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See detailOne hand – many faces. Painterly practices in the Theban Tomb of vizier Amenemope (TT 29)
Laboury, Dimitri ULg; Pieke, Gabriele

Conference (2015, August 28)

Since 1999, the Belgian Archaeological Expedition in the Theban (Mission archéologique dans la Nécropole thébaine - MANT) is executing fieldwork in several tombs located in the southern part of Sheikh ... [more ▼]

Since 1999, the Belgian Archaeological Expedition in the Theban (Mission archéologique dans la Nécropole thébaine - MANT) is executing fieldwork in several tombs located in the southern part of Sheikh Abdel Gurna. As part of this fieldwork, the project “Painters and painting in the Theban Necropolis under the 18th Dynasty“ (FNRS – Univeristy of Liège) aims at studying painterly practices and working procedures of artists and workshops in charge of the decoration of elite tombs in this cemetery. The paper will present the results of recent work carried out in this context in the tomb of Amenemope (TT 29), vizier under Amenhotep II. Unlike in many other Theban tombs of the 18th dynasty where different painters are attested, evidence points to a single hand, responsible for the execution of the entire wall paintings preserved in this funerary chapel. Nevertheless the style of human figures or hieroglyphs is not completely consistent but to the contrary shows certain variability in the layout and execution of motifs, that the paper will address as an issue. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom mucosal resistance of larvae to behavioral fever of fingerlings: a journey in the innate immune defenses of common carp against cyprinid herpesvirus 3
Ronsmans, Maygane ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is a highly pathogenic virus responsible for a lethal disease in both common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). The common carp is one of the most important freshwater species ... [more ▼]

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is a highly pathogenic virus responsible for a lethal disease in both common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). The common carp is one of the most important freshwater species cultivated for human consumption. Its colourful subspecies koi is grown for personal pleasure and exhibitions. Both common and koi carp are economically important and since its description in the late 1990s, the CyHV-3 has caused severe financial losses in these two carp industries worldwide. Because of its economic importance and its numerous original biological properties, CyHV 3 became rapidly an attractive subject for both applied and fundamental research. The objectives of this thesis were to investigate the role of two unrelated innate immune mechanisms of carp in anti-CyHV-3 immunity. The first objective was to determine the role of epidermal mucus as an innate immune barrier against CyHV-3 entry during the early developmental stages of carp. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the sensitivity and the permissivity of carp to CyHV-3 during the early stages of its development. This hypothesis was tested using a recombinant CyHV-3 strain expressing luciferase as a constitutive reporter gene and in vivo bioluminescence imaging system. We demonstrated that carp are sensitive and permissive to CyHV 3 infection since hatching, but that their sensitivity remains relatively low in the two early developmental stages. Similarly to adults, we confirmed that the skin is the main portal of entry for the virus at early stages, and our results stress out the role of epidermal mucus as an innate immune defense of carp against pathogens even and especially at the early stages of development. The results of this study have been published in Veterinary research. The second objective of this thesis consisted to investigate whether carp express behavioral fever when infected by CyHV-3; and if so, what could be the effect of this innate immune reaction on the development of CyHV 3 disease. When infected by pathogens, both endotherms and ectotherms can express a salutary reaction by increasing their body temperature. While in endotherms this reaction is called fever and depends on intrinsic thermogenesis, ectotherms like teleosts can only upregulate their body temperature by moving to warmer places, hence the term behavioral fever. When studying the pathogenesis of CyHV-3, we observed that carp infected at 24°C (the thermal preference of healthy carp) tended to concentrate around the tank heater when it was running. This observation led us to postulate that infected subjects could express behavioral fever in natural environments where temperature gradients exist. Using multi-chamber tanks encompassing a gradient from 24°C to 32°C, we observed that carp infected by CyHV-3 express a salutary behavioral fever that completely suppresses virus induced mortalities. The relatively late onset of behavioral fever with respect to clinical signs, viral replication and cytokine upregulation led us to postulate that this phenomenon could be delayed by the virus to retain its host at a permissive temperature thereby favoring its replication and spreading. As some herpesviruses have been shown to express soluble decoy cytokine receptors, we hypothesized that CyHV-3 could express such receptor(s) able to neutralize putative pyrogenic cytokines produced by the fish. We found that CyHV-3 ORF12 encodes a soluble decoy receptor for carp Tnfα and that this viral protein makes the virus capable of delaying the migration of infected fish to warmer environments. Remarkably, the study of the molecular mechanism through which the virus alters its host’s behavior led to the discovery of the first pyrogenic cytokine in ectotherms (Tnfα). This study is the first to report the ability of a vertebrate virus to alter the behavior of its host through the expression of a single gene. This second study was submitted for publication when this thesis was printed. In conclusion, we investigated two innate immune mechanisms expressed by carp against CyHV 3 infection. The results generated in this thesis bring findings related to several scientific fields such as virology, immunology, animal behavior, evolution, ecology and even animal welfare. [less ▲]

