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See detailThe Future of Ageing - Stakeholder Involvement on the Future of Care
Barland, Marianne; Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Rosskamp, Benedikt ULg

in Klüver, Lars; Øjvind Nielsen, Rasmus; Jørgensen, Marie Louise (Eds.) Policy-Oriented Technology Assessment Across Europe: Expanding Capacities (2016)

Barland et al. describe an example project showcasing the strengths of technology assessment methodology in structuring stakeholder dialogues in a cross-European context. The authors provide an in-depth ... [more ▼]

Barland et al. describe an example project showcasing the strengths of technology assessment methodology in structuring stakeholder dialogues in a cross-European context. The authors provide an in-depth account of the method design choices made and their underlying rationale. Beyond the buzzword, well-structured and transparent stakeholder dialogue can help to balance difficult issues of policy priority – in this case by balancing the contributions of technological innovation against social reorganization as a means of securing sustainable future health-care service for senior citizens. The article shows the added value of multi-site dialogues based in national debates but linked to the European policy development process [less ▲]

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See detailMaking Technology Assessment Accessible to New Players
Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Rosskamp, Benedikt ULg; Fitzgerald, Ciara et al

in Klüver, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus; Jorgensen, Marie-Louise (Eds.) Policy-Oriented Technology Assessment Across Europe. Expanding Capacities (2016)

This chapter reports on the two PACITA summers schools, which were aimed at teaching TA as well as enhancing mutual-learning activities. The first summer school concentrated on the topic ‘Renewable Energy ... [more ▼]

This chapter reports on the two PACITA summers schools, which were aimed at teaching TA as well as enhancing mutual-learning activities. The first summer school concentrated on the topic ‘Renewable Energy Systems- role and use of PTA’ and it was held in Liege in June 2012. The second summer school addressed the topic of ‘Ageing and Technology’, and was held in Cork in June 2014. We describe the rationale and format of the summer school in order to present a comprehensive account of how it was introduced TA, both its rational and its methods, to a new audience. We argue that as the responsible innovation agenda continues to gain traction among policy makers, societal actors and academics, education initiatives such as TA summer schools can have an important role to play in the future of the governance of science, technology and innovation. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural Activation During Mental Rotation in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: the Influence of Sex Hormones and Sex Chromosomes.
van Hemmen, Judy; Veltman, Dick J.; Hoekzema, Elseline et al

in Cerebral Cortex (2016)

Sex hormones, androgens in particular, are hypothesized to play a key role in the sexual differentiation of the human brain. However, possible direct effects of the sex chromosomes, that is, XX or XY ... [more ▼]

Sex hormones, androgens in particular, are hypothesized to play a key role in the sexual differentiation of the human brain. However, possible direct effects of the sex chromosomes, that is, XX or XY, have not been well studied in humans. Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who have a 46,XY karyotype but a female phenotype due to a complete androgen resistance, enable us to study the separate effects of gonadal hormones versus sex chromosomes on neural sex differences. Therefore, in the present study, we compared 46,XY men (n = 30) and 46,XX women (n = 29) to 46,XY individuals with CAIS (n = 21) on a mental rotation task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Previously reported sex differences in neural activation during mental rotation were replicated in the control groups, with control men showing more activation in the inferior parietal lobe than control women. Individuals with CAIS showed a female-like neural activation pattern in the parietal lobe, indicating feminization of the brain in CAIS. Furthermore, this first neuroimaging study in individuals with CAIS provides evidence that sex differences in regional brain function during mental rotation are most likely not directly driven by genetic sex, but rather reflect gonadal hormone exposure. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Fractal Nature of Mars Topography Analyzed via the Wavelet Leaders Method
Kleyntssens, Thomas ULg; Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Poster (2016)

This work studies the scaling properties of Mars topography based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data through the wavelet leaders method (WLM). This approach shows a scale break at 15 km. At small ... [more ▼]

This work studies the scaling properties of Mars topography based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data through the wavelet leaders method (WLM). This approach shows a scale break at 15 km. At small scales, these topographic profiles display a monofractal behavior while a multifractal nature is observed at large scales. The scaling exponents are greater at small scales. They also seem to be influenced by latitude and may indicate a slight anisotropy in topography. [less ▲]

