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See detailGlobal approach for the validation of an in-line Raman spectroscopic method to determine the API content in real-time during a hot-melt extrusion process
Netchacovitch, Lauranne ULg; Thiry, Justine ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg et al

in Talanta (2017)

Since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a guidance based on the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) approach, real-time analyses during manufacturing processes are in real expansion. In ... [more ▼]

Since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a guidance based on the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) approach, real-time analyses during manufacturing processes are in real expansion. In this study, in-line Raman spectroscopic analyses were performed during a Hot-Melt Extrusion (HME) process to determine the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) content in real-time. The method was validated based on a univariate and a multivariate approach and the analytical performances of the obtained models were compared. Moreover, on one hand, in-line data were correlated with the real API concentration present in the sample quantified by a previously validated off-line confocal Raman microspectroscopic method. On the other hand, in-line data were also treated in function of the concentration based on the weighing of the components in the prepared mixture. The importance of developing quantitative methods based on the use of a reference method was thus highlighted. The method was validated according to the total error approach fixing the acceptance limits at ± 15% and the α risk at ± 5%. This method reaches the requirements of the European Pharmacopeia norms for the uniformity of content of single-dose preparations. The validation proves that future results will be in the acceptance limits with a previously defined probability. Finally, the in-line validated method was compared with the off-line one to demonstrate its ability to be used in routine analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailThe frequency and influence of dementia risk factors in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease
Bos, Isabelle; Vos, Stephanie J.; Frölich, Lutz et al

in Neurobiology of Aging (2017)

We investigated whether dementia risk factors were associated with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD) according to the International Working Group-2 and National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer’s Association ... [more ▼]

We investigated whether dementia risk factors were associated with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD) according to the International Working Group-2 and National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer’s Association criteria, and with cognitive decline. 1394 subjects from with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from 14 different studies were classified according to these research criteria, based on cognitive performance and biomarkers. We compared the frequency of ten risk factors between the subgroups and used Cox-regression to examine the effect of risk factors on cognitive decline. Depression, obesity and hypercholesterolemia occurred more often in individuals with low-AD-likelihood, compared to those with a high-AD-likelihood. Only alcohol use increased the risk of cognitive decline, regardless of AD pathology. These results suggest that traditional risk factors for AD are not associated with prodromal AD or with progression to dementia, among subjects with MCI. Future studies should validate these findings and determine whether risk factors might be of influence at an earlier stage (i.e. preclinical) of AD. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegration of Gene Expression and Methylation to unravel Biological Networks in Glioblastoma Patients
Bessonov, Kyrylo ULg; Gadaleta, Francesco; Van Steen, Kristel ULg

in Genetic Epidemiology (2017)

The vast amount of heterogeneous omics data, encompassing a broad range of biomolecular information, requires novel methods of analysis, including those that integrate the available levels of information ... [more ▼]

The vast amount of heterogeneous omics data, encompassing a broad range of biomolecular information, requires novel methods of analysis, including those that integrate the available levels of information. In this work we describe Regression2Net, a computational approach that is able to integrate gene expression and genomic or methylome data in two steps. First, penalized regressions are used to build Expression-Expression (EEnet) and Expression-Genome or –Methylome (EMnet) networks. Second, network theory is used to highlight important communities of genes. When applying our approach Regression2Net to gene expression and methylation profiles for individuals with glioblastoma multiforme, we identified respectively 284 and 447 potentially interesting genes in relation to glioblastoma pathology. These genes showed at least one connection in the integrated networks ANDnet and XORnet derived from aforementioned EEnet and EMnet networks. Whereas the edges in ANDnet occur in both EEnet and EMnet, the edges in XORnet occur in EMnet but not in EEnet. In-depth biological analysis of connected genes in ANDnet and XORnet revealed genes that are related to energy metabolism, cell cycle control (AATF), immune system response and several cancer types. Importantly, we observed significant over-representation of cancer related pathways including glioma, especially in the XORnet network, suggesting a non-ignorable role of methylation in glioblastoma multiforma. In the ANDnet, we furthermore identified potential glioma suppressor genes ACCN3 and ACCN4 linked to the NBPF1 neuroblastoma breakpoint family, as well as numerous ABC transporter genes (ABCA1, ABCB1) suggesting drug resistance of glioblastoma tumors. [less ▲]

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See detailExercices d'analyse complexe
Dubussy, Christophe ULg

Learning material (2017)