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See detailGestion du risque associé au cycle de vie des méthodes analytiques : Applications aux molécules de faibles poids moléculaires analysées par Spectrométrie de Masse
Hubert, Cédric ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Analytical method lifecycle is composed of several steps, but always starts with a question defining the problem. Analytical method performances are consequently specified by the analyst trough the ... [more ▼]

Analytical method lifecycle is composed of several steps, but always starts with a question defining the problem. Analytical method performances are consequently specified by the analyst trough the definition of the “Analytical Target Profile (ATP)”, as proposed by the regulatory bodies. Subsequent steps (namely the development and validation steps) then take place, followed by routine use of the analytical procedure. In the specific context of the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities have recently imposed the assessment and management of risk throughout the entire product lifecycle. This includes the analytical procedure and consequently its own lifecycle. Working in this context, our concerns were initially focused on the validation step of the method lifecycle. Indeed, the objective of analytical method validation is to demonstrate that this method is suited for quantifying the target analytes with an established and suitable level of accuracy, as defined by the “ATP”. This is sometimes called the “fit-for-future-purpose” concept. In the course of this study we have experimentally confirmed that a decision regarding the validity of a method based on prediction can be achieved by using the “β-expectation tolerance interval” (accuracy profile) as a decision tool. Indeed, it seemed essential to demonstrate the capability of this approach to manage a part of the analytical risk before addressing the development step. Typically this step of the analytical procedure lifecycle is addressed using a “Changing One Separate Factor a Time (COST)” approach (also known as the “Quality-by-Testing (QbT)” approach). By means of a complex case study, and considering validation of the method through the accuracy profile, we have shown that this strategy can lead to a suitable method for assessing the risk of routine use, even where the experimental domain is not examined. In order to consider an experimental domain rather than a set of specific experimental conditions during the development phase, we have evaluated a multivariate approach: the “Quality-by-Design (QbD)” strategy. This strategy allows the definition of a “Design Space (DS)” by means of design of experiments (DoE). This DS, computed considering critical method parameters, allows the analyst to focus on the main objective of an analytical method: obtaining reliable results using a robust method. A comparative study of the QbT versus QbD approach was performed. In the course of this study, the benefits of the QbD strategy in terms of managing the qualitative part of the analytical risk were highlighted. Finally, we have focused our research on the development of a global strategy allowing the unification of the development and validation phases in a single step. With this innovative approach, we are the first to propose a strategy allowing the management of global analytical risk (i.e., both qualitative and quantitative risk). Indeed, we have demonstrated that it is possible to validate an experimental domain by means of the accuracy profile. With this innovative strategy, the DS is no longer simply the place where qualitative performances are obtained, but also the space where quantitative performances of the analytical procedure are assessed and managed. In conclusion, during this thesis, we have confirmed the predictive capabilities of the accuracy profile. Moreover, we have highlighted the benefits of a QbD strategy in terms of risk management. We have also demonstrated that this methodology can be used as a learning tool, facilitating the continuous improvement of the analytical procedure. Furthermore, with the innovative strategy presented during the latter part of this work, we have demonstrated that qualitative and quantitative risk can be assessed and managed throughout the entire analytical method lifecycle. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (4 ULg)
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See detailTradition and Creativity. Toward a Study of Intericonicity in Ancient Egyptian Art
Laboury, Dimitri ULg

