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See detailBovine Respiratory Disease: from clinic to etiologic diagnosis, a short step
Guyot, Hugues ULg

in ANEMBE (Ed.) XX Congreso Internacional ANEMBE de Medicina Bovina: 20 encuentros en la evolucion de la medicina bovina (2015, May 08)

Bovine Respiratory Disease, or BRD, are common in young cattle in the first year of life but occurs mainly before 6 months. A peak of incidence is noticed between 2-10 weeks, due to a decline of immunity ... [more ▼]

Bovine Respiratory Disease, or BRD, are common in young cattle in the first year of life but occurs mainly before 6 months. A peak of incidence is noticed between 2-10 weeks, due to a decline of immunity. BRD is associated with the well-known shipping-fever that may come from cumulative stress. This condition can reach 5-20% case fatality rate and a morbidity rate up to 100%. Most of the time, the treatment administered is effective. In other cases, a relapse within 2 weeks, associated or not with mortality, can be observed. BRD induces economic losses with treatments (antibiotics), prevention (vaccination) and mortalities. There are also zootechnical consequences with growth retardation, circulation of infectious agents, and increased sensitivity to other pathogens. Cattle are more susceptible to BRD for many reasons. They have narrow upper airways that increase air speed and allow a deeper colonization of particles in the lower respiratory tract. There is also a link between the digestive and respiratory system in bovines. Inhalation of eructation gaz occurs regularly. The respiratory tract in cattle is more sensitive to endotoxins. In case of rumen acidosis, a paralysis of the mucociliary escalator is observed. Finally, cases such liver abscess or Vena Cava Caudale thrombosis, a metastatic pneumonia can follow. BRD often begins with virus attack, which may be complicated with surroundings bacterial infections. Among the different viral aetiologies, Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (B-RSV), Parainfluenza virus (PI-3), Bovine Herpes Virus (BHV-1 or IBR), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVD, for its immunosuppression effect) are the most frequent encountered. Adenovirus and Coronavirus, BHV-4, Rhinovirus, Reovirus, and Enterovirus can also be present, in a lesser extent. Among bacteriological causes, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, Trueperella pyogenes, and Mycoplasma bovis (dispar) are commonly met. Chlamydophila and Salmonella dublin can sometimes also provoke pneumonias. An onset of BRD can begin with only an increased rectal temperature. That is why it is recommended to the owner to check for temperature in the different batches of animals. After, other symptoms will appear, such as cough, nasal discharge, dyspnea, etc. BRD can be categorized in 4 clinical grades, from 1 to 4, according to the severity of the disease. Grade I does not need a treatment, as well as grade IV that is so severe that the animal may probably die within a few days. Other scores exist and they also take into account symptoms such cough, rectal temperature, nasal discharge, etc. The grade or score of the disease is important to establish a treatment, a prognosis or an ancillary exam. Measurement of blood L-Lactate (with portable spectrophotometer, e.g. Accutrend-Plus, Cobas, ~150€ and ~3€/test) allows on the field the determination of the grade of BRD as well as prognosis. L-Lactate ≥ 4 mmol/L in calves with BRD (up to 13 months) is associated with grade IV BRD and poor prognosis (death within 3 days) with 95% sensitivity and 80% specificity (Coghe et al., 2000). Another study shows that L-Lactate > 3.7 mmol/L is associated with 44 times more risk to die in calves with BRD, compared to calves with L-Lactate <1.3 mmol/L (Buczinski et al., 2014). BRD is clearly a multifactorial disease. Its management must include the resistance of animal (genetic, nutrition, vaccination), the environment (ventilation, hygiene) and the identification of the infectious agents. This conference is focused on the last topic. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical strategies for ultra-trace measurement of dioxins and related compounds in biological matrices
L'Homme, Benjamin ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

The human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a concern since these compounds are ubiquitous in the environment. This class of compounds group different families such as the ... [more ▼]

