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See detailEpisodic memory and aging: The effect of perceptual processing fluency on recognition memory processes
Bastin, Christine ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2016, April 03)

Normal aging is characterized by decreased recollection, but better preserved familiarity. Memory tasks that facilitate the use of familiarity should allow attenuating age-related differences in memory ... [more ▼]

Normal aging is characterized by decreased recollection, but better preserved familiarity. Memory tasks that facilitate the use of familiarity should allow attenuating age-related differences in memory. The study tested two hypotheses: (1) can the reliance on familiarity during recognition memory be promoted by increasing the difference in perceptual processing fluency between old and new items; (2) can this manipulation reduce age-related difficulties in episodic memory? Twenty-four young and 24 older adults performed two verbal recognition memory tasks. In the No-Overlap task, target words and new words did not share any letter. Prior exposition to the target words thus induced increased processing fluency of the words and letters, so that fluency difference was a salient and reliable cue to discriminate between old and new words. In the Overlap task, target and new words had letters in common, so fluency cues were less useful. Recollection and familiarity was assessed with the Remember/Know/Guess paradigm. The results showed an age effect on recollection but intact familiarity. Moreover, (1) memory performance was better in the No Overlap than the Overlap task, with a greater hit rate and a smaller false alarm rate associated with familiarity. And, (2) age-related differences in recognition accuracy (hits – false alarms) were significantly attenuated in the No Overlap task compared to the Overlap task. These findings suggest that minimizing the perceptual similarity between targets and distractors, and thus increasing processing fluency differences, allowed to reduce the effect of age on recognition memory performance by facilitating the use of familiarity. [less ▲]

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See detailIterative pruning method of unsupervised clustering for categorical data
Chaichoompu, Kridsadakorn ULg; Tongsima, Sissades; Shaw, Philip James et al

Poster (2016, April 03)

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are commonly used to identify population structures. Iterative pruning Principal Component Analysis (ipPCA) utilizes SNP profiles to assign individuals to ... [more ▼]

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are commonly used to identify population structures. Iterative pruning Principal Component Analysis (ipPCA) utilizes SNP profiles to assign individuals to subpopulations without making assumptions about ancestry. The strategy can be extrapolated to patient samples to identify molecular classes of patients. It is challenging to investigate the utility of substructure detection using profiles based on pre-defined genomic regions-of-interest rather than profiles based on SNPs. Using principles outlined in Fouladi, 2015, we can construct gene-based categorical variables representing different summary gene profiles in a region. These gene-based new constructs no longer have an equal number of unordered category levels. Here, we present C-PCA, an extension of ipPCA to target perform iterative pruning for categorical variables using optimal scaling. It allows performing non-linear principal component analyses to handle possibly non-linearly related variables with different measurement levels. To show the power of C-PCA compared to ipPCA, we simulated 500 individuals and assigned them to two populations of equal size. We considered genetic population distances using Fixation Index from 0.001 to 0.006. For each dataset, we simulated 10,000 independent random SNPs for 100 replicates using the Balding–Nichols model. These were used numerically in ipPCA and as categorical in C-PCA analysis. In conclusion, like ipPCA, we expect C-PCA to perform well in the presence of fine substructures. This paves the way to apply C-PCA to DNA-seq data and input categorical variable derived from genomic regions-of-interest to which common and rare variants are mapped. We foresee additional advantages of C-PCA in this context since region-based categorical variables are likely to be non-linearly associated at the background of underlying gene-gene interaction networks. C-PCA is implemented in R. [less ▲]

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See detailGROMPALA: a membrane-implicit modelling method to screen lipid-interacting molecules
Steinhauer, Sven; Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg; Brasseur, Robert ULg et al

in Software and techniques for Bio-molecular modeling (2016)

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See detailLa violence conjugale : persévérance vs abandon des auteurs masculins lors de leur participation à un groupe de responsabilisation
Di Piazza, Laetitia ULg; Kowal, Cécile; Hodiaumont, Fabienne et al