Conference (2015, August 27)

Although a key-concept in Art historical discourse and reasoning, creativity has almost always been avoided as an issue in the discussion of Ancient Egyptian Art, as if the notion was simply irrelevant in ... [more ▼]

Although a key-concept in Art historical discourse and reasoning, creativity has almost always been avoided as an issue in the discussion of Ancient Egyptian Art, as if the notion was simply irrelevant in such a context. This surprising phenomenon has clearly deep roots in the history of the western vision of Ancient Egyptian Art (and civilization). Nonetheless, the investigation of some (actually quite rare) cases of true copies in Ancient Egyptian Art reveals that creativity operated within a process of reinterpretation of previous works and their tradition, a process that can be best analyzed, it seems, with the help of the conceptual frame of intericonicity (or interpictoriality). The paper will also aim to defend the use of this notional tool in the analysis of Ancient Egyptian Art by attempting to define how creativity was conceptualized in Ancient Egyptian textual claims for innovation and originality. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges for the restoration of dry calcareous grasslands in quarries: does nature need help?
Pitz, Carline ULg; Piqueray, Julien; Harzé, Mélanie ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 26)

In order to maximize the biodiversity potential of dry calcareous grasslands in former quarries two options are available to managers: (i) allow species to spontaneously recolonize the site, (ii ... [more ▼]

In order to maximize the biodiversity potential of dry calcareous grasslands in former quarries two options are available to managers: (i) allow species to spontaneously recolonize the site, (ii) implement technical support for ecosystem restoration. This study aimed at characterizing the spontaneous communities established in dry area of unexploited quarries and at comparing communities encountered to the succession panel of dry grasslands. To evaluate the ecological succession in quarries, three successional stages where defined: (i) less than three years; (ii) three to 20 years; and (iii) more than 20 years after exploitation. For each successional stage, six parcels were selected and 20 1m2 plots were randomly marked in each parcel. All selected parcels presented dry grasslands abiotic conditions: filtering and stony soils and south orientation. During the 2014 vegetation period, percentage cover of higher plant species was recorded in each plot. Explaining environmental variables including coordinates, altitude, slope (degrees), soil depth, exposure, maximum vegetation height, bare ground cover, moss cover, and shrub cover (%) were measured. Our main results showed that, over decades of time, the ecological succession in dry area of unexploited quarries does not approach a typical formation of dry calcareous grassland. Most recolonizations tended to form meadows communities, except for three sites belonging to a specific landscape context. Potential implications for future quarries restoration will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailGeophysical Investigation of the Pb-Zn deposit of Lontzen-Popplsberg, Belgium
Evrard, Maxime ULg

Conference (2015, August 26)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (4 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCan computer vision problems benefit from structured hierarchical classification?
Hoyoux, Thomas ULg; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Antonio J.; Piater, Justus H. et al

in Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (2015)

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See detailMise en place d’un système de mesure par covariance de turbulence des flux de N2O sur une parcelle agricole
Lognoul, Margaux ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas responsible for 8% of anthropogenic radiative forcing. It is also a major contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. Agricultural soils represent its main source ... [more ▼]

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas responsible for 8% of anthropogenic radiative forcing. It is also a major contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. Agricultural soils represent its main source. N2O is produced by microorganisms through nitrification and denitrification processes. Both depend on oxygenation conditions and nitrogen and labile carbon availability, which are driven by soil and climate conditions and by farming practices. Yet there remain science gaps concerning the understanding of emission mechanisms and dynamics. The eddy covariance technique allows studying a whole ecosystem with a half-hourly temporal resolution, opening up for long-term monitoring and precise greenhouse gas budget calculation. However, this technique requires a specific expertise. In order to install such a system to measure N2O exchanges by a production crop at the Terrestrial Observatory of Lonzée (Belgium), we set the following goals : (1) establishing the state of knowledge concerning N2O fluxes exchanged by crops and identifying gaps, (2) setting up a N2O analyzer at the experimental site and providing operating procedures, and (3) building and adjusting the first data processing and calculation procedures. As a result of this work, scientific gaps were identified and avenues for further research are suggested. Monitoring and data acquisition routines as well as first data processing procedures were implemented. Numerous questions still remain regarding the adaptation of classical methods (created to study CO2) to N2O, and they constitute the investigation prospects of this work. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la biodégradation anaérobie des feuilles de Mangifera indica (manguier) et de Manihot utilissima (manioc)
Mambanzulua Ngoma, Philippe ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