Ce livre d'exercices est destiné aux étudiants de second bloc en sciences mathématiques. Il vise à compléter le cours théorique "Analyse II, 2e partie" et à servir de base pour les séances de travaux ... [more ▼]

Ce livre d'exercices est destiné aux étudiants de second bloc en sciences mathématiques. Il vise à compléter le cours théorique "Analyse II, 2e partie" et à servir de base pour les séances de travaux pratiques. Chaque pan du cours est structuré en chapitre et illustré par de nombreux exercices de difficulté variable. [less ▲]

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See detailAgro-physiological and biochemical responses of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. 'minor') genotypes to water deficit stress
Abid, Ghassen; Hessini, Kamel; Aouida, Marwa et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2017), 21(2),

Drought is one of the major abiotic factors affecting growth and productivity of plants by imposing certain morphological, physiological and biochemical changes at different growth stages. The objective ... [more ▼]

Drought is one of the major abiotic factors affecting growth and productivity of plants by imposing certain morphological, physiological and biochemical changes at different growth stages. The objective of this work is to study key morphological, physiological and biochemical response of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. 'minor') to soil water deficit stress and to assess the contribution of genetic factors in improving faba bean tolerance to water deficit. Plant of 11 faba bean cultivars were grown in the greenhouse and subjected to three levels of water deficit (90, 50 and 30% of field capacity (FC)) in a simple randomized design for 20 days. Water deficit effects on plant growth, relative water content (RWC), gaz exchange, chlorophyll a (Chla) and Chlorophyll b (Chlb) content, osmoprotectant accumulations (such as proline and soluble sugars), antioxydant enzyme activities and grain yield were determined. Soil water deficit stress reduced growth and affected physiological parameters, especially antioxidant enzyme activities. Water deficit also increased proline, soluble sugars and protein contents. The studied cultivars significantly differed in their responses to water deficit stress. Photosynthetic parameters were less affected in the 'Hara' cultivar. Furthermore, this cultivar produced the highest value of grain yield at 30% FC, and showed higher antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, GPX and APX), osmoprotectant accumulations, Chlb and RWC. The 'Hara' cultivar was found to be more tolerant to water deficit stress than the other cultivars. Our methodology can be used for assessing the response of faba bean genetic resources to soil water deficit. The identified tolerant cultivar can be utilized as a source for water stress tolerance in faba bean breeding programs aimed at improving drought tolerance. [less ▲]

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See detailGenomewide association of piglet responses to infection with one of two porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates.
Waide, E. H.; Tuggle, C. K.; Serao, N. V. L. et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2017), 95(1), 16-38

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating disease in the swine industry. Identification of host genetic factors that enable selection for improved performance during PRRS virus ... [more ▼]

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating disease in the swine industry. Identification of host genetic factors that enable selection for improved performance during PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection would reduce the impact of this disease on animal welfare and production efficiency. We conducted genomewide association study (GWAS) analyses of data from 13 trials of approximately 200 commercial crossbred nursery-age piglets that were experimentally infected with 1 of 2 type 2 isolates of PRRSV (NVSL 97-7985 [NVSL] and KS2006-72109 [KS06]). Phenotypes analyzed were viral load (VL) in blood during the first 21 d after infection (dpi) and weight gain (WG) from 0 to 42 dpi. We accounted for the previously identified QTL in the region on SSC4 in our models to increase power to identify additional regions. Many regions identified by single-SNP analyses were not identified using Bayes-B, but both analyses identified the same regions on SSC3 and SSC5 to be associated with VL in the KS06 trials and on SSC6 in the NVSL trials ( < 5 x 10); for WG, regions on SSC5 and SSC17 were associated in the NVSL trials ( < 3 x 10). No regions were identified with either method for WG in the KS06 trials. Except for the region on SSC4, which was associated with VL for both isolates (but only with WG for NVSL), identified regions did not overlap between the 2 PRRSV isolate data sets, despite high estimates of the genetic correlation between isolates for traits based on these data. We also identified genomic regions whose associations with VL or WG interacted with either PRRSV isolate or with genotype at the SSC4 QTL. Gene ontology (GO) annotation terms for genes located near moderately associated SNP ( < 0.003) were enriched for multiple immunologically (VL) and metabolism- (WG) related GO terms. The biological relevance of these regions suggests that, although it may increase the number of false positives, the use of single-SNP analyses and a relaxed threshold also increased the identification of true positives. In conclusion, although only the SSC4 QTL was associated with response to both PRRSV isolates, genes near associated SNP were enriched for the same GO terms across PRRSV isolates, suggesting that host responses to these 2 isolates are affected by the actions of many genes that function together in similar biological processes. [less ▲]