Poster (2016, April 02)

Le phénomène d'abandon thérapeutique lors de suivi dans le cadre de violence conjugale se trouve au cœur des préoccupations des intervenants venant en aide aux auteurs de ces violences. Ces thérapies en ... [more ▼]

Le phénomène d'abandon thérapeutique lors de suivi dans le cadre de violence conjugale se trouve au cœur des préoccupations des intervenants venant en aide aux auteurs de ces violences. Ces thérapies en groupe de responsabilisation se caractérisent par un taux d'abandon élevé, avec le risque potentiel de récidive associé. L’objectif de cette étude est d’identifier d’éventuelles caractéristiques intrapsychiques permettant de distinguer les usagers qui terminent leur suivi thérapeutique de ceux qui abandonnent au cours de celui-ci. Pour ce faire, une comparaison au sein de ces deux groupes d’individus (abandon : n=23 ; accomplissement du suivi : n=28) a été réalisée à partir de données sociodémographiques et de variables psychologiques spécifiques évaluées par des questionnaires auto-administrés (TAS-20, BIS-11, BDI, PBI, LEDS). Les résultats statistiques montrent que l’âge, le nombre d’événements stressants vécus au cours des six mois précédents l’évaluation et l’appréciation du soutien à l’autonomie perçu vis-à-vis de leur père sont les seules variables qui diffèrent significativement entre les deux groupes. Les autres dimensions mesurées telles que la dépression, l’alexithymie et l’impulsivité, quant à elles, ne produisent pas de résultats significatifs entre les deux groupes. Il semble donc, en définitive, que les hommes plus jeunes présenteront plus de risque de quitter le programme de façon précoce. Malgré tout, l’ensemble de ces résultats pose un sérieux défi pour les intervenants au sein des services d’aide spécialisés. En effet, si tous les individus qui participent aux groupes de responsabilisation présentent les mêmes caractéristiques intrapsychiques, comment prédire, mais surtout accrocher ceux qui abandonneront le programme ? [less ▲]

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See detailViolence conjugale : l’alexithymie augmente-t-elle le risque de comportement violent ?
Di Piazza, Laetitia ULg

Conference (2016, April 02)

Longtemps ignorée voire minimisée par son caractère privé, la violence conjugale constitue aujourd’hui un délit punissable par la Loi. Durant les trente dernières années, de nombreux auteurs ont axé leurs ... [more ▼]

Longtemps ignorée voire minimisée par son caractère privé, la violence conjugale constitue aujourd’hui un délit punissable par la Loi. Durant les trente dernières années, de nombreux auteurs ont axé leurs recherches sur l’impact de ces violences physiques et/ou psychologiques sur les victimes (épouses, ex-partenaires, enfants). Mais, qu’en est-il des auteurs ? Affirmer que les hommes auteurs de violence conjugale sont violents dans toutes leurs relations, est un mythe. En outre, établir le profil moyen de l’homme auteur de violence conjugale est trop complexe en regard du nombre important de formes de violence possibles. En conséquence, l’objectif de cette étude est d’apprécier la présence de caractéristiques psychologiques spécifiques ainsi que leurs liens, pour constater une éventuelle fragilité qui pourrait expliquer le passage à l’acte violent. Dans cette étude, cinquante-trois hommes ont répondu à des questionnaires d’auto-évaluation mesurant l’alexithymie (TAS-20), la dépression (BDI), ainsi que l’impulsivité (BIS-11). Les résultats montrent que l’alexithymie et la dépression sont significativement associées avec l’engagement dans des comportements violents au sein du couple. En effet, les hommes qui ont participé à l’étude rapportent plus de sentiments dépressifs, et plus de difficulté à nommer et à exprimer leurs émotions que la population générale. En outre, un quart des participants sont caractérisés impulsif. En conclusion, ces premiers constats continuent de suggérer l’existence d’un lien majeur entre le trouble alexithymique et la violence conjugale tel que démontré par l’étude de la Professeure Léveillée en 2013. Cette étude apporte par conséquent des pistes de réflexion ayant un impact clinique significatif sur l’évaluation du risque ainsi que sur l’intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailTout ce qui pousse au potager d'intérieur
Jijakli, Haissam ULg