The population growth of these last two decades leaded to an increase of waste in the City Province of Kinshasa (VPK), capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Deprived by an effective management ... [more ▼]

The population growth of these last two decades leaded to an increase of waste in the City Province of Kinshasa (VPK), capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Deprived by an effective management system, the VPK produces essentially vegetal wastes that are constituted for the greater part of dead leaves. These wastes bother and pollute the environment. On another point of view, the Kinshasa households meet enormous difficulties for soil fertilization and to collect wood for energy. Its overexploitation of the wood entails the deterioration of the ecosystems and the public health. Therefore in order to contribute to the reduction of all these difficulties simultaneously, the aim of this thesis was to investigate the methanization of these wastes since this technique is relatively simple, fast and non expensive. So, the methanation was performed at 30°C on the leaves of Mangifera indica (MU, mango) and of Manihot utilissima (MI, cassava) that are the most accessible of the VPK. The biochemical methane potentials of the MU and MI leaves demonstrated that the MU leaves were favorable to the methanation due to their low content in bioactive substance (secondary metabolites) and their low C/N ratio. In addition, their digestates would be an effective fertilizing. By contrast, the MI leaves were unfavorable to the methanation since the methanogenesis was inhibited, probably because of their composition rich in carbon and secondary metabolites (lignine, polyphenols, saponines and anthraquinones). However, these metabolites would be beneficial for the methanation in lower contents than 0.3 g/l in the culture medium. The anaerobic co-digestion improved the daily methane yields of these two leaves. The biogas produced with this process would represent about 28 % of the wooden annual domestic consumption and its digestate would cover annually the all agricultural and forest degraded areas. So, the domestic methanation or on site or near the site of waste generation would be favored to avoid the cost of their transport and their industrial treatment. A promising pilot essay has been achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailPromoting quarries biodiversity through partnerships: a Belgian case study
Seleck, Maxime ULg; Harzé, Mélanie ULg; Pitz, Carline ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 25)

Throughout the life cycle of quarries, a large diversity of temporary habitats is generated, sometimes left to evolve to more permanent ones. In many cases, the biological roles of quarries are neglected ... [more ▼]

Throughout the life cycle of quarries, a large diversity of temporary habitats is generated, sometimes left to evolve to more permanent ones. In many cases, the biological roles of quarries are neglected though they are playing a significant role as stepping-stones and regulating green infrastructure in landscapes. In highly urbanized and controlled landscapes, quarries are an exceptional opportunity to maintain rare and threatened transient habitats hosting fugitive species. Such ephemeral biodiversity is hard to manage through a site legal protection status. As exploitation progresses, more permanent, biodiverse habitats settle in abandoned areas but the biologic potential could also be maximized by optimized groundwork through the whole exploitation process. Exploitation plans taking into consideration biodiversity could allow maximizing quarry biodiversity hosting capacity during the exploitation phase and in further rehabilitation schemes. Since 2012 Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (University of Liège) provides support to FEDIEX - the Belgian federation of extractive industries – in its implementation of a sectorial charter on “Quarries and Biodiversity” that aims at i) raising members’ awareness; ii) promoting the integration of practical recommendations for the protection and management of biodiversity in exploitation plans; iii) quarries’ personnel trainings. Our presentation will trace realizations undertaken under this collaboration, among which the “Mr/Ms Biodiversity” training organized in 2013, 2014 and 2015, the publication of folders popularising the management and enhancement of nature in active quarries and the collaboration in the redaction of a “LIFE in Quarries” project (LIFE Biodiversity) submitted for the 2014 LIFE call. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes combining a wheat and pea mixture with methyl salicylate reduces aphid populations in both crops?
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Hatt, Séverin ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 25)

