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See detailSGLT2 Inhibitors: Benefit/Risk Balance.
Scheen, André ULg

in Current Diabetes Reports (2016), 16(10), 92

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion. They have been evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with diet ... [more ▼]

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion. They have been evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with diet/exercise, metformin, dual oral therapy or insulin. Three agents are available in Europe and the USA (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin) and others are commercialized in Japan or in clinical development. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glycated hemoglobin, with a minimal risk of hypoglycemia. They exert favorable effects beyond glucose control with consistent body weight, blood pressure, and serum uric acid reductions. Empagliflozin showed remarkable reductions in cardiovascular/all-cause mortality and in hospitalization for heart failure in patients with previous cardiovascular disease. Positive renal outcomes were also shown with empagliflozin. Mostly reported adverse events are genital mycotic infections, while urinary tract infections and events linked to volume depletion are rather rare. Concern about a risk of ketoacidosis and bone fractures has been recently raised, which deserves caution and further evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of reducing blood pressure on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: Focus on SGLT2 inhibitors and EMPA-REG OUTCOME.
Scheen, André ULg

in Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice (2016), 121

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has shown a remarkable reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and antecedents of ... [more ▼]

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has shown a remarkable reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and antecedents of cardiovascular disease in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. This effect has been attributed to a hemodynamic rather than a metabolic effect, partly due to the osmotic/diuretic effect of empagliflozin and to the reduction in arterial blood pressure. The present review will: (1) summarize the results of specific studies having tested the blood pressure lowering effects of SGLT2 inhibitors; (2) describe the results of meta-analyses of trials having evaluated the effects on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes of lowering blood pressure in patients with T2D, with a special focus on baseline and target blood pressures; (3) compare the cardiovascular outcome results in EMPA-REG OUTCOME versus other major trials with antihypertensive agents in patients with T2D; and (4) evaluate post-hoc analyses from EMPA-REG OUTCOME, especially subgroups of patients of special interest regarding the blood pressure lowering hypothesis. Although BP reduction associated to empagliflozin therapy may partly contribute to the benefits reported in EMPA-REG OUTCOME, other mechanisms most probably play a greater role in the overall CV protection and reduction in mortality observed in this trial. [less ▲]

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See detailL'agroforesterie en Belgique : atouts et freins dans le paysage agricole moderne
Boutsen, Raphaël; Artru, Sidonie ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg et al

in FORÊT.NATURE (2016), 138

L'agroforesterie associe la production ligneuse d'arbres avec d'autres cultures ou avec l'élevage. Si des formes traditionnelles d'agroforesterie se sont perpétuées jusqu'à nos jours, grâce notamment à ... [more ▼]

L'agroforesterie associe la production ligneuse d'arbres avec d'autres cultures ou avec l'élevage. Si des formes traditionnelles d'agroforesterie se sont perpétuées jusqu'à nos jours, grâce notamment à des aides indirectes de la PAC, une nouvelle génération est en train d'émerger. Des modèles plus complexes et novateurs tentent d'intégrer l'arbre à une réflexion globale sur le système de production. La prise en compte des processus sous-jacents aux fonctionnements des écosystèmes est au cœur de cette réflexion... [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of planting methods and tuber weights on growth and yield of yam cultivars (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) in Gabon
ONDO OVONO, Paul; Kevers, Claire ULg; Dommes, Jacques ULg

in International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and soil Science (2016), 6

A study was conducted to investigate the influence of planting methods and tuber weight on growth and yield of local yam cultivars obtained by the minisett technique from white yam (D. rotundata) in Gabon ... [more ▼]