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See detailFlavor profiles of monovarietal virgin olive oils produced in the Oriental region of Morocco
Mansouri, Farid; Ben Moumen, Abdessamad; Richard, Gaetan ULg et al

in Oilseeds and fats, Crops and Lipids (2017), 24

The purpose of this study is the evaluation of flavor profiles of monovarietal virgin olive oils (VOO) produced in the Oriental region of Morocco via the characterization of volatile compounds, using SPME ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study is the evaluation of flavor profiles of monovarietal virgin olive oils (VOO) produced in the Oriental region of Morocco via the characterization of volatile compounds, using SPME-GC/MS technique, and the determination of total phenolic content (colorimetric method). The study concerns oils of three European olive cultivars (Arbosana, Arbequina and Koroneiki) which were recently introduced in Morocco under irrigated high-density plantation system. GC/MS aroma profiles of analyzed VOOs showed the presence of 35 volatile compounds. The major compounds in such oils are C6 compounds produced from linoleic and linolenic acids via lipoxygenase pathway such as trans-2-hexenal, cis-2-hexenal, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, trans-3-hexen-1-ol acetate, hexanal and 1-hexanol in different proportions depending on the cultivar (p<0.05). In addition, statistical analyses indicate that the analyzed VOOs have different aroma profiles. Arbequina oil has a high proportion of compounds with sensory notes “green” and “sweet” giving it a fruity sensation compared to Arbosana and Koroneiki. In parallel, Arbosana and Koroneiki oils are rich in phenolic compounds and provide relatively bitter and pungent tastes to these oils. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance-Based Financing in the heath sector in low- and middle-income countries: Is there anything whereof it may be said, See, this is new?
Paul, Elisabeth ULg; Renmans, Dimitri

in International Journal of Health Planning and Management (2017)

Whereas performance‐based financing (PBF) is nowdeveloping fast in the health sector in low‐ and middle‐income countries and is presented an innovative approach—concomitantly, subject to a separate ... [more ▼]

Whereas performance‐based financing (PBF) is nowdeveloping fast in the health sector in low‐ and middle‐income countries and is presented an innovative approach—concomitantly, subject to a separate research stream—it sharesmany features of the “managing for results” (MfR) and performance‐based budgeting (PBB) currents that have existed for decades. In this paper, we first argue that PBF as currently developed in the health sector in low‐ and middle‐income countries shares many features and thus can be viewed as an avatar of MfR andmore precisely PBB. Secondly,we drawlessons fromthe literature on MfR and PBB so as to (1) better apprehend PBF conceptually and (2) avoid pitfalls and better design PBF schemes in practice. We argue that the lessons from the theoretical and empirical literature on MfR and PBB offer interesting insights to feed into a “theory of change” of PBF, enabling to analyse critical aspects and better design PBF schemes. Moreover, it is hoped that just like MfR processes have been demonstrated as having the potential to boost individual performance not only through links with financial incentives but also through acting on other sources of motivation, one can demonstrate more accurately by which mechanisms the various elements of the PBF package can help improve health sector results. [less ▲]

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See detailL'intervention du support. Médiation esthétique et énonciation éditoriale
Servais, Christine ULg; Durand, Pascal ULg

Book published by Presses de L'Université de Liège (2017)

SOMMAIRE DE L’OUVRAGE • Pascal Durand et Christine Servais, Interventions du support Première partie. Médiations esthétiques : les espaces de l’œuvre • Guy Lelong, Révolutions de support – de la poésie à ... [more ▼]

SOMMAIRE DE L’OUVRAGE • Pascal Durand et Christine Servais, Interventions du support Première partie. Médiations esthétiques : les espaces de l’œuvre • Guy Lelong, Révolutions de support – de la poésie à l’architecture. Mallarmé, Buren, Grisey, Rahm • Didier Plassard, Du théâtre de marionnettes au théâtre avec marionnettes : analyse d’un changement de paradigme • Christine Servais, Les Lumière de la ville : cinéma des premiers temps et espace urbain • Bernard Lamizet, Médiation esthétique, médiation urbaine, espace de la ville Deuxième partie. L’œuvre support : aspects de l’énonciation éditoriale • Marie-Ève Thérenty Les Œuvres complètes, testament éditorial de l’écrivain : Joseph Kessel ou le triomphe de l’œuvre-vie • Bertrand Legendre, Les supports du livre : luxe, calme et volupté ? • Tanguy Habrand, Du paratexte à l’image de marque : Hubert Nyssen, concepteur d’Actes Sud • Marc-Emmanuel Mélon, Le support et la commande : la « croisière » photographique d’Hubert Nyssen en Algérie • Nancy Delhalle, Le paradoxe de l’amateur de théâtre : du Théâtre de Plans aux Ruines de Rome d’Hubert Nyssen Troisième partie. Horizons numériques : le vidéo-ludique • Julie Delbouille, Esthétique des supports vidéoludiques • Pierre-Yves Hurel, Jeu vidéo amateur : des supports et des positionnements [less ▲]