Aphids are important pests of wheat and pea. Among the alternative methods to control them with less reliance on insecticides, crop associations already proved to be efficient. However, if increasing the ... [more ▼]

Aphids are important pests of wheat and pea. Among the alternative methods to control them with less reliance on insecticides, crop associations already proved to be efficient. However, if increasing the chemical and structural complexity of vegetation can disrupt their host plants location, the searching efficiency of predators and parasitoids can also be reduced. Therefore, these beneficials may not always be more abundant in such systems. Combining crop associations with attractive semiochemicals for natural enemies can be interesting to solve this problem. In this research, we compared the effect of a wheat and pea pure stand, wheat and pea mixture, and wheat and pea mixture combined with methyl salicylate (MeSA) formulated in alginate gel beads, on the abundance and diversity of aphids and their natural enemies. These were weekly observed on plants during 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. Over these two years, significantly higher numbers of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum (H.)) were observed in the pure stand of pea compared with both mixtures (with and without MeSA). No significant differences were observed between treatments for wheat aphids (Sitobion avenae (F.), Metopolophium dirhodum (W.) and Rhopalosiphum padi (L.)), which were significantly less abundant than pea aphids. Aphid natural enemies were mainly observed on pea plants. Hoverfly larvae abundance was not significantly different between treatments during both years. The same phenomenon occurred with hoverfly pupae in 2013, while these were significantly more abundant in both mixtures compared with the pure stand in 2014. However, their number did not differ significantly between the mixture with and without MeSA. Few ladybirds and lacewings were observed. No significant differences were observed between treatments for parasitoid mummies in 2013. Their abundance was significantly higher in the pure stand of pea compared with both mixtures in 2014. Results from this study show that mixing wheat and pea is an efficient method to maintain aphid populations at a very low level on pea. The use of MeSA did not show significant effects on natural enemies. However, mixing these crops may be enough to reduce aphid populations under an acceptable threshold. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l'activation des politiques d'emploi à l'agitation des chômeurs
Orianne, Jean-François ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailDu satellite au terrain. Observation de la surface terrestre et processus géographiques
Cornet, Yves ULg

Scientific conference (2015, August 25)

53ème Congrès des Professeurs de Sciences 2015 Proposition d’Yves CORNET (CC, Photogrammétrie et télédétection, Geomatique, ULg) Sujet : « Du satellite au terrain » Forme : Brève Introduction théorique ... [more ▼]

