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See detailSound production mechanism in the boxfish Ostracion meleagris and Ostracion cubicus
Parmentier, Eric ULiege; Solagna, Laura; Bertucci, Frédéric et al

Poster (2017, October)

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See detailAcoustic space sharing in the hullabaloo of a coral reef in Mooreas Island, French Polynesia
Bertucci, Frédéric; Maratrat, Katy; Parmentier, Eric ULiege et al

Conference (2017, October)

The more vocal species in a community, the more complex the acoustic environment, and signals produced by marine organisms in order to communicate may interfere. Since acoustic space is a limited resource ... [more ▼]

The more vocal species in a community, the more complex the acoustic environment, and signals produced by marine organisms in order to communicate may interfere. Since acoustic space is a limited resource to be shared, selection may have favored a partitioning of the available acoustic windows both at the temporal and spectral levels. This has already been reported in insects, frogs, birds or mammals but rarely in fishes. Our study aimed to investigate sounds produced within an ichthyological community in the North Coast of Moorea Island (French Polynesia). By using passive acoustic monitoring technics, we identified a total of 38 different types of sounds, some dominating during day-time while others dominated during night-time. Over 24h, we also observed a succession of optimal sound production periods for each sound type which suggests a finer level of temporal partitioning of fish vocalizations. Finally, we further showed that acoustic features of co-occurring sound types significantly differed allowing partitioning at the spectral level too. These results demonstrate the existence of acoustic partitioning and interference avoidance in a coral reef fish community and highlight how acoustic communication might be optimized in such a biologically rich and dense environment as coral reefs. [less ▲]

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See detailLa neutralité du net n'est pas neutre
Gautier, Axel ULiege

in van Pottelsberghe, Bruno (Ed.) Les enjeux de l’innovation : quelles politiques ? Quelles gouvernances ? (2017)

Le principe de neutralité du net gouverne la gestion du trafic de données sur le réseau par les fournisseurs d’accès à internet (FAI) en leur imposant de traiter toutes les données de manière équivalente ... [more ▼]

Le principe de neutralité du net gouverne la gestion du trafic de données sur le réseau par les fournisseurs d’accès à internet (FAI) en leur imposant de traiter toutes les données de manière équivalente. Une des conséquences principales de la neutralité du net pour les FAI est la difficulté d’exiger des paiements de la part des fournisseurs de contenu. Les FAI se plaignent alors d’avoir à supporter seuls tout le poids des investissements dans l’infrastructure du réseau. Même si les analyses économiques ne donnent pas nécessairement droit à cette revendication, force est de constater que le principe de neutralité du net pose des problèmes en termes d’incitations à développer l’infrastructure. Ceci explique que l’on discute de plus en plus de l’opportunité d’accommoder la règle, par exemple en tolérant certaines pratiques récentes des FAI (comme l’exclusion d’applications, le ‘zero rating’ ou l’établissement de ‘voies prioritaires’). En Belgique, les FAI s’écartent relativement peu du principe de neutralité du réseau et que le réseau est, pour l’instant, correctement développé. Il n’en reste pas moins que des investissements conséquents devront rapidement être consentis pour continuer à améliorer l’infrastructure, ce qui, à entendre les FAI, pourrait nécessiter une [less ▲]

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See detailQuand la couronne de France fait son marché à Anvers
Fagnart, Laure ULiege

Article for general public (2017)

La place de l'art flamand dans les collections royales françaises constitue un volet important des relations entre François Ier et les productions artistiques du Nord.

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See detail3D Point Clouds in Archaeology: Advances in Acquisition, Processing and Knowledge Integration Applied to Quasi-Planar Objects
Poux, Florent ULiege; Neuville, Romain ULiege; Van Wersch, Line ULiege et al

in Geosciences (2017), 7(4), 96

Digital investigations of the real world through point clouds and derivatives are changing how curators, cultural heritage researchers and archaeologists work and collaborate. To progressively aggregate ... [more ▼]

Digital investigations of the real world through point clouds and derivatives are changing how curators, cultural heritage researchers and archaeologists work and collaborate. To progressively aggregate expertise and enhance the working proficiency of all professionals, virtual reconstructions demand adapted tools to facilitate knowledge dissemination. However, to achieve this perceptive level, a point cloud must be semantically rich, retaining relevant information for the end user. In this paper, we review the state of the art of point cloud integration within archaeological applications, giving an overview of 3D technologies for heritage, digital exploitation and case studies showing the assimilation status within 3D GIS. Identified issues and new perspectives are addressed through a knowledge-based point cloud processing framework for multi-sensory data, and illustrated on mosaics and quasi-planar objects. A new acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation and ontology-based classification method on hybrid point clouds from both terrestrial laser scanning and dense image matching is proposed to enable reasoning for information extraction. Experiments in detection and semantic enrichment show promising results of 94% correct semantization. Then, we integrate the metadata in an archaeological smart point cloud data structure allowing spatio-semantic queries related to CIDOC-CRM. Finally, a WebGL prototype is presented that leads to efficient communication between actors by proposing optimal 3D data visualizations as a basis on which interaction can grow. [less ▲]

