supported Program for the Strategic Research Foundation at Private Universities, 2014–2018 (No. S1411028) (HK) and by Graint-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows, 15J10864 (YS).References:[1] Mumma & Charnley, 2011, Annu. Rev. Astro. Astrophys. 49, 471.[2] Hama & Watanabe, 2013, Chem. Rev. 113, 8783.[3] Hama et al., 2008, Science 351, 6268.[4] Shinnaka et al., 2011, ApJ 729, 81. [less ▲]

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