53ème Congrès des Professeurs de Sciences 2015 Proposition d’Yves CORNET (CC, Photogrammétrie et télédétection, Geomatique, ULg) Sujet : « Du satellite au terrain » Forme : Brève Introduction théorique suivie d’un atelier Durée totale : 1h30 Résumé : Je proposerai tout d’abord un bref rappel des notions de « couleur » (vrai couleur, fausse couleur, fausse couleur de synthèse) en visualisation d’images polygéniques enregistrées par des capteurs satellitaires récentes disponibles gratuitement dans les archives de l’USGS et couvrant le territoire wallon (ex. capteur OLI à bord de Landsat 8). Ensuite, j’élargirai la discussion en établissant le lien avec le concept de signature et résolution spectrales pour en arriver à deux applications très exploitées par les géographes et qui reposent sur ces concepts. La première application est la classification d’image. La seconde application est l’extraction de paramètres bio-géo-physiques à partir d’images multi-spectrales en exploitant les parties du spectre permettant cette détermination (ex. couleur des océans - rapports de réflectance entre les canaux visibles permettant de mettre en évidence l’absorption du rayonnement lumineux par la chlorophylle). Nous limiterons notre discours à la partie du spectre dans laquelle le soleil éclaire la surface terrestre (visible et proche infra-rouge) qui est celle la plus facile à appréhender pour des écoliers du secondaire. Ensuite pendant l’atelier, j’exploiterai de façon intuitive l’analyse graphique car elle constitue une spécificité de formations scientifiques et, malheureusement, je constate depuis plusieurs années, de la part de la majorité de nos étudiants, une réelle incapacité de s’exprimer de cette façon. Il me semble que cette compétence peut être aisément exercée par des exercices simples tels que ceux que je proposerai en limitant au maximum l’accès à des outils logiciel. Les données nécessaires à ces analyses graphiques seront fournies ou extraites d’images à l’aide d’outils logiciels de visualisation d’images gratuits qui seront mis à la disposition des enseignants pour qu’ils puissent préparer de nouvelles activités dans leur classe. Les réalisations graphiques seront effectuées sur papier quadrillé. Elle permettront par exemple de représenter la position d’un pixel dans l’espace multispectral (diagramme de dispersion bi-variés combinant les canaux 2 par 2 et éventuellement tri-variés en combinant les canaux par 3), de construire des courbes de signature spectrale de différents type de couverture du sol dans différents contextes topographique et donc dans des conditions d’illumination différentes, de construire des courbes de signature spectrales d’une eau non turbide présentant des concentration en chl-a variable (données fournies). Nous accorderons une attention particulière à la signification physique des valeurs reportées sur les différents axes (unités, ordres de grandeur, variations) et un protocole d’interprétation de ces graphiques sera ensuite proposé. D’une part, nous comparerons les signatures spectrales de différents types de couverture du sol généralement reconnus par classification d’image (surface herbeuse, canopée, sol nu, surface bétonnée, surface macadamisée, eau …). Pour certains types de couverture du sol, nous mettront en évidence l’effet topographique qui est d’autant plus marqué que la longueur d’onde exploitée se rapproche du proche infra-rouge en raison de la réduction de la diffusion du rayonnement solaire incident pour les plus grande longueurs d’onde du visible et le proche infra-rouge que pour les courtes longueur d’onde du visible. Pour limiter la complexité des interprétations, nous limiterons les analyses à des données instantanées (pas de variation temporelle !!). D’autre part, dans la partie consacrée à l’analyse de la couleur des océans nous proposeront la construction différente graphique (diagramme de dispersion ou validation et histogrammes) permettant de mettre en relation le résultat de l’extraction de paramètres bio-optiques de l’eau depuis des images satellitaire et son correspondant mesuré sur le terrain. Nous expliquerons ainsi la signification graphique des notions de biais, d’imprécision et d’incertitude. Nous établirons alors quelques liens entre le processus d’acquisition des images satellitaires (angle d’observation, champs instantané d’observation du capteur satellitaire, résolution radiométrique, influence de l’état de surface des mers et ses interaction avec la géométrie de l’éclairement solaire vis-à-vis de l’observation, altération atmosphériques …) et la signification d’un échantillon des valeurs de référence sur le terrain (campagne de mesure de la concentration de chlorophylle en mer ou dans des lac, dynamique spatiale et temporelle, représentativité spatiale et temporelle). [less ▲]

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See detailL’appropriation du jeu vidéo: le cas des créateurs amateurs
Hurel, Pierre-Yves ULg

Conference (2015, August 25)

"Notre communication, basée sur les résultats de ces entretiens en cours, se concentrera sur les questions liées au début de l’activité des amateurs car ces dernières révèlent les étapes successives du ... [more ▼]

"Notre communication, basée sur les résultats de ces entretiens en cours, se concentrera sur les questions liées au début de l’activité des amateurs car ces dernières révèlent les étapes successives du processus d’appropriation d’un média généralement perçu comme lointain, complexe, hors de portée. Notre intervention montrera que la découverte d’un logiciel d’aide est vécue comme un évènement majeur du parcours de l’amateur, notamment parce qu’elle s’inscrit dans un processus d’appropriation qui était déjà en cours." [less ▲]

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See detailCouvents de femmes en réseaux sur la Dorsale catholique
Henneau, Marie-Elisabeth ULg

Conference (2015, August 25)

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See detailDoes elevation in atmospheric CO2 concentration impact aphid alarm signaling?
Boullis, Antoine ULg; Appeldoorn, Claire; Oostrom, Marjolein et al

Poster (2015, August 24)

The effect of global atmospheric changes on interactions between vegetation and phytophagous insects is well studied since several years, but how does these changes affect the interactions between ... [more ▼]