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See detailLes voix des "maladies rares" en Belgique : enquête multi-située sur les dynamiques de (re)connaissance d'une catégorie multiple
Duysens, Fanny ULiege

Conference (2017, September 29)

Les "maladies rares" se définissent par un taux de prévalence inférieur à 1 personne sur 2000 en Europe, ainsi que par un ensemble de situations et de problématiques caractéristiques que rencontrent les ... [more ▼]

Les "maladies rares" se définissent par un taux de prévalence inférieur à 1 personne sur 2000 en Europe, ainsi que par un ensemble de situations et de problématiques caractéristiques que rencontrent les patients et les proches concernés. Mais si la catégorie est aujourd'hui largement répandue à travers le monde, les sens qui lui sont donnés et les usages locaux dont elle fait l'objet n'ont rien d’évident. A partir d'une enquête ethnographique multi-située menée dans le contexte de la Belgique, cette recherche doctorale (2015-2018) étudie les processus de construction et de mobilisation de la catégorie de "maladies rares". Il s'agit de "suivre la catégorie" (Marcus, 1995) sur de multiples sites publics et intimes, individuels et collectifs, locaux et globaux, afin d'observer les représentations, les activités et les rapports entre diverses parties-prenantes : des associations de patients et de proches, des spécialistes scientifiques, médicaux et paramédicaux, et des acteurs de santé publique. Comment certaines formes de mobilisations des parties-prenantes observées sur le terrain belge permettent-elles de maintenir, d'étendre ou de modifier la catégorie de "maladies rares" en vue de (re)connaître celle-ci ? Le texte (working paper) qui a été discuté lors de l'atelier doctoral développait une partie du cadre d'analyse de la recherche. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of different crop residue management on soil hydraulic properties - a study in a silt loam soil in Belgium
Parvin, Nargish ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

In recent decades, agriculture is challenged to develop strategies for sustainability which conserve non-renewable natural resources such as soil. Soil improving conservation systems aim at improving soil ... [more ▼]

In recent decades, agriculture is challenged to develop strategies for sustainability which conserve non-renewable natural resources such as soil. Soil improving conservation systems aim at improving soil functions and at the same time ensuring high productivity. Such soil management systems have to be adapted to climate and soil specific conditions, and may include reduced tillage, balanced crop rotation, retention of crop residues, cover crops, and appropriate timing of field operations. Changes in soil functions have huge impacts on environmental flows like hydrology, crop production, solute transfer, and CO2 emission at macroscale. Soil structure is considered as one of the key factors for soil functioning. The effect of different land management on soil structure and consequently on soil hydrodynamics is not fully understood and still under investigation. The main aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effect of crop residue management on soil structure by measuring soil hydraulic properties in pedon and core scale. The agronomic context was different crop residue management in a reduced tillage system. The experimental field is named as Solresidus located in Gembloux, Belgium. Since 2008, the field has been under conservation system. Different residue management includes reduced tillage with incorporation of crop residues (RT-in) and without incorporation (RT-out). A large part of this thesis was methodological development to obtain accurate results from experimentations. Many studies have been made and documented in literature to develop indirect methods to predict soil hydrology from soil water retention curve (SWRC). There is no measuring device available which can determine the SWRC over the entire soil moisture range. Therefore, one of the methodological developments was to obtain complete SWRC by combining three different methods in core scale: X-ray computed microtomography (X-ray CT), HYPROP evaporation and Richards pressure plate method to obtain the entire SWRC. The combination of these methods found well justified to obtain the accurate and complete SWRC. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), specific connectivity (SC) of soil pores and bulk density of the soil were also measured in core and pore scale. There were soil moisture sensors (capacitance sensors) in the field to observe the soil moisture dynamics in pedon scale. Another important methodological development was to obtain the calibration results with the moisture sensor according to the soil texture and horizons. Calibration results found quite satisfying to get the accurate moisture content of the field; it was also noticed that it could be over estimation of soil moisture without the calibration. Significantly, average higher moisture content was observed by the moisture sensors in RT-in than RT-out during the canopy formation to harvest of winter wheat in 2014. The SWRCs also showed that plant available water content was higher in RT-in than RT-out. SC of soil pores was also significantly higher at the surface soil of RT-in than RT-out. RT-in found to have significant positive effects on soil structure by reducing bulk density, increasing SC, Ks and retention of soil moisture during the observation period of this study. Crop yield was marginally higher and organic matter content was significantly higher in RT-in than RT-out (results from close collaboration). Therefore, reduced tillage with residues incorporation found to have better soil hydraulics together with better crop yield than reduced tillage without incorporation of crop residues. [less ▲]