Article for general public (2016)

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See detailHerschel observations of the nebula M1-67 around the Wolf-Rayet star WR 124
Vamvatira-Nakou, C.; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Royer, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 588

Infrared Herschel imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula M1-67 around the Wolf-Rayet star WR 124 have been obtained along with optical imaging observations. The infrared images reveal a ... [more ▼]

Infrared Herschel imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula M1-67 around the Wolf-Rayet star WR 124 have been obtained along with optical imaging observations. The infrared images reveal a clumpy dusty nebula that extends up to 1 pc. The comparison with the optical images shows that the ionized gas nebula coincides with the dust nebula, the dust and the gas being mixed together. A photodissociation region is revealed from the infrared spectroscopic analysis. The analysis of the infrared spectrum of the nebula, where forbidden emission lines of ionized elements were detected, showed that the nebula consists of mildly processed material with the calculated abundance number ratios being N/O = 1.0 ± 0.5 and C/O = 0.46 ± 0.27. Based on a radiative transfer model, the dust mass of the nebula was estimated to be 0.22 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB] with a population of large grains being necessary to reproduce the observations. The comparison of the mass-loss rate and the abundance ratios to theoretical models of stellar evolution led to the conclusion that the nebular ejection took place during a RSG/YSG evolutionary phase of a central star with an initial mass of 32 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB]. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Based in part on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil apparent conductivity measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments: A case study from Western-Thailand
Rudolph, Sebastian; Wongleecharoen, Chalemchart; Lark, Murray et al

in Geoderma (2016), 267

In experimental trials, the success or failure of agricultural improvements is commonly evaluated on the agronomic response of crops, using proper experimental designs with sufficient statistical power ... [more ▼]

In experimental trials, the success or failure of agricultural improvements is commonly evaluated on the agronomic response of crops, using proper experimental designs with sufficient statistical power. Since fine-scale variability of the experimental site can reduce statistical power, efficiency gains in the experimental design can be achieved if this variation is known and used to design blocking, or some proxy variable is used as a covariate. Near-surface geophysical techniques such as electromagnetic induction (EMI), which describes subsurface properties non-invasively by measuring soil apparent conductivity (ECa), may be one source of this information. The motivation of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of EMI-derived ECa measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments. ECa and plant height measurements (the response variable) were taken from an agroforestry experiment in Western Thailand, and their variability was quantified to simulate multiple realizations of ECa and the residuals of the response variable from treatment means. These were combined to produce simulated data from different experimental designs and treatment effects. The simulated data were then used to evaluate the statistical power by detecting three orthogonal contrasts among the treatments in the original experiment. We considered three experimental designs, a simple random design (SR), a complete randomized block design (CRB), and a complete randomized block design with spatially adjusted blocks on plot means of ECa (CRBECa). Using analysis of variance (ANOVA), the smallest effect sizes could be detected with the CRBECa design, which indicates that ECa measurements could be used in the planning phase of an experiment to achieve efficiencies by improved blocking. In contrast, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that substantial power improvements could be gained when ECa was considered as a covariate in the analysis. We therefore recommend that ECa measurements should be used to characterize subsurface variability of experimental sites and to support the statistical analysis of agricultural experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailThat crisis idea! Refugee camps in European borders, from urgent condition to sustainable state
Da Silva, Amanda Carolina ULg

Scientific conference (2016, April 01)

This article aims to explore the transition process of informal camps on the French border to a sustainable state, similarly to « ghettoization ». I observe this issue as a result of a ... [more ▼]