A study was conducted to investigate the influence of planting methods and tuber weight on growth and yield of local yam cultivars obtained by the minisett technique from white yam (D. rotundata) in Gabon. Trials were carried out in 2014 and 2015 at the experimental ground of the Higher National Institute of Agronomy and Biotechnology, under natural conditions of lightness, temperature and relative humidity. Twenty- four weeks old mini tubers obtained from local cultivar MVA of D. rotundata were harvested, weighed and categorized ( 40-80 g; 100-150 g; 200-300 g), and three planting methods (horizontal, oblique and vertical), arranged in ridges constituted the main factors. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Completely Block Design with eighteen treatments and two replications. Data pertaining to sprouting were recorded for 30, 60, 90 and 180 DAP, for tuber length (cm), tuber weight (Kg) and number of tubers per plant 270 DAP. Significant differences among tuber weight in all variables tested were observed. The larger tubers had better sprouting ability than the rest of the tuber weight. The methods of planting had no effects on yield and its components but they affect the depth and spread of tubers. Vertical planting produced deeper but more compactly arranged tubers while horizontal planting produced tubers which were shallower but more widespread. Slanting was intermediate for both depth and spread. The number and weight of tubers obtained from mini tubers planted out according to slanting method were significantly different (P< 0.05) from other planting methods. The production of seedlings from mini tuber is an improvement of traditional production of seed yam. Mini tubers must have at least 100-300 g and they should be planted slanting or vertically. [less ▲]

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See detailResilience to environmental pressure through quality food demand. The case of Romania
Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Malina; Burny, Philippe ULg

in Babes-Bolyai University (Ed.) 11th International Conference on "Environmental Legislation, Safety Engineering and Disaster Management": book of abstracts (2016)

The paper focuses on the Romanian consumer behavior and perceptions related to meat consumption, following that it is deeply embedded in the Romanian dietary food culture. The meat consumption is an ... [more ▼]

The paper focuses on the Romanian consumer behavior and perceptions related to meat consumption, following that it is deeply embedded in the Romanian dietary food culture. The meat consumption is an indicator of the population welfare degree and it is often used in assessing the food safety. The novelty lies in the investigation of meat consumption hindering factors, with a special emphasis on those related to the environmental protection. The main research objective was to evaluate the importance attached by consumers to meat products safety in order to develop resilience to environmental pressure through quality food production and consumption. Statistical analysis revealed the interest in meat free-off antibiotics, hormones and no genetically modified. From a pratical perspective, the results indicate directions that policy-making should follow to adapt the production sector to the market demands, along with promoting a more sustainable consumption pattern. [less ▲]

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See detailPoplar-root-knot nematode interaction: a model for perennial woody species
Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Twyffels, Laure et al

in Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions [=MPMI] (2016), 29(7), 560-572

Plant root-knot nematode interaction studies are performed on several host plant models. However, even though root-knot nematodes interact with trees, no perennial woody model has been explored so far. We ... [more ▼]

Plant root-knot nematode interaction studies are performed on several host plant models. However, even though root-knot nematodes interact with trees, no perennial woody model has been explored so far. We show here that poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) grown in vitro is susceptible to Meloidogyne incognita as this nematode is able to penetrate, to induce feeding sites and to reproduce in poplar roots. As analyzed by Raman spectromicroscopy, the cell walls of the giant cells, with typical characteristics of transfer cell walls, were not lignified and were composed mainly of pectin and cellulose. To better depict the poplar-nematode interaction at the molecular level, a quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed to study changes in poplar gene expression in galls compared to non-infected roots. Three marker genes, reported for other plant hosts, including expansin A, histone 3.1 and asparagine synthase, were conserved for poplar-nematode interaction. In addition, the down-regulation of four genes coding for enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway was evidenced in galls, suggesting a modification in lignin composition within galls developed in poplar roots. Together, this study shows that poplar is a suitable model host for specific traits of tree-nematode interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailQuasi-One-Dimensional Metal-Insulator Transitions in Compound Semiconductor Surfaces
Zhao, J. Z.; Fan, W.; Verstraete, Matthieu ULg et al

in Physical Review Letters (2016), 117

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See detailPotential cost-effectiveness for using patient decision aids to guide osteoporosis treatment
Penton, H; Hiligsmann, M.; Harrison, M. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2016), 27

We use a model to predict whether using a patient decision aid in patients considering bisphosphonate therapy would be a good use of health resources. We found that if the decision aid improved adherence ... [more ▼]