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See detailInterventions du support
Durand, Pascal ULg; Servais, Christine ULg

in Durand, Pascal; Servais, Christine (Eds.) L'intervention du support. Médiation esthétique et énonciation éditoriale (2017)

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See detailSeasonal Transport in Mars’ Mesosphere revealed by Nitric Oxide Nightglow vertical profiles and global images from IUVS/MAVEN
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; Stewart; Jain et al

Conference (2017)

We analyze the ultraviolet nightglow in the atmosphere of Mars through Nitric Oxide (NO) δ and γ bands emis- sions. On the dayside thermosphere of Mars, solar extreme ultraviolet radiation partly ... [more ▼]

We analyze the ultraviolet nightglow in the atmosphere of Mars through Nitric Oxide (NO) δ and γ bands emis- sions. On the dayside thermosphere of Mars, solar extreme ultraviolet radiation partly dissociates CO2 and N2 molecules. O(3P) and N(4S) atoms are carried by the day-to-night hemispheric transport. They preferentially descend in the nightside mesosphere in the winter hemisphere, where they can radiatively recombine to form NO(C2Π). The excited molecules promptly relax by emitting photons in the UV δ bands and in the γ bands through cascades via the A2Σ, v’ = 0 state. These emissions are thus indicators of the N and O atom fluxes transported from the dayside to Mars’ nightside and the winter descending circulation pattern from the nightside thermosphere to the mesosphere (e.g. Bertaux et al., 2005 ; Bougher et al., 1990 ; Cox et al., 2008 ; Gagné et al., 2013 ; Gérard et al., 2008 ; Stiepen et al., 2015). Observations of these emissions have been accumulated on a large dataset of nightside disk images and vertical profiles obtained at the limb by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS, McClintock et al., 2015) instrument when the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft is at its apoapsis and its periapsis phases along its orbit, respectively. We present discussion on the variability in the brightness, altitude and topside scale height of the emission with season, geographical position and local time and possible interpretation for local and global changes in the meso- sphere dynamics. IUVS images and limb scans reveal unexpected complex structure of the emission. The brightest emission is observed close to the winter pole. The emission is also surprisingly more intense in some sectors located close to the equator : at 120 ̊ and 150 ̊ longitude. Observations also reveal spots and streaks, indicating irregularities in the wind circulation pattern and possible impact of waves and tides. The disk images and limb profiles are compared to the LMD-MGCM model (Gonzàlez-Galindo et al., 2009 ; Lopez-Valverde et al., 2011) to focus on the seasonal, local time and geographical influences on the NO Nightglow emission. We will also provide a statistical study of the regions of enhanced brightness (i.e. splotches and streaks) and discuss possible interpretation from the comparison to the GCM. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous variables logic via coupled automata using a DNAzyme cascade with feedback
Lilienthal, Sivan; Orbach, Ron; Willner, Itamar et al

in Chemical Science (2017), 8

The concentration of molecules can be changed by chemical reactions and thereby offer a continuous readout. Yet computer architecture is cast in textbooks in terms of binary valued, Boolean variables. To ... [more ▼]

The concentration of molecules can be changed by chemical reactions and thereby offer a continuous readout. Yet computer architecture is cast in textbooks in terms of binary valued, Boolean variables. To enable reactive chemical systems to compute we show how, using the Cox interpretation of probability theory, one can transcribe the equations of chemical kinetics as a sequence of coupled logic gates operating on continuous variables. It is discussed how the distinct chemical identity of a molecule allows us to create a common language for chemical kinetics and Boolean logic. Specifically, the logic AND operation is shown to be equivalent to a bimolecular process. The logic XOR operation represents chemical processes that take place concurrently. The values of the rate constants enter the logic scheme as inputs. By designing a reaction scheme with a feedback we endow the logic gates with a built in memory because their output then depends on the input and also on the present state of the system. Technically such a logic machine is an automaton. We report an experimental realization of three such coupled automata using a DNAzyme multilayer signaling cascade. A simple model verifies analytically that our experimental scheme provides an integrator generating a power series that is third order in time. The model identifies two parameters that govern the kinetics and shows how the initial concentrations of the substrates are the coefficients in the power series. [less ▲]