This article aims to explore the transition process of informal camps on the French border to a sustainable state, similarly to « ghettoization ». I observe this issue as a result of a securitizationprocess. I started from the assumption that the ethical and cultural dimensions have particular relevance in this process. This issue requires a transversal analysis, of policies and speeches of actors at local, national and international levels. This is a question of integration policies at the local level more than a question of national or European immigration models. I aim to highlight the local the local level relevance, where the integration is primarily implemented, and therefore local and regional context should matter as much as the national model for the analysis of integration (Martiniello, 2013). In Calais, due to the lack of local immigration policies the civilian population has been pushed to react, they started to build temporary camps, this initiative increased the social exclusion. The civil associations gained more relevance and followers by Facebook, what changes the engagement that pass from local to transnational. In Calais the migratory flow and the informal camps called jungles are known since 1999, until May 2014 these camps around the city center possessed temporary vocation, and were destroyed and rebuilt daily. Therefore, this is also a matter of security speeches. The definition of the context as a crisis situation made possible an agreement between the associations and the government, that amidthe destruction of small camps and concentrated all refugees in a single area, 6.1 kilometers from the city. The political decisions concerning the space occupied by these individuals aimed to make them invisible, placing them far from the city and limiting their access to city services, which by consequence led to the construction of a ghetto. When a situation is defined as a crisis, it passes immediately to the state security sphere, where atypical actions, (as border militarization, mass expulsions, police repression), can be employed to protect the «political community» and eliminate the source of the crisis. This means that in a context defined as a crisis, temporality gains an important dimension, as evokes short term solutions, mobilizing more efforts in building urgency camps than in the areas related to integration. On the other hand the temporary camps, while urgent measures will endure and be normalised, becoming durable spaces of exclusion. The originality of this proposal is to discuss how local policy decisions and non-state actors worked together with a system of temporary camps for the implementation of a complex, semi-permanent exclusion system. This is a matter of contextual perception as a crisis situation, which is designed by production of speeches, and will determine the nature and timeliness of actions and political elaborations. The idea of the refugee crisis is then mobilized to justify emergency actions and security policies; such as closing borders, construction and maintenance of camps as an emergency response. [less ▲]

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See detailObservational signatures of past mass-exchange episodes in massive binaries: The case of HD 149 404
Raucq, Françoise ULg; Rauw, Gregor ULg; Gosset, Eric ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 588

Context. Mass and momentum exchanges in close massive binaries play an important role in their evolution, and produce several observational signatures such as asynchronous rotation and altered chemical ... [more ▼]

Context. Mass and momentum exchanges in close massive binaries play an important role in their evolution, and produce several observational signatures such as asynchronous rotation and altered chemical compositions, that remain after the stars detach again. Aims: We investigated these effects for the detached massive O-star binary HD 149 404 (O7.5 If + ON9.7 I, P = 9.81 days), which is thought to have experienced a past episode of case A Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF). Methods: Using phase-resolved spectroscopy, we performed the disentangling of the optical spectra of the two stars. The reconstructed primary and secondary spectra were then analysed with the CMFGEN model atmosphere code to determine stellar parameters, such as the effective temperatures and surface gravities, and to constrain the chemical composition of the components. We complemented the optical study with the study of IUE spectra, which we compare to the synthetic binary spectra. The properties of the stars were compared to evolutionary models. Results: We confirmed a strong overabundance in nitrogen ([N/C] ~ 150[N/C][SUB]⊙[/SUB]) for the secondary and a slight nitrogen overabundance ([N/C] ~ 5[N/C][SUB]⊙[/SUB]) for the primary star. Comparing the two stars, we found evidence for asynchronous rotation, with a rotational period ratio of 0.50 ± 0.11. Conclusions: The hypothesis of a past case A RLOF interaction in HD 149 404 is most plausible to explain its chemical abundances and rotational asynchronicity. Some of the observed properties, such as the abundance pattern, are clearly a challenge for current case A binary evolution models, however. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovering novel enzymes y functional screening of plurigenomic libraries from alga-associated Flavobacteriia and Gammaproteobacteria
Martin, Marjolaine ULg; Vandermies, Marie ULg; Joyeux, Coline et al

in Microbiological Research (2016), 186

Alga-associated microorganisms, in the context of their numerous interactions with the host and thecomplexity of the marine environment, are known to produce diverse hydrolytic enzymes with ... [more ▼]