The human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a concern since these compounds are ubiquitous in the environment. This class of compounds group different families such as the polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), the polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and the halogenated flame-retardants (HFRs). Their use, their release in the environment, their presence in foodstuffs, as well as in various goods on the market are mostly regulated through international conventions, like the Stockholm convention on POPs, and at the European and national levels. Despite the proactive approach in order to reduce the overall exposure to POPs, levels of contaminants (even banned) are still found in the environment and in the human body. In this thesis, we developed several methods of analysis of POPs in different samples. The first was a confirmatory method for PCDD/Fs and PCBs analysis in food and feed following a new European Regulation No 709/2014 that recently allowed the use of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQMS/MS) for this purpose. We fully validated the method on vegetable oil matrix around the maximum level of 1.50 ng WHO2005TEQ/kg. We showed that all analytical criteria, specific to this instrumentation, laid down by the Regulation were met, which indicates that the QQQMS/MS can successfully be used in the legal context for confirmatory purposes and could be an alternative to high-resolution sector field mass spectrometry (HRMS) in this context. The proper establishment of limits of quantitation was a key point in the discussion along with other analytical criteria proposed in the European Regulation, as new interpretations were necessary for the use of triple quadrupole mass spectrometry due to its different features from the HRMS. In addition, we developed in parallel a method for the analysis of Dechloranes in food. The measurement of ultra-trace levels of compounds from this emerging class of flame-retardants was possible after optimization of the injections parameters by means of experimental design, and of fragmentation pathways. Eventually, we reported relatively low levels in various food matrices and preliminary data about the significance of this route of exposure for humans. Besides food analysis, we developed a screening method to quickly assess levels of contaminants in human blood, involving a minimally invasive sampling technique and a couple of drops of blood. The instrumentation was first based on cryogenic zone compression (CZC) hyphenated to high-resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (HRTOFMS) applied to the analysis of two markers of exposure in regular dried-blood spots (DBS) typically used for newborn sampling. The second approach was based on GC-QQQMS/MS applied to the analysis of a broader range of OCPs and NDL-PCBs (30 analytes) in 40 µL blood. The blood was however collected using a novel Volumetric Absorptive MicroSampling (VAMS) method, directly inspired by the DBS but offering a control on the volume of blood sampled, hence opening the door to quantitation. The sample preparation of the VAMS dried sample was miniaturized and only 2 mL of solvents were necessary to prepare a sample, which makes it environmentally friendly. The focus was especially drawn to maximize the sensitivity via the optimization of the ionization energy and the electron multiplier voltage in order to reach appropriate low limits of quantitation. In this context of ultra-low volume of blood, background levels arose as the limitation of the method owing to the small signals coming from samples and closing the gap with blanks. Nevertheless, this patient-friendly approach is perfectly suitable for fast screening of population and could be useful in the context of UNEP campaigns where samples are hardly collected. [less ▲]

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See detailTraduction et représentation politique : quelques éléments pour une genèse de leur rapport et de leur pertinence comme outils d’analyse politique
Smette, Bernard ULg

Conference (2015, May 08)

J’interrogerai la problématique du rapport de la traduction à la politique à partir de la notion de représentation politique, telle que thématisée par le théoricien argentin de l’analyse de discours ... [more ▼]

J’interrogerai la problématique du rapport de la traduction à la politique à partir de la notion de représentation politique, telle que thématisée par le théoricien argentin de l’analyse de discours, Ernesto LACLAU. Je commencerai très brièvement par resituer le processus de représentation dans le champ politique actuel. Cette re-contextualisation permettra de montrer que les notions de « représentation » et de « politique » entretiennent un rapport privilégié, mais qui ne se limite pas uniquement à sa forme contemporaine la plus répandue, symbolisée par nos institutions et principes politiques, tels le régime parlementaire ou encore l’élection. Je passerai alors au cœur de ma communication en dessinant la proximité conceptuelle et fonctionnelle de la traduction et de la représentation. Je me baserai, pour ce faire, sur les développements qu’Ernsto LACLAU a proposés de cette dernière, ainsi que sur quelques développements de Jean-René LADMIRAL et Willard Van Orman QUINE au sujet de la traduction. Je montrerai notamment (1) en quoi la conception de la représentation que propose LACLAU est un outil d’analyse pertinent de la politique, mais surtout (2) en quoi cette conception de la représentation est guidée par des processus traductifs. Je tenterai enfin, en guise de conclusion, de montrer en quoi l’on peut dégager de ce qui précède une perspective d’analyse supplémentaire, voire innovante, de l’articulation entre traduction, représentation et politique. [less ▲]

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See detailThe seamod.ro operational stochasting Black Sea forecasting system
Vandenbulcke, Luc ULg; Capet, Arthur; Grégoire, Marilaure ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 08)

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See detailWhat the heck is Revenue Management
Lurkin, Virginie ULg; Schyns, Michael ULg; Garrow, Laurie

Scientific conference (2015, May 08)

The airline industry changed dramatically in 1978 when it became deregulated. Operations research analysts played a critical role after deregulation by developing algorithms and decision-support systems ... [more ▼]