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See detailConstraining model biases in a global general circulation model with ensemble data assimilation methods
Canter, Martin ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

A new method of bias correction using an ensemble transform Kalman filter as data assimilation scheme is developed. The objective is to create a stochastic forcing term which will partially remove the ... [more ▼]

A new method of bias correction using an ensemble transform Kalman filter as data assimilation scheme is developed. The objective is to create a stochastic forcing term which will partially remove the bias from numerical models. The forcing term is considered as a parameter to be estimated through state vector augmentation and the assimilation of observations. The theoretical formulation of this method is introduced in the general context of numerical modelling. A specially designed and modified Lorenz '96 model is studied, and provides a testing environment for this new bias correction method. Several different aspects are considered through both single and iterative assimilation in a twin experiment. The method is then implemented on the global general circulation model of the ocean NEMO-LIM2. The forcing term generation is detailed to respect particular physical constraints. Again, a twin experiment allows to assess the efficiency of the method on a realistic model. The assimilation of sea surface height observations is performed, with sea surface salinity and temperature as control variable. Subsequently, a multivariate assimilation shows further improvement of the bias correction. Finally, the method is confronted to real sea surface height observations from the CNES-CLS09 global mean dynamic topography. A thorough study of the NEMO-LIM2 model response to the bias correction forcing term is proposed, and specific results are highlighted. An iterative assimilation concludes the method investigation. Possible ideas and future developments are suggested. [less ▲]

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See detailPapillomaviruses and cervical neoplasia
Herfs, Michael ULg; Chang, Martin; Crum, Christopher

in Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine, ninth edition (2017)

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See detailObjective assessment of visual pursuit in patients with disorders of consciousness: an exploratory study.
Wannez, Sarah ULg; Hoyoux, Thomas; Langohr, Thomas et al

in Journal of Neurology (2017)

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See detailComputing flooding of crossroads with obstacles using a 2D numerical model (Discussion)
Bruwier, Martin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Research (2017)

Based on an operational 2D shallow-water model, the Authors computed subcritical dividing flow at a three-branch crossroad, considering obstacles located at different positions. The numerical predictions ... [more ▼]

Based on an operational 2D shallow-water model, the Authors computed subcritical dividing flow at a three-branch crossroad, considering obstacles located at different positions. The numerical predictions were compared to observations from Mignot et al. (2013). Two issues are addressed here, related respectively to the efficiency and relevance of the turbulence model, and to the representation of the obstacles in operational flood models. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of coma-recovery scale-revised signs of consciousness in patients in minimally conscious state
Wannez, Sarah ULg; Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Azzolini, Deborah et al

in Neuropsychological Rehabilitation (2017)

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See detailA Probabilistic Finite State Logic Machine Realized Experimentally on a Single Dopant Atom
Fresch, Barbara; Bocquel, Juanita; Rogge, Sven et al

in Nano Letters (2017), 17

Exploiting the potential of nanoscale devices for logic processing requires the implementation of computing functionalities departing from the conventional switching paradigm. We report on the design and ... [more ▼]

Exploiting the potential of nanoscale devices for logic processing requires the implementation of computing functionalities departing from the conventional switching paradigm. We report on the design and the experimental realisation of a probabilistic finite state machine in a single phosphorus donor atom placed in a silicon matrix electrically addressed and probed by Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS). The single atom logic unit simulates the flow of visitors in a maze whose topology is determined by the dynamics of the electronic transport through the states of the dopant. By considering the simplest case of a unique charge state for which three electronic states can be resolved, we demonstrate an efficient solution of the following problem: in a maze of four connected rooms, what is the optimal combination of door opening rates in order to maximize the time that visitors spend in one specific chamber? The implementation takes advantage of the stochastic nature of electron tunneling while the output remains the macroscopic current whose reading can be realized with standard techniques and does not require single electron sensitivity. [less ▲]

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See detailPostface (au recueil Le Royaume de Danemark d'André Gascht]
Purnelle, Gérald ULg

in Gascht, André (Ed.) Le Royaume de Danemark (2017)

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