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See detailForeign Language Teachers’ Assessment Practices in French-Speaking Belgium’s Upper Secondary Schools: A Case Study
Noiroux, Kevin ULg

in The International Journal of Pedagogy and Curriculum (2016), 23(2),

Foreign language classroom assessment practices are a mystery, at least in Belgium. The present case study aims at shedding light on Belgian foreign languages teachers’ assessment practices in secondary ... [more ▼]

Foreign language classroom assessment practices are a mystery, at least in Belgium. The present case study aims at shedding light on Belgian foreign languages teachers’ assessment practices in secondary education. I interviewed seven teachers to know what they assessed and how often they assessed it. I also analyzed the legal provisions that teachers have to respect when they assess. The results show that teachers assess four communicative skills—listening, reading, writing, and speaking—as legally required, but also reveal that they frequently assess vocabulary and grammar, sometimes in ways that are not permitted. Furthermore, they spend a considerable amount of time assessing those skills without even being aware of it. Since these assessments only aim at verifying that the students master the skills, it may be worth investigating whether some assessments are not redundant so as to devote that time to a more productive task. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanoreceptors in the anterior horn of the equine medial meniscus: an immunohistochemical approach
Nemery, Elodie ULg; Gabriel, Annick ULg; Grulke, Sigrid ULg et al

in Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia (2016), 45

Lameness due to stifle and especially meniscal lesions is frequent in equine species. In humans, mechanoreceptors involved in proprioceptive function are well studied. Given the high incidence of meniscal ... [more ▼]

Lameness due to stifle and especially meniscal lesions is frequent in equine species. In humans, mechanoreceptors involved in proprioceptive function are well studied. Given the high incidence of meniscal injuries in horses, and the lack of information concerning them in equine menisci, our objective was to study these corpuscles in six healthy anterior horns of the equine medial meniscus, which is the most common localisation reported for equine meniscal injuries. Immunohistochemical stainings were performed using antibodies against high molecular weight neurofilaments and glial fibrillary acidic proteins. From a purely fundamental point of view, our work highlights for the first time the presence of Ruffini, Pacini and Golgi corpuscles in equine meniscus. They were found, isolated or in clusters and always located at the vicinity of blood vessels, at the level of the anterior horn of the equine medial meniscus. This morphological approach could serve as a basis for clinical studies, to evaluate the impact of these corpuscles on the poor sportive prognosis in equine meniscal tears. [less ▲]

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See detailPathologie du muscle - Classification - Traitement
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Learning material (2016)

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See detailWeakening of Jupiter's main auroral emission during January 2014
Badman, S. V.; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Fujimoto, M. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2016), 43(3), 988-997

In January 2014 Jupiter's FUV main auroral oval decreased its emitted power by 70% and shifted equatorward by ∼1°. Intense, low-latitude features were also detected. The decrease in emitted power is ... [more ▼]

In January 2014 Jupiter's FUV main auroral oval decreased its emitted power by 70% and shifted equatorward by ∼1°. Intense, low-latitude features were also detected. The decrease in emitted power is attributed to a decrease in auroral current density rather than electron energy. This could be caused by a decrease in the source electron density, an order of magnitude increase in the source electron thermal energy, or a combination of these. Both can be explained either by expansion of the magnetosphere or by an increase in the inward transport of hot plasma through the middle magnetosphere and its interchange with cold flux tubes moving outward. In the latter case the hot plasma could have increased the electron temperature in the source region and produced the intense, low-latitude features, while the increased cold plasma transport rate produced the shift of the main oval. © 2016. The Authors. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall-Angle Scattering Analysis of Empty or Loaded Hierarchical Porous Materials
Gommes, Cédric ULg; Prieto, Gonzalo; de Jongh, Petra

in Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2016), 120(3), 14881506

Small-angle scattering of x-rays (SAXS) or neutrons (SANS) is one of the few experimental methods that can in principle be used for the in situ study at the mesoscopic scale of physicochemical phenomena ... [more ▼]