The airline industry changed dramatically in 1978 when it became deregulated. Operations research analysts played a critical role after deregulation by developing algorithms and decision-support systems designed to help airlines to maximize their revenue. More than thirty-five years after deregulation, the airline industry is faced with new challenges. The increased use of the Internet as the major distribution channel and the increased market penetration of low cost carriers have led to an increasing interest in using discrete choice models to model air travel demand as the collection of individual's decisions. [less ▲]

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See detailLa médiation, un lien social à reconstruire.
Bachelet, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2015, May 08)

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See detailEtudier les groupes de jeunes : un terrain au cœur de conflits.
Collin, Jonathan ULg

Scientific conference (2015, May 08)

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See detailLa régulation des conflits dans l'enseignement secondaire
Dethier, Baptiste ULg

Scientific conference (2015, May 08)

Principalement depuis la massification scolaire apparue dans les années 1960, l’Ecole est devenue le lieu où se rencontrent différents problèmes (Dubet, 2010) sur lesquels se penchent les chercheurs en ... [more ▼]

Principalement depuis la massification scolaire apparue dans les années 1960, l’Ecole est devenue le lieu où se rencontrent différents problèmes (Dubet, 2010) sur lesquels se penchent les chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales. L’échec scolaire et les inégalités du système (Bourdieu et Passeron, 1970 ; Laval et al., 2011) tout d’abord, ensuite la violence, le décrochage et l’absentéisme (Payet, 1998), et enfin l’affaiblissement de la norme scolaire (Verhoeven, 1997) constituent les principaux problèmes avec lesquels doivent quotidiennement composer les différents acteurs du champ scolaire. À ces différents problèmes, ces acteurs tentent d’apporter différentes solutions : en premier lieu, à l’intérieur des institutions scolaires, il s’agit aussi bien de « serrer la vis » que d’adopter des méthodes plus souples (Galand, 2009) ; en second lieu, on observe une multiplication d’organismes externes engagés dans la lutte contre les problèmes scolaires évoqués ci-dessus, tels que les Centres Psycho-Médico-Sociaux (PMS), les Services d’Accrochage Scolaire (SAS), les services de médiation scolaire, les écoles de devoir, le réseau associatif, etc. Cette contribution s’appuie sur une recherche doctorale consacrée à la médiation en milieu scolaire. La notion de « médiation » caractérise, depuis plus de trente ans, un mode alternatif de résolution des conflits (médiations pénale, familiale, de dettes, scolaire, sociale), basé sur un processus « horizontal » – en opposition à la verticalité du jugement ou de l’arbitrage – impliquant le recours à un tiers neutre et sans pouvoir décisionnel (Guillaume-Hofnung, 1995 ; Bonafé-Schmitt, 1992). En Belgique, la notion de « médiation scolaire » désigne le travail de nouveaux agents publics portant le titre de médiateurs scolaires. Ces derniers officient depuis 1993 en Communauté française dans le but de prévenir les phénomènes de violence, de décrochage et d’absentéisme, ainsi que pour (r)établir le climat de confiance dans les écoles. Cependant, au-delà de cette forme de médiation « nommée » coexistent des formes de médiation « innommée » (Briant et Palau, 2005), pratiquées par d’autres acteurs scolaires (enseignants, éducateurs, psychologues, etc.) dans leur travail quotidien. Nos recherches, menées notamment dans plusieurs établissements d’enseignement secondaire - ayant des liens permanents, occasionnels ou inexistants avec des médiateurs institutionnels -, ont permis de mettre à jour différentes catégories de problèmes concrets rencontrés par les acteurs scolaires ainsi que les solutions mises en place pour tenter d’y remédier. Parmi les problèmes de transgression du règlement, d’orientation, de précarité socio-économique ou encore d’absences injustifiées, ce sont les conflits interpersonnels qui sont identifiés comme les problèmes les plus souvent mentionnés par les acteurs lorsqu’ils évoquent leur quotidien, bien que ces catégories sont éminemment interdépendantes. L’objectif de cette communication sera de rendre compte des différents types de conflits rencontrés dans les établissements scolaires ainsi que des modes d’action ponctuels et des dispositifs structurels développés pour y répondre. D’autre part, il s’agira de qualifier les modes de régulation (autoritaire et « négociatoire ») dans lesquels ces pratiques et dispositifs s’inscrivent. [less ▲]

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See detailLe travail de la figurine ou l'effet de présence en question. Notes sur les films de marionnettes d’Émile Cohl
Tomasovic, Dick ULg

Conference (2015, May 08)

Etude de l'invention du régime visuel de la figurine à travers les films de marionnettes d'Emile Cohl.

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See detailInvestigating the tax treatment of owner-occupied housing
Xhignesse, Guillaume ULg

Scientific conference (2015, May 08)

Should I rent or buy? Where do I want to live? And how tax policy affects my choices.