Alga-associated microorganisms, in the context of their numerous interactions with the host and thecomplexity of the marine environment, are known to produce diverse hydrolytic enzymes with originalbiochemistry. We recently isolated several macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteria from the sur-face of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. These active isolates belong to two classes: the Flavobacteriiaand the Gammaproteobacteria. In the present study, we constructed two “plurigenomic” (with multi-ple bacterial genomes) libraries with the 5 most interesting isolates (regarding their phylogeny andtheir enzymatic activities) of each class (Fv and Gm libraries). Both libraries were screened for diversehydrolytic activities. Five activities, out of the 48 previously identified in the natural polysaccharolyticisolates, were recovered by functional screening: a xylanase (GmXyl7), a beta-glucosidase (GmBg1), anesterase (GmEst7) and two iota-carrageenases (Fvi2.5 and Gmi1.3). We discuss here the potential role ofthe used host-cell, the average DNA insert-sizes and the used restriction enzymes on the divergent screen-ing yields obtained for both libraries and get deeper inside the “great screen anomaly”. Interestingly, thediscovered esterase probably stands for a novel family of homoserine o-acetyltransferase-like-esterases,while the two iota-carrageenases represent new members of the poorly known GH82 family (contain-ing only 19 proteins since its description in 2000). These original results demonstrate the efficiencyof our uncommon “plurigenomic” library approach and the underexplored potential of alga-associatedcultivable microbiota for the identification of novel and algal-specific enzymes. [less ▲]

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See detailLa polykystose rénale autosomique dominante : comment et pourquoi identifier les patients "rapidement progresseurs" vers l'insuffisance rénale terminale?
bodson, aurélie; MEUNIER, Paul ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(4), 184-192

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common inherited disease characterised by the progressive development of multiple and bilateral cysts in kidneys and other organs. Most patients ... [more ▼]

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common inherited disease characterised by the progressive development of multiple and bilateral cysts in kidneys and other organs. Most patients with ADPKD will develop, sooner or later, end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The morbidity and mortality associated with ESRD prompt physicians to identify early ADPKD patients considered as «rapid progressors», who have the greatest risk to rapidly develop ESRD. The rate of progression can be assessed by clinical - especially with the «predicting renal outcome in polycystic kidney disease score» (PROPKD-Score) -, biological (a decline of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 4,4 - 5,9 ml/min/year and/or the doubling of serum creatinine within a 36-month period), or radiological criteria (total kidney volume (TKV) adjusted for the size > 600 cc/m and/or TKV annual growth rate > 5 %). Nowadays, there is no curative treatment for ADPKD. However, vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists, such as tolvaptan, appear to slow down the growth of renal cysts and the slope of GFR decline. The current management of ADPKD patients is mostly based on correcting the risk factors for progression, i.e. encouraging (over)-hydration, normalizing blood pressure, stimulating smoking cessation. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh spectral resolution monitoring of Nova V339 Delphini with TIGRE (Corrigendum)
De Gennaro Aquino, I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Mittag, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 589

The tags in Table 2, indicating the positions of the most prominent spectral features in Figs. 2a and b, were not corrected during the revision process. We include here the corrected table. The lines ... [more ▼]

The tags in Table 2, indicating the positions of the most prominent spectral features in Figs. 2a and b, were not corrected during the revision process. We include here the corrected table. The lines observed and identified in the spectra and the respective phases remain unchanged. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting the theory of colliding winds: the periastron passage of 9 Sagittarii. I. X-ray and optical spectroscopy
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Blomme, R.; Nazé, Yaël ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 589