Small-angle scattering of x-rays (SAXS) or neutrons (SANS) is one of the few experimental methods that can in principle be used for the in situ study at the mesoscopic scale of physicochemical phenomena occurring inside nanoporous solids. However, the potential of the method is often limited by the lack of suitable data analysis methods to convert scattering data into real-space structural information. This is notably the case for most porous materials of practical interest, which exhibit a hierarchical structure with micro, meso, and macropores, with often a secondary material confined in the pores, such as in supported catalysts, as well as fuel-cell and battery materials. In the present contribution, we propose a general analysis of x-ray scattering by this type of material. Assuming that each structural level is statistically independent from the others and has a distinct characteristic length scale, compact mathematical expressions are derived for the scattering of the entire hierarchical structure. The results are particularised to the SAXS analysis of SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silica loaded with copper nitrate as well as to supported catalysts obtained after heat treatment of that material. The SAXS data analysis shows that the nitrate fills both the micro and mesopores of the material, while the metallic copper obtained after heat treatment is found only in the mesopores. Moreover, the mesoscopic-scale spatial distribution of the metal depends on the heat treatment, in line with earlier electron tomography studies. The main ideas underlying the SAXS data analysis were presented in an recent Communication [Gommes et al., Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed. 54 (2015) 11804-11808]. Here we generalise the approach and we provide a comprehensive discussion of how any level in a hierarchical structure contributes to its overall scattering pattern. The results, as well as the general modelling methodology, will be of interest to anyone interested in the quantitative analysis of small-angle scattering data of empty or loaded porous solids, and more generally of any type of hierarchical material. [less ▲]

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See detailFormulation of a 1D finite element of heat exchanger for accurate modelling of the grouting behaviour: Application to cyclic thermal loading
Cerfontaine, Benjamin ULg; Radioti, Georgia ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Renewable Energy : An International Journal (2016), 96

This paper presents a comprehensive formulation of a finite element for the modelling of borehole heat exchangers. This work focuses on the accurate modelling of the grouting and the field of temperature ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a comprehensive formulation of a finite element for the modelling of borehole heat exchangers. This work focuses on the accurate modelling of the grouting and the field of temperature near a single borehole. Therefore the grouting of the BHE is explicitly modelled. The purpose of this work is to provide tools necessary to the further modelling of thermo-mechanical couplings. The finite element discretises the classical governing equation of advection-diffusion of heat within a 1D pipe connected to ground nodes. Petrov-Galerkin weighting functions are used to avoid numerical disturbances. The formulation is able to capture highly transient and steady-state phenomena. The proposed finite element is validated with respect to analytical solutions. An example consisting of a 100 m depth U-pipe is finally simulated. A first continuous heating simulation highlights the nonsymmetric distribution of temperature inside and near the borehole. An estimation of the error on the results as a function of the resolution parameters is also carried out. Finally simulations of cyclic thermal loading exhibit the need to take into account all daily variations if the grouting behaviour must be modelled. This is true especially in case of freeze-thaw damaging risk. [less ▲]

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See detailThe transactional process between the relationships with caregivers and children's externalizing behavior
Roskam, Isabelle; Stievenart, Marie ULg; de Mol, Jan

in Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology (2016), 42

Externalizing behavior (EB) has been found to be pervasive in children across different interactional systems. The transactional model is one of the most interesting and plausible mechanisms explaining ... [more ▼]

Externalizing behavior (EB) has been found to be pervasive in children across different interactional systems. The transactional model is one of the most interesting and plausible mechanisms explaining the development of behavioral problems (Sameroff, 2009). The main goal of the study is to test bidirectional and recursive transactional relations between the quality of the caregiver–child relationship and children's externalizing behavior. The transactional model was tested in three-wave longitudinal cross-lagged models involving 117 children (78.5% boys) aged 4 at the beginning of the study and three caregivers, i.e. their mother, father and teacher. All of the children had been clinically referred for externalizing behavior. Themulti-informant three-wave design was an original feature of this research. The results provided no evidence for a transactional process. The results suggest the singularity of each ofthese three interactional systems. They are discussed from the theoretical viewpoint and in terms of their clinical implications. [less ▲]

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See detailMarket Dynamics in the Financial Industry - Essays on Interdependence and Market Timing
Biell, Elisabeth ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

The global financial crisis and the subsequent sovereign crisis are painful reminders of how the standards of financial markets are profoundly challenged in times of crisis. The main lesson is that the ... [more ▼]