We use a model to predict whether using a patient decision aid in patients considering bisphosphonate therapy would be a good use of health resources. We found that if the decision aid improved adherence, and only marginally increased time physicians needed with their patients, then the decision-aid would be cost-effective. Introduction Oral bisphosphonates have been shown to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Adherence is crucial but suboptimal. A recent study suggests that a patient decision aid, which facilitates shared decision-making, could be effective in increasing adherence to bisphosphonates. But decision aids come at a cost in terms of additional time spent with physicians. This study considers the emerging evidence on the role of patient decision aids in improving adherence to bisphosphonates and their potential costs to inform future decision-making and research priorities. [less ▲]

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See detailDOES A TWO-DAY POSTGRADUATE COURSE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC MUSCULO-SKELETAL PAIN INCREASES THE PHYSIOTHERAPISTS’ PAIN NEUROPHYSIOLOGY KNOWLEDGE?
Pitance, Laurent; Brasseur, Pauline; Rondeaux, Charlie et al

Conference (2016)

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See detailSPINAL PAIN IN HOCKEY PLAYERS : A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Roussel, Nathalie; Lemmens; Rottiers et al

Conference (2016)

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See detailChevilles douloureuses et instables
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Learning material (2016)

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See detailSafety, efficacy and clinical generalization of the STAR protocol: a retrospective analysis
Stewart, K. W.; Pretty, C. G.; Tomlinson, H. et al

in Annals of Intensive Care (2016), 6(1),

Background: The changes in metabolic pathways and metabolites due to critical illness result in a highly complex and dynamic metabolic state, making safe, effective management of hyperglycemia and ... [more ▼]

Background: The changes in metabolic pathways and metabolites due to critical illness result in a highly complex and dynamic metabolic state, making safe, effective management of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia difficult. In addition, clinical practices can vary significantly, thus making GC protocols difficult to generalize across units.The aim of this study was to provide a retrospective analysis of the safety, performance and workload of the stochastic targeted (STAR) glycemic control (GC) protocol to demonstrate that patient-specific, safe, effective GC is possible with the STAR protocol and that it is also generalizable across/over different units and clinical practices. Methods: Retrospective analysis of STAR GC in the Christchurch Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU), New Zealand (267 patients), and the Gyula Hospital, Hungary (47 patients), is analyzed (2011–2015). STAR Christchurch (BG target 4.4–8.0 mmol/L) is also compared to the Specialized Relative Insulin and Nutrition Tables (SPRINT) protocol (BG target 4.4–6.1 mmol/L) implemented in the Christchurch Hospital ICU, New Zealand (292 patients, 2005–2007). Cohort mortality, effectiveness and safety of glycemic control and nutrition delivered are compared using nonparametric statistics. Results: Both STAR implementations and SPRINT resulted in over 86 % of time per episode in the blood glucose (BG) band of 4.4–8.0 mmol/L. Patients treated using STAR in Christchurch ICU spent 36.7 % less time on protocol and were fed significantly more than those treated with SPRINT (73 vs. 86 % of caloric target). The results from STAR in both Christchurch and Gyula were very similar, with the BG distributions being almost identical. STAR provided safe GC with very few patients experiencing severe hypoglycemia (BG < 2.2 mmol/L, <5 patients, 1.5 %). Conclusions: STAR outperformed its predecessor, SPRINT, by providing higher nutrition and equally safe, effective control for all the days of patient stay, while lowering the number of measurements and interventions required. The STAR protocol has the ability to deliver high performance and high safety across patient types, time, clinical practice culture (Christchurch and Gyula) and clinical resources. © 2016, Stewart et al. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement of pelvic organ prolapse in French-speaking Belgium: the EPILAPSUS study.
DE LANDSHEERE, Laurent ULg; SMAJDA, Stefan; OBERWEIS, Didier et al

in Gynecological Surgery (2016), 13(3), 165-172

Management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) may be conducted by abdominal (laparotomy or laparoscopy) or vaginal approach, with or without mesh repair, mainly depending on the surgeon’s expertise. The aim ... [more ▼]