Context. The long-period, highly eccentric O-star binary 9 Sgr, known for its non-thermal radio emission and its relatively bright X-ray emission, went through its periastron in 2013. <BR /> Aims: Such an ... [more ▼]

Context. The long-period, highly eccentric O-star binary 9 Sgr, known for its non-thermal radio emission and its relatively bright X-ray emission, went through its periastron in 2013. <BR /> Aims: Such an event can be used to observationally test the predictions of the theory of colliding stellar winds over a broad range of wavelengths. <BR /> Methods: We conducted a multi-wavelength monitoring campaign of 9 Sgr around the 2013 periastron. In this paper, we focus on X-ray observations and optical spectroscopy. <BR /> Results: The optical spectra allow us to revisit the orbital solution of 9 Sgr and to refine its orbital period to 9.1 years. The X-ray flux is maximum at periastron over all energy bands, but with clear differences as a function of energy. The largest variations are observed at energies above 2 keV, whilst the spectrum in the soft band (0.5-1.0 keV) remains mostly unchanged, indicating that it arises far from the collision region, in the inner winds of the individual components. The level of the hard emission at periastron clearly deviates from the 1 /r relation expected for an adiabatic wind-interaction zone, whilst this relation seems to hold at the other phases that are covered by our observations. The spectra taken at phase 0.946 reveal a clear Fe xxv line at 6.7 keV, but no such line is detected at periastron (φ = 0.000), although a simple model predicts a strong line that should be easily visible in the data. <BR /> Conclusions: The peculiarities of the X-ray spectrum of 9 Sgr could reflect the effect of radiative inhibition as well as a phase-dependent efficiency of particle acceleration on the shock properties. [less ▲]

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See detailSemiotyka wizualna między tekstualnością a praktyką. Wokół wypowiadania
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Thiel-Jańczuk, Katarzyna (Ed.) Taktyki wizualne. Michel de Certeau i obrazy (2016)

Niniejszy artykuł stawia sobie dwa cele. Pierwszym jest porównanie semiotyki tekstu Algirdasa Juliena Greimasa i Louisa Marina z semiotyką praktyk Jacques’a Fontanille’a. Prace Michela de Certeau na temat ... [more ▼]

Niniejszy artykuł stawia sobie dwa cele. Pierwszym jest porównanie semiotyki tekstu Algirdasa Juliena Greimasa i Louisa Marina z semiotyką praktyk Jacques’a Fontanille’a. Prace Michela de Certeau na temat praktyk odbioru i użycia pozwolą wyjaśnić relację między pojęciem wypowiadania wypowiedzianego (énonciation énoncée) w paradygmacie tekstu i wypowiadania w akcie (énonciation en acte) w paradygmacie praktyk. Drugim celem jest problematyzacja pojęcia wypowiadania w ramach języka wizualnego. W oparciu o teorie i analizy Louisa Marina (Opacité en peinture – Nieprzejrzystość w malarstwie) ukazana zostanie użyteczność pojęcia wypowiadania wypowiedzianego w studiach nad obrazami i podjęta zostanie próba przetestowania znaczenia, które wypowiadaniu nadaje de Certeau (Wynaleźć codzienność 1. Sztuki działania) w ramach odbioru i interpretacji obrazów. [less ▲]

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See detailPrésentation des recherches: Minus solvit qui tardius solvit
Cavalleri, Vanessa ULg

Scientific conference (2016, April)

Ma recherche doctorale vise à réaliser une étude chronologique et historique de la mora debitoris, depuis son apparition en droit romain jusqu’à nos jours. Il fallait dès lors déterminer les contours de ... [more ▼]

