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See detailIdentification of Signaling Pathways Regulating Beta Cell Regeneration in Zebrafish
Massoz, Laura; Bergemann, David ULiege; Lavergne, Arnaud ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September 15)

Diabetes is becoming a leading health issue worldwide. It occurs under insulin resistance/deficiency and when insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cell mass is dramatically reduced. Besides therapeutic ... [more ▼]

Diabetes is becoming a leading health issue worldwide. It occurs under insulin resistance/deficiency and when insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cell mass is dramatically reduced. Besides therapeutic strategies to preserve beta-cell mass and function and improve insulin treatments, beta-cell replacement constitutes a promising alternative to replenish the pancreas with functional beta-cells. Beta-cell neogenesis can be achieved from different pancreatic cell types leading to the hope that triggering regeneration could be harnessed in future therapies. Still, mammals show limited regenerative capabilities, making difficult the study of these mechanisms. In contrast, zebrafish is extensively used for regeneration studies notably of beta-cells. We recently showed that the adult zebrafish ducts display characteristics of embryonic pancreatic progenitors that give rise to beta-cells in physiological and induced diabetic condition*. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this potential, genes and signaling pathways regulated in the zebrafish pancreatic ducts after beta-cell ablation have been identified by transcriptomic profiling. For functional studies, we have developed an assay using 7-20 days old larvae to investigate the role of selected candidate pathways in beta-cell regeneration with pharmacological inhibitors/activators and by transgenic overexpression of candidate signaling factors. These results should provide new hints to help improve regenerative competences in mammals. [less ▲]

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See detailFatigue resistant designs using stress-based topology optimization
Collet, Maxime ULiege; Bauduin, Simon ULiege; Fernandez Sanchez, Eduardo Felipe ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September 15)

Fatigue is an important mode of failure in mechanical engineering and accounting for it as soon as the early stage of design using topology optimization sounds primordial. Structures undergoing high-cycle ... [more ▼]

Fatigue is an important mode of failure in mechanical engineering and accounting for it as soon as the early stage of design using topology optimization sounds primordial. Structures undergoing high-cycle fatigue can be described by the stress-based approach and then a stress-based topology optimization framework, which has received great interest since almost 20 years because of the innovative designs that can be achieved to answer strength requirements, can be used. Literature reports many good results for shape optimization [Mrzyglod & Zielinsky(2006)] whereas in the eld of topology optimization several authors have shown that considering fatigue in an optimization framework leads to more relevant solutions where fluctuating loads are involved [Holmberg E.(2015), Collet et al(2016), Sv ard(2015)]. The good behaviour of the implementation of an advanced fatigue criterion, i.e. the multiaxial Dang Van criterion [Dang Van et al(1989)] is first investigated in the framework of a density-based topology optimization problem. The choice of this fatigue criterion is justifed by its good applicability in automotive or aeronautic industry as well as its relevancy with respect to experimental results. We present the sensitivity analysis with stress constraints and present some classical benchmarks to illustrate the behaviour of the optimized solution. In a second time, the fatigue resistance is introduced in the well-known microstructural design [Sigmund (2000)] also know as architectured material design which are now considered in mechanical engineering because of their manufacturability thanks to additive manufacturing processes. Ensuring the fatigue resistance of the cellular material will by extension ensure the structural integrity of the overall structure itself. The optimization is performed by using the MMA optimizer [Svanberg(1987)] whereas the singularity phenomenon of the stress constraints is circumvented by using the qp-relaxation [Bruggi(2008)]. Both types of optimization framework are evaluated in term of their numerical performances and are compared to classical results generated by a regular stress-based topology optimization. Finally, the results are 3D-printed to assess for their manufacturability. [less ▲]

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See detailLe transfert de connaissances en promotion de la santé vers les décideurs et acteurs institutionnels
Nisen, Laurent ULiege

Speech/Talk (2017)

allocution de clôture, en réaction aux interventions des ministres en charge et de différents experts du secteur

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULiège)
See detailThe Synthesis and Evaluation of [18F]BPAM121: Potential of an AMPA Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator
Manos-Turvey, Alexandra ULiege

Speech/Talk (2017)

AMPA receptors (AMPARs), one of three sub-groups of ionotropic glutamate receptors present in the central nervous system, are recognised for their involvement in long-term potentiation (LTP), and learning ... [more ▼]