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See detailWet method for the production of thin films (1)
Liquet, Dimitri ULg; Calberg, Cédric ULg; Eskenazi, David et al

Patent (2015)

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See detailWet method for the production of thin films (2)
Liquet, Dimitri ULg; Calberg, Cédric ULg; Eskenazi, David et al

Patent (2015)

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See detailLe confesseur du Prince dans les Pays-Bas espagnols (1598-1659): une fonction, des individus.
Pirlet, Pierre-François ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Cette thèse envisage, à la cour de Bruxelles (1598-1659), les rapports entre les pouvoirs séculiers et religieux au travers de la figure nodale du confesseur du Prince.

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See detailCow-Side test: What is useful and cost-effective in cattle practice?
Guyot, Hugues ULg

in ANEMBE (Ed.) XX Congreso International ANEMBE de Medicina Bovina: 20 encuentros en la evolucion de la medicina bovina (2015, May 07)

On-farm ancillary exams have been considered as needless in cattle practice. For a long time most of these exams could only be performed by laboratories. Only few analyses could be done on the field, but ... [more ▼]

On-farm ancillary exams have been considered as needless in cattle practice. For a long time most of these exams could only be performed by laboratories. Only few analyses could be done on the field, but with inaccurate, slow or expensive results. Nowadays, new devices appeared on the market, with greater accuracy for lower prices. The goal of these tests is not only to provide a better diagnosis, but also to improve communication with the owner, and also to give a quick therapeutic answer or a prognosis. The ancillary exams have to be profitable for both the owner and the practitioner. It can be done at an individual or herd level to demonstrate the subclinical diseases. The benefits of field-tests are essentially saving time, and for some assays, saving money as well, with relatively accurate analyses. In order to adapt to the situation, it is advised to know the sensitivity and specificity of the tests before doing the analysis. In some cases it is necessary to have a better sensitivity or specificity to adapt to goals: avoiding false-positive or false-negative results. A good specificity of a test is required while looking for a diagnosis, as for a screening approach, a good sensitivity is preferred. Anyway, the use of field tests must be thought carefully and realised only after complete clinical examination of the patient. As it is previously mentioned, the ancillary exams are an important communication tool with the client, and a starting point to a dialogue to convince him to the implementation of appropriate corrective measures in the herd. Here are only presented the different field tests that can be done within 15 minutes, beside the animals, in the barn. Tests are explained in the well-known order (as a disease will act): inflammatory, metabolic, immunological response and the potential presence of the infectious agent. [less ▲]

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See detailLa construction du mouvement "Acteurs des temps présents"
Theunissen, Fanny ULg

Conference (2015, May 07)

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See detailArtificial Intelligence in Video Games: Towards a Unified Framework
Safadi, Firas ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

The work presented in this dissertation revolves around the problem of designing artificial intelligence (AI) for video games. This problem becomes increasingly challenging as video games grow in ... [more ▼]

The work presented in this dissertation revolves around the problem of designing artificial intelligence (AI) for video games. This problem becomes increasingly challenging as video games grow in complexity. With modern video games frequently featuring sophisticated and realistic environments, the need for smart and comprehensive agents that understand the various aspects of these environments is pressing. Although machine learning techniques are being successfully applied in a multitude of domains to solve AI problems, they are not yet ready to enable the creation of fully autonomous agent that can reliably learn to understand the environments found in complex video games. Since video game AI is often specifically designed for each game, video game AI tools currently focus on allowing video game developers to quickly and efficiently create specific AI. One issue with this approach is that it does not efficiently exploit the numerous similarities that exist between video games not only of the same genre, but of different genres too, resulting in a difficulty to handle the many aspects of a complex and realistic environment independently for each video game. These similarities, however, exist on a conceptual level. While video games do indeed share a variety of concepts, their interpretations vary from one game to another. Hence, these similarities can only be directly exploited at a conceptual level. Inspired by the human ability to detect analogies between games and apply similar behavior on a conceptual level, this thesis suggests an approach based on the use of a unified conceptual framework to enable the development of conceptual AI which relies on conceptual views and actions to define basic yet reasonable and robust behavior. Because conceptual AI is not tied to any game in particular, it benefits from a continuous development process as opposed to a development that is confined to the scope of a single game project. [less ▲]

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See detailArmée européenne : quelle phase transitoire ?
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Europe Diplomatie & Défense (2015), (792), 3

Page Idées sur la nécessité de créer les conditions d'une Union européenne de sécurité et de défense (UESD) à partir de quelques Etats membres de l'UE

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