Ma recherche doctorale vise à réaliser une étude chronologique et historique de la mora debitoris, depuis son apparition en droit romain jusqu’à nos jours. Il fallait dès lors déterminer les contours de la mora debitoris en droit romain: ses modes de déclenchement, ses effets, son utilité et étudier l’évolution du concept lors des époques successives. Une question principale a balisé mes recherches: celle de la démarcation entre le retard du débiteur et la faute du débiteur: en effet, le droit romain a toujours été clair: à partir du moment où il est en retard, le débiteur du droit romain répond d’une responsabilité absolue (il répondra de la perte de l’objet de l’obligation qui est survenue après la mora même si l’objet disparait à cause d’un cas fortuit). Son obligation devient en effet perpétuelle: le débiteur reste tenu alors même que son obligation devient techniquement irréalisable. On constate cependant que le droit positif aborde les choses différemment: même si la règle de base reste la même (le débiteur retardataire est tenu même des cas fortuits), il est aujourd’hui possible pour le débiteur en mora de se libérer de son obligation alors même qu’il est en demeure, en prouvant que la chose aurait péri de la même manière si elle avait été remise à temps au créancier (exemples: art. 1302 C. Napoléon et art. 103 C.O.S) Le droit positif exige donc qu’il existe un lien de causalité entre le retard du débiteur et la disparition de l’objet afin que le débiteur retardataire ne soit tenu pour responsable. Cependant, malgré ce changement, la demeure persiste comme une institution propre. Les propositions d’uniformisation du droit civil au niveau européen voire même international vont cependant encore plus loin: le droit européen actuel désire unifier le droit des contrats (et plus particulièrement, le droit de la vente). Sous l'impulsion de cette démarche, on remarque que la séparation traditionnelle opérée dans les codes civils européens entre mora, impossibilité d'exécution et exécution fautive ou inexécution tend à disparaître au sein tentatives d’uniformisation du droit européen les plus récentes (parmi lesquelles le DCFR, dans lequel la notion de mora disparait pour se fondre dans celle de « non performance » (exemple: art. III. – 1:102: Definitions (3)), alors que les principes UNIDROIT de 1994 et les EPL (European Principles of Contract Law), également connus sous le nom de projet Lando (commission on european contract law, commissionnés par l’Union européenne), adoptent la voie médiane du nachtfrist, une option médiane permettant de prendre en compte le retard du débiteur : (art. 326 BGB) : le nachfrist permet de donner une extension automatique du temps imparti pour exécuter les contrats commerciaux. Bien que cette extension soit obligatoire en Allemagne, elle est laissée à la discrétion des parties dans les systèmes internationaux qui l’ont adoptée.) En définitive, il convient donc de se demander si l’évolution proposée par le droit européen est intéressante: peut-on effectivement se passer de la notion millénaire de demeure du débiteur, pourtant présente dans la plupart des Codes Civils européens. Quels avantages la mora procure-t-elle par rapport au droit de l’inexécution ? De surcroit, la sécurité juridique est-elle alors garantie par l’évolution que connait le principe ? Voici les questions qui ont jalonné mes recherches. [less ▲]

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See detailCompact handheld low-cost biosensor platform for remote health monitoring
Hastanin, Juriy ULg; Lenaerts, Cedric ULg; Gailly, Patrick ULg et al

in Proceedings of SPIE; SPIE 2016 Photonics Europe (2016, April)

In this paper, we present an original concept of plasmonic-related instrumentation platform dedicated to diagnostic biosensing tests out of the laboratory. The developed instrumental platform includes ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present an original concept of plasmonic-related instrumentation platform dedicated to diagnostic biosensing tests out of the laboratory. The developed instrumental platform includes both disposable one-use microfluidic affinity biochip and compact optical readout device for biochip monitoring involving mobile Internet devices for data processing and communication. The biochip includes both microfluidic and optical coupling structures formed into a single plastic slab. The microfluidic path of the biochip operates in passive capillary pumping mode. In the proof-of-concept prototype, we address specifically the sensing format involving Surface Plasmon Resonance phenomenon. The biochip is plugged in the readout device without the use of an index matching fluid. An essential advantage of the developed biochip is that its implementation involves conventional hot embossing and thin film deposition process, perfectly suited for mass production of low-cost microfluidic biochip for biochemical applications. [less ▲]

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