AMPA receptors (AMPARs), one of three sub-groups of ionotropic glutamate receptors present in the central nervous system, are recognised for their involvement in long-term potentiation (LTP), and learning and memory processes.1 They represent a valid cognitive enhancer target, particularly in the fight against Alzheimer’s disease (AD).2,3 Benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides, such as BPAM121, have emerged as important allosteric modulators of AMPARs, working solely in the presence of the endogenous transmitter.4 Synthesis of BPAM121 labelled with fluorine-18 was proposed, to investigate the utility of this molecule as a PET probe in vivo, and evaluate its potential as an AD diagnostic tool (Figure 1). Figure 1. a) Structure of BPAM121, b) Established radiochemical synthesis of [18F]BPAM121 This work documents the successful optimization of synthesis, purification and formulation of [18F]BPAM121 using an automated FASTlab (GE Healthcare) synthesizer. In particular, the influence of higher-level [18F]fluoride ion starting concentrations on final product formulation requirements is discussed. Finally, results from biological studies of [18F]BPAM121, confirmed to successfully pass the blood brain barrier, are discussed. [1] S. F. Traynelis et al., Pharmacol. Rev. 2010, 62, 405-496. [2] J. Keifer, Z. Zheng, Eur. J. Neurosci. 2010, 32, 269-277. [3] L. Gao et al., J. Neurochem. 2016, 136, 620-636. [4] P. Francotte et al., J. Med. Chem. 2010, 53, 1700-1711. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental sustainability of the Walloon cereal sector using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) fed with local data - Current situation and potential evolution scenarios
Van Stappen, Florence ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

In a world facing a growing population and diminishing resources, agriculture has a major role to play in terms of sustainable provision of food and feed, job creation in rural areas, preservation of ... [more ▼]

In a world facing a growing population and diminishing resources, agriculture has a major role to play in terms of sustainable provision of food and feed, job creation in rural areas, preservation of natural resources and climate change mitigation. As a very intensive agricultural region, Wallonia (southern Belgium) dedicates more than half of its arable land to cereal crops. Thanks to a long history of research and development, rich soils and favorable climate conditions, yields of cereals such as wheat or barley cropped in Wallonia are amongst the highest in the world. As a major sector in the Walloon agricultural landscape, the cereal sector therefore calls for production and processing opportunities that meet the requirements for sustainable agriculture. In this context, the objectives of the present thesis were to evaluate the environmental sustainability of current and potential evolution scenarios for the Walloon cereal sector using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology fed with local data. On the basis of current uses of cereals grown in Wallonia, this research aimed first at describing various scenarios for the future of the Walloon cereal sector. Based on contrasting hypotheses, four scenarios for the uses of Walloon cereals by 2030 were defined with the support of stakeholders involved in all parts of the sector. Issues such as competition between food uses (both direct and indirect) and non-food uses or Walloon dependency on cereal imports were addressed in these scenarios, which illustrate contrasting future situations, from food self-sufficiency to drastic globalization, through the development of new outlets combining changes in crop-growing practices and consumption habits and new technologies. Using the widely used, yet continuously improved, methodology of LCA, the second part of this work evaluated the environmental impacts of cereal production in Wallonia. It identified the production steps with the greatest contribution to environmental impacts. The leading contributor was mineral fertilizer production, for which this work used up-to-date data from best available technologies and demonstrated the importance of using such recent data. The second greatest contributor to environmental impacts was emissions from mineral and organic fertilizer use on field, before and during plant growth until harvest. As well as being very important, these emissions are also extremely variable, depending on agricultural practices, soil and weather conditions, and thus particularly difficult to assess. This is particularly true of nitrogen- and carbon-related emissions, whose dynamics are very problematic to evaluate. This work demonstrated the limits of commonly used emission models, which use generic emission factors and therefore weaken LCA results. As a result, the use of more specific models, based on field trials and adapted to local conditions, was placed at the top of the list for future research in this area. From a methodological point of view, this part of the work also confirmed the influence of the functional unit used to express LCA results. It showed the strong link between yield and environmental impacts, and identified cereal crops demonstrating efficient input management, with lower impacts per kilogram of product, per hectare and per euro. Other methodological choices, such as the choice of allocation factor between grain and straw, also showed their relevance. In short, this part of the work demonstrated the pertinence of using local data to feed LCAs of agricultural productions and identified the most sensitive parameters to be adjusted in priority to achieve good quality LCAs. Thirdly, on the basis of an original methodology comparing equivalent balanced animal diets, a case study on cereal processing in a biogas plant assessed the consequences of diverting feedstock from the animal feed industry into the bioenergy sector. Despite the environmental benefits brought by fossil fuel displacement and digestate use as organic fertilizer, the replacement of raw materials previously used as animal feed induces additional impacts potentially more important than the benefits of this technology. The key message from this finding is that it is urgent to stop using potentially edible raw material for bioenergy production. The only countervailing consideration here is that current trends towards decreasing meat consumption would in the longer term make lands and raw material available for purposes other than animal feed. The strength of all the LCA results in this work was tested using a wide range of sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. These good practices, often neglected due to time constraints, proved to be essential to be able to draw robust conclusions. Through the application of LCA to the Walloon cereal sector, this work had some practical implications for enhancing the quality of LCAs of agricultural productions. It showed the sensitivity of the method to the use of local data and demonstrated the strengths and limitations of the method. It has produced specific LCA references for cereal production in Wallonia, which are useful for feeding environmental impact assessments of cereal-based products sourced with Walloon cereal crops. Further improvements could include the use of specific models to assess on-field emissions from fertilizer use and the consideration of additional impact indicators regarding soil organic stock changes, biodiversity impacts and water consumption. Additionally, assessing impacts at the rotation scale would reflect more accurately the way farmers optimize their crops and allow for the evaluation of more diverse cropping systems. [less ▲]