The effect of global atmospheric changes on interactions between vegetation and phytophagous insects is well studied since several years, but how does these changes affect the interactions between herbivore insects and their natural enemies is less clear. Impact of an increase in CO2 concentration on aphids is also well documented, but few publications focused on their chemical ecology. When endegered, aphids emit an alarm pheromone (generally composed of only one molecule: (E)-Beta-Farnesene) to induce an escape behavior in the colony. Here, we studied how an increase in CO2 concentration affects the alarm signaling mechanisms of the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, focusing on the production, the emission (under attack) and the perception of this signal. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of Developmental and Molecular Processes Regulated by Sorbs1 using a Combination of in vitro and in vivo models Alexandra Veloso1, Anouk Bleuart1, Maud Martin1, Jonathan Bruyr1, Marie-Ange Mavaccarella1, and Franck Dequiedt1
Bacquelaine Veloso, Alexandra ULg; Dequiedt, Franck ULg

Poster (2015, August 24)

SoHo proteins belong to a family that includes three members: Sorbs1 (Cbl associated protein CAP/ponsin), Sorbs2 (Arg-Binding Protein 2, ArgBP2) and Sorbs3 (Vinexin). These proteins share a similar ... [more ▼]

SoHo proteins belong to a family that includes three members: Sorbs1 (Cbl associated protein CAP/ponsin), Sorbs2 (Arg-Binding Protein 2, ArgBP2) and Sorbs3 (Vinexin). These proteins share a similar structure with a SoHo domain in N-terminal region and three SH3 domains in carboxy terminal region. These characteristic domains bind to several signaling molecules involved in a variety of cytoskeleton-related processes, and SoHo family members are thus thought to function as adaptor proteins. However, the precise role of these proteins in the cytoskeleton regulation and associated biological functions remains unknown. It is well established that cytoskeleton regulation is critical for various developmental events including angiogenesis, the process by which new blood vessels develop from pre-existing ones, and myogenesis, the process responsible for muscle formation and regeneration. The goal of this project is to identify the developmental function of Sorbs1 and characterize the underlying molecular events by exploiting a combination of in vivo (Zebrafish) and in vitro models. Phenotype analysis revealed that Morpholino-mediated knock-down of Sorbs1 induces abnormal development of cardiac, angiogenic and muscles structures. Knock-down zebrafish embryos were unable to form cardiac looping and present a cardiac edema. Also, it was noticed that tail morphology was altered by Sorbs1 knock-down suggesting that Sorbs1 plays a role in trunk muscle formation. Finally, the development of venous angiogenic structures, such as caudal vein plexus (CVP) and subintestinal veins (SIV), was specifically affected by Sorbs1inactivation. Interestingly, Sorbs1 seems to have a specific role in venous angiogenesis (CVP and SIV), since arterial angiogenic structures, such as Intersegmental vessels, were not affected in Sorbs1 morphants. In conclusion, these preliminary results of our work highlighted important developmental defects by consequence of Sorbs1 inactivation in Zebrafish. Some of these defects appear to be regulated by angiogenesis and myogenesis, two developmental processes for which the therapeutic implications are undeniable. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ‘Landscape’ of Nuclear Safeguards: a Comparative Analysis of the International and Regional Systems
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULg

Poster (2015, August 24)

Nuclear proliferation poses a severe threat to the international community, and the role of the law in this area is crucial. The notion of ‘nuclear non-proliferation’ is twofold: (a)disarm or vertical non ... [more ▼]

Nuclear proliferation poses a severe threat to the international community, and the role of the law in this area is crucial. The notion of ‘nuclear non-proliferation’ is twofold: (a)disarm or vertical non-proliferation: measures for reduction of the number of existing arsenals; (b)horizontal non-proliferation: containment of the number of States and no State entities that do not have but are acquiring nuclear weapons, or developing the capability and materials for producing them. Different sources of the law exist at the international and regional level for addressing the issue. For the implementation of the principles and obligations embedded in the agreements, it is essential to set up a verification and safeguards system. Safeguards provisions are established at the international and regional level. Thus, the aim of this study to analyse, critically and comparatively, the different safeguards systems that have been legally adopted at the international and regional level so far. [less ▲]

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