Management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) may be conducted by abdominal (laparotomy or laparoscopy) or vaginal approach, with or without mesh repair, mainly depending on the surgeon’s expertise. The aim of this study was to determine the trends in surgical management of POP in French-speaking Belgium. The GGOLFB Gynecologic surgery working group initiated a registry of the patients surgically treated for POP from eight centers in French-speaking Belgium. In this prospective multicentric study, conducted between June 2010 and January 2013, we analyzed the clinical and surgical data, the postoperative results at 4 months, the intra and postoperative complications, and reoperation rates. A total of 394 patients were registered in the database. Surgical POP repair was performed vaginally in 83.5 % of the patients, with prosthetic material in 70.2 % of the cases. In case of abdominal procedure, surgery was mainly (93.5 %) performed by laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. The most common intraoperative complications were severe bleeding (2.3 %), bladder (2 %), and bowel (0.2 %) injuries. At 4 months, the total reoperation rate was 11.3 %. The anatomical success rate (POP-Q < 2) was 87.5 % with 2.1 % of reoperation for recurrence. Mesh exposure was observed in 9.8 % of the cases. Surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) was reported in 5.1 % of the patients. The analysis of the current urogynecological practice in French-speaking Belgium shows that vaginal mesh repair is the preferential approach used for management of POP in the participating centers. The creation of a national database will help to evaluate the global trends in prolapse surgery and the potential impact of the FDA notification in the management of POP in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailXavier Tremblay et la liturgie longue indo-iranienne. Présentation
Swennen, Philippe ULg

in Pirart, Eric (Ed.) Etudes de linguistique iranienne in memoriam Xavier Tremblay (2016)

This article presents a long manuscript written by Xavier Tremblay, who died to soon to end the research he was wanting to achieve. In this first text, Tremblay was collecting all the accessible data ... [more ▼]

This article presents a long manuscript written by Xavier Tremblay, who died to soon to end the research he was wanting to achieve. In this first text, Tremblay was collecting all the accessible data allowing the comparison between the liturgical process of the Yasna, in Iran, and of the Agnistoma sacrifice, in India. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Belgian supermarkets 'hub&spoke' settlement decision
Mattioli, Evi ULg

in Journal for European Competition Law and Practice (2016), 7(4), 261-266

The Belgian Competition Authority (BCA) recently imposed the highest fine ever in history of Belgian competition law enforcement for a ‘hub&spoke’ cartel in the supply and retail sector of drugstore ... [more ▼]

The Belgian Competition Authority (BCA) recently imposed the highest fine ever in history of Belgian competition law enforcement for a ‘hub&spoke’ cartel in the supply and retail sector of drugstore, perfumery, and hygiene (DPH) products. Seven supermarkets had indirectly coordinated end-consumer price increases for branded DPH products by exchanging information through the suppliers, who knowingly provided support to the cartel as intermediaries and facilitators of the cartel. In its settlement decision, the BCA ultimately failed to base the finding of an infringement by settlement decision on established competition law principles. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal subjectification: interrogating the role of genetic diagnosis in patients and relatives' evidence-based activism in Belgium
Duysens, Fanny ULg

Conference (2016)

Health- and disease-related events may be of highly significance for some patients and their relatives' life courses. Naming the medical diagnosis of a disease is one of them. It carries the inherent ... [more ▼]

Health- and disease-related events may be of highly significance for some patients and their relatives' life courses. Naming the medical diagnosis of a disease is one of them. It carries the inherent power of (re)configuring the individuals' life courses, which are moreover closely linked to those of their relatives, and especially blood families in the case of (hereditary) genetic diseases. Drawing on ethnographic observations and narratives from patients and relatives involved in some Belgian organizations concerned with genetic disorders (such as neuromuscular, renal, or intellectual), this paper is interested in the ways these concerned people understand the naming of a medical diagnosis event by (re)interpreting their past familial stories, trying to intervene in the present, and designing a desired future. Observations show that the medical genetic diagnosis also carries a strong power of patients and relatives' subjectification. This goes beyond individual processes to intertwine with larger social, political and biomedical dynamics and the interactions between various actors and institutions: civil society, scientific and medical professionals, public health institutions, or healthcare systems. Especially, this intertwines with the evolutions in patients and relatives' activism. So, the aim is to interrogate in an anthropological perspective of temporalities the role of medical diagnosis in the processes of patients and relatives' subjectification, as well as their ability to negotiate with the subjectivities which are taking shape within, such as through the forms of activism they adopt. [less ▲]

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