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See detailOf trees and men: new insights into man-environment relationships in the moist forests of central Africa during the late Holocene
Morin, Julie ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

In central Africa, vegetation history has been documented by paleoenvironmental studies (especially palynology), which mainly concerned the way climate has shaped the forest landscapes. Human impacts in ... [more ▼]

In central Africa, vegetation history has been documented by paleoenvironmental studies (especially palynology), which mainly concerned the way climate has shaped the forest landscapes. Human impacts in this region have hardly been studied so far, especially at local scale. The main objective of this PhD is to propose an approach based on archaeology and the use of charred botanical remains found in soils, either wood charcoal or seeds, in order to document the Holocene anthropogenic impacts on the forest structure and composition. When coupled with the diachronic analysis of human activities, these land-use biomarkers can allow a better understanding of the relationship between man and his environment in central Africa during this period. Thereby, the first part of this PhD introduces the conceptual framework and the materials and methods used during the research. Then, the second part constitutes the core of the work, and presents the chronology of human activities in the northern Congo Basin, the use of biomarkers to discrimate between these activities, either domestic or agricultural, and the effect of the recent anthropogenic activities in the dynamic of several light-demanding tree populations. Finally, the third part draws the main recommendations of the work, and formulates potential for additional research. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysics at the Ultra-high Energies
Bhattacharya, Atri ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

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See detailThe Einstein Telescope
Cudell, Jean-René ULiege

Speech/Talk (2017)

Brief description of the Einstein Telescope project.

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See detailDark matter
Laletin, Maxim ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

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See detailSharing good practices in physical education to promote physical activity, wellness and health
Bonni, Jérémy ULiege; Cloes, Marc ULiege

Poster (2017, September 15)

The Wallonia-Brussels Federation is about to overhaul its education system, which will directly affect teacher training. Under the “Pact for Excellence in Education”, a group of experts – the Consortium ... [more ▼]

The Wallonia-Brussels Federation is about to overhaul its education system, which will directly affect teacher training. Under the “Pact for Excellence in Education”, a group of experts – the Consortium “Physical Activities, Well-Being and Health” – drawn from the 12 French-speaking institutions training PE teachers (universities and colleges) has been mandated by the Ministry of Education to design devices and tools aiming at implementing the new common core curriculum that is under construction. Good practices have been identified then described in information sheets common to the different consortiums of the PEE and listed in a table that cross-references the 6 dimensions of physical activity at school (Snyers et al., 2014) and the 20 objects of teaching-learning in health education (Turcotte et al., 2011). These good practices are meant to be shared later within a community of practice. This paper provides a description of one of these information sheets in order to illustrate the methodology applied in this project. [less ▲]

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See detailPresentation of thermo-mechanical laboratory of CSL
Plesseria, Jean-Yves ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Presentation of the Thermo-machanical group of CSL

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See detailExoplanetary Transits
Gillon, Michaël ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Exoplanetary Transits

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See detailPresentation of CSL's Laboratory of Electronics at the First STAR Workshop on 15/09/2017
Graas, Estelle ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Presentation of CSL's Laboratory of Electronics at the First STAR Workshop on 15/09/2017

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See detailQuasars and Gravitational lenses in STAR: Selected highlights
Sluse, Dominique ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Quasars and Gravitational Lenses in STAR: Selected highlights

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See detailNANESSE: a Nanosatellite for Asteroseismology of the Nearest Stellar System with Exoplanets
Salmon, Sébastien ULiege; Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

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See detailDesign, assembly and test of a near-infrared spectrograph for the TIGRE telescope
Kintziger, Christian ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

The presentation introduces the different major steps of the design of a near-infrared spectrograph that will be installed at the TIGRE telescope, Mexico.

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See detailFeasibility study of a UV Photometer on-board a 3U Cubesat for the study of bright massive stars
Desselle, Richard ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Feasibility study of a UV Photometer on-board a 3U Cubesat for the study of bright massive stars

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See detailASTA -- Theoretical Stellar Astrophysics and Asteroseismology
Godart, Mélanie ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Theoretical Stellar Physics and Asteroseismology

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See detailPresentation of CSL Signal Processing Laboratory - First STAR Workshop on 15/09/2017
Orban, Anne ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Presentation of the Signal Processing laboratory of the Centre Spatial de Liège

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See detailMusic in the Operating Room
XHAUFLAIRE, Gaël ULiege; Albert, Louisa; Gengoux, Monique

Poster (2017, September 15)

Listening to music during surgery has a subjective benefit to patients under local anesthesia. Its setting up during quiet routine oculoplastic surgery is easy and inexpensive. When subject to some ... [more ▼]

Listening to music during surgery has a subjective benefit to patients under local anesthesia. Its setting up during quiet routine oculoplastic surgery is easy and inexpensive. When subject to some elementary precautions, there is no increased risk. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (1 ULiège)