The global financial crisis and the subsequent sovereign crisis are painful reminders of how the standards of financial markets are profoundly challenged in times of crisis. The main lesson is that the structural changes and the increased risk of shock transmissions require a more accurate risk assessment that captures the complexity of market dynamics. Based on an empirical approach, this thesis aims at loosening a priori assumptions common in literature in order to develop new methodologies that are more robust and more flexible to the dynamics of changing market conditions. The first aspect of market dynamics addressed in this thesis is the dependence structure of financial markets. The connectedness of the banking and sovereign sectors is dynamically assessed on the basis of daily CDS spreads using complex networks. We turn away from the traditional linear correlation measures and use copula theory to account for extreme events and tail dependence, which is crucial when studying credit and default risk. Through the calculation of minimum spanning trees, our methodology evaluates the transmission pattern of shocks over time and their propagation across geopolitical borders. Going beyond the analysis of simple interdependence, we apply a structural break analysis to measure a contagion index that captures increased co-movements in the network. This thesis tackles a second aspect of market dynamics which relates to major events in the life of a company affecting a company’s market value. By means of operational loss events and cross-listing decisions, we illustrate our refined event study technique that overcomes the drawback of a priori assumptions about the event date. In addition to the reaction magnitude, our approach investigates the point in time when most of the market reaction takes place by highlighting two variables: the start and the length of stock markets' responses. [less ▲]

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See detailSearching for consensus among physicians involved in the management of sick-listed workers in the Belgian health care sector: a qualitative study among practitioners and stakeholders
Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg; Govers, Patrick ULg; Schippers, Nathalie ULg et al

in BMC Public Health (2016), 16

Background In Belgium, the management of sick leave involves general practitioners (GPs), occupational health physicians (OPs) and social insurance physicians (SIPs). A dysfunctional relationship among ... [more ▼]

Background In Belgium, the management of sick leave involves general practitioners (GPs), occupational health physicians (OPs) and social insurance physicians (SIPs). A dysfunctional relationship among these physicians can impede a patient’s ability to return to work. The objective of this study was to identify ways to improve these physicians’ mutual collaboration. Methods Two consensus techniques were successively performed among the three professional groups. Eight nominal groups (NGs) gathered 74 field practitioners, and a two-round Delphi process involved 32 stakeholders. Results From the results, it appears that two areas (reciprocal knowledge and evolution of the legal and regulatory framework) are objects of consensus among the three medical group that were surveyed. Information transfer, particularly electronic transfer, was stressed as an important way to improve. The consensual proposals regarding interdisciplinary collaboration indicate specific and practical changes to be implemented when professionals are managing workers who are on sick leave. The collaboration process appeared to be currently more problematic, but the participants correctly identified the need for common training. Conclusions The three physician groups all agree regarding several inter-physician collaboration proposals. The study also revealed a latent conflict situation among the analysed professionals that can arise from a lack of mutual recognition. Practical changes or improvements must be included in an extended framework that involves the different determinants of interdisciplinary collaboration that are shown by theoretical models. Collaboration is a product of the actions and behaviours of various partners, which requires reciprocal knowledge and trust; collaboration also implies political and economic structures that are led by public health authorities. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic diversity, Population structure, parentage analysis, and construction of core collections in the French apple germplasm based on SSR markers
Lassois, Ludivine ULg; Denancé, Caroline; Ravon, Elisa et al

in Plant Molecular Biology Reporter (2016)

In-depth characterization of apple genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement and for germplasm management. In this study, we fingerprinted a very large French collection of 2163 ... [more ▼]

In-depth characterization of apple genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement and for germplasm management. In this study, we fingerprinted a very large French collection of 2163 accessions with 24 SSR markers in order to evaluate its genetic diversity, population structure and genetic relationships, to link these features with cultivar selection date or usage (old or modern, dessert or cider cultivars), and to construct core collections. Most markers were highly discriminating and powerful for varietal identification, with a probability of identity P(ID) over the 21 retained SSR loci close to 10-28. Pairwise comparisons revealed 34% redundancy and 18.5% putative triploids. The results showed that the germplasm is highly diverse with an expected heterozygosity He of 0.82 and observed heterozygosity Ho of 0.83. A Bayesian model-based clustering approach revealed a weak but significant structure in three subgroups (FST = 0.014-0.048) corresponding, albeit approximately, to the three subpopulations defined beforehand (Old Dessert, Old Cider and Moderncultivars). Parentage analyses established already known and yet unknown relationships, notably between old cultivars, with the frequent occurrence of cultivars such as ‘King of Pippin’ and ‘Calville Rouge d’Hiver’ as founders. Finally, core collections based on allelic diversity were constructed. A large dessert core collection of 278 cultivars contained 90% of the total dessert allelic diversity, whereas a dessert sub-core collection of 48 cultivars contained 71% of diversity. For cider apples, a 48-cultivars core collection contained 83% of the total cider allelic diversity. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la matérialisation de quelques concepts phénoménologiques.
Frère, Bruno ULg

in SociologieS (2016)