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See detailValorisation des sous-produits de la graine de Jatropha curcas L. en production de poulets au Sénégal
Nesseim, Thierry ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

This study evaluated the effects of Jatropha curcas kernel meal incorporated in poultry feed in Senegal. All experimentations were conducted in the experimental station of the National Superior School of ... [more ▼]

This study evaluated the effects of Jatropha curcas kernel meal incorporated in poultry feed in Senegal. All experimentations were conducted in the experimental station of the National Superior School of Agriculture (ENSA) of Thies University (Senegal). In the same way, all chemical analyses were performed in the feed science laboratory of the Department of Animal Production of ENSA. The first part of this study was a description of toxic and anti-nutritional compounds present in J. curcas seed meal, which most important are phorbol esters, characteristics of Euphorbiaceae, known for its inflammatory effects, and curcin, a toxalbumin which manifested by an irritant action. Other compounds, also present, interfere more or less with digestive process in animals. Different treatments were applied, with different levels of success, to reduce or eliminate these toxic and anti-nutritional compounds for the valuation of this meal in animal feed. A particular emphasis was placed on the biological treatment, not only for a significant reduction of these compounds but also to improve the nutritional quality of the meal. The second part of this work has focused on the study of the effect of the J. curcas kernel meal obtained by chemical de-oiling, incorporated in corn at 4, 8, and 12% and distributed to broiler chickens at the end their growth phase to assess their feed intake, their daily weight gain and diet digestibility. For all diets, feed intake was inversely influenced by the incorporation on the jatropha kernel meal, leading a weight gain decrease in animals that received the largest amounts of jatropha despite the absence of toxicity signs and mortality. Similarly, the apparent digestibility of each nutrient has been affected by the incorporation of jatropha kernel meal as well as the differential digestibility thereof. The low digestibility, especially protein was explained by the low availability of meal proteins incorporated corn, but also the presence of anti-nutritional and toxic factors still present in the diets used. The third part of this work has presented results of two experimentations conducted successively. The first one studied the effect of jatropha kernel meal obtained by a chemical de-oiling, incorporated in diets at 4 and 8%, on broiler chickens performance during growing/finishing. The second experimentation studied the effect of the same cake that was heat treated before incorporated in diets at 8%, on day-old broiler chicks’ performance. In one as the other experimentation, feed intake and daily weight gain were affected by the incorporation of jatropha kernel meal. It was the same for the total mortality rates recorded despite the absence of visible signs of toxicity. These experimentations confirmed other experimentations have shown that the de-oiling of jatropha kernel meal followed by heat treatment, even if it caused a significant reduction of anti-nutritional compounds, did not remove all the toxic factors that may even interfere with feed intake and weight gain of animals. These observations were not confirmed in the fourth part, which studied the effects of jatropha kernel meal obtained by chemical de-oiling, subject to heat treatment then biological treatment with Aspergillus niger and incorporated in diets at 8%, on day-old broiler chicks performance. Indeed, the feed intake, the weight gain as well as the viability of animals were not affected by the incorporation of jatropha. These successive studies were among the first which interested the same animal species at different levels of development based on a product whose nutritional quality is proven, but has toxic and anti-nutritional factors could not be completely eliminated despite different treatments applied. The application of heat treatment may have helped to reduce some anti-nutritional compounds (curcin and trypsin inhibitor) but without improve feed intake and weight gain. Considering the reaction of animals subjected to diet, biological and heat treatments may have reduced the toxicity of jatropha kernel meal, which has afected the feed intake of animals and thus the weight gain. This study showed that, despite its nutritional level, J. curcas kernel meal presented limitations in its use as a raw material that can integrate a ration for broilers in Senegal but hopes remain with biological treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cinéma déboussolé
Pieron, Julien ULiege

Conference (2017, September 29)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailAdénocarcinome du canal anal: identification de deux sous-types distincts
Herfs, Michael ULiege

Conference (2017, September 29)

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See detailLe thème d'Hercule dans l'art de la tapisserie (du XVe au XVIIe siècle)
Laruelle, Anne-Sophie ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailComputer vision systems for automatic analysis of face and eye images in specific applications of interpretation of facial expressions
Hoyoux, Thomas ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

This thesis is about the computer vision-based automation of specific tasks of face perception, for specific applications where they are essential. These tasks, and the applications in which they are ... [more ▼]