Résumé : Ce article suggère une réflexion sur les rapports qu’entretiennent sociologie et philosophie. Il entend montrer qu’établir des ponts entre les deux disciplines a non seulement toujours été ... [more ▼]

Résumé : Ce article suggère une réflexion sur les rapports qu’entretiennent sociologie et philosophie. Il entend montrer qu’établir des ponts entre les deux disciplines a non seulement toujours été d’usage mais s’avère aujourd’hui urgent. En effet, faisant l’économie d’une considération sérieuse de la prise que lui offre la sociologie sur le monde, la philosophie risque d’échouer à penser les transformations politiques et économiques des société contemporaines. A l’inverse, une certaine tendance positiviste semble menacer la sociologie qui se débarrasserait de toutes connaissances philosophiques. Afin de rappeler l’intérêt que l’une et l’autre se doivent réciproquement, cet article voudrait montrer comment il peut être utile à la sociologie de donner corps à certains concepts philosophiques lorsqu’elle s’avère confrontée à certaines difficultés. Afin d’illustrer le propos, nous nous référerons à un exemple puisé au sein de l’économie solidaire. Ici en effet, c’est en acceptant que se matérialise dans l’enquête le concept d’état d’esprit intentionnel que la philosophie phénoménologique vient à point nommé pour aider la sociologie pragmatique de la critique à se représenter les contradictions qui peuvent apparaître entre action et justification. Et ce sans pour autant renoncer à « prendre les gens aux sérieux » et s’en retourner vers une traditionnelle sociologie du dévoilement qui expliquerait ces contradictions par le décalage qui existerait entre habitus (ou sens pratique) d’une part et illusions réflexives des acteurs d’autre part. Mots clefs : phénoménologie, états d’esprit intentionnel, philosophie, sociologie pragmatique, économie solidaire. Summary : This article is a reflexion about the relationship between sociology and philosophy. It will show that building bridges between the two disciplines, whilst recurrent, is more urgent now than ever. On the one hand, philosophy will be unable to contribute meaningfully to discussions about the major political and economic transformations experienced by contemporary societies without engaging with Sociology. On the other hand without philosophical insights Sociology risks drifting towards positivistic trends. In this article we propose to show how each discipline can benefit from cross-fertilisations and in particular how Sociology can appropriate philosophical concepts to address certain challenges. Drawing on a specific example from solidary economy, we will show that the concept of intentional mindset borrowed from phenomenological philosophy enables pragmatic sociology to account for the gaps which are liable to emerge between action and justification. This concept fulfills the key tenet of pragmatic sociology that to take social actors seriously we must eschew a type of sociological approach which would consist of revealing that the gaps between action and justification arise from social actors’ illusory apprehension of their habitus. Key words: phénoménology, mindset, states of mind, philosophy, pragmatic sociology, solidarity economy. [less ▲]

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See detailSurface Constrained Elastic Rods with Application to the Sphere
Huynen, Alexandre ULg; Detournay, Emmanuel; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Journal of Elasticity (2016)

The unilateral contact between an elastic rod and a rigid surface is encountered in numerous biological and engineering applications. Along continuous contacts, the centerline of the rod reflects the ... [more ▼]

The unilateral contact between an elastic rod and a rigid surface is encountered in numerous biological and engineering applications. Along continuous contacts, the centerline of the rod reflects the geometry of the constraining surface. This restriction of the rod axis to surface bound configurations enters its local equilibrium through a reaction pressure which ensures the compatibility between the deformation and the restraint geometry. The classic equations governing the static equilibrium of elastic rods are particularized to surface bound configurations by (i) specifying the location of the rod axis in terms of its coordinates in the parameter space associated with the constraining surface parameterization, and (ii) characterizing the orientation of its material frame through its rotation with respect to the surface normal. This formulation, which emphasizes the relations between the rod configuration and the geometry of the constraint, also leads to an expression for the reaction pressure. This approach is then validated on a spherical surface by comparing with known solutions for elastic curves, i.e., inextensible and twist free rods. [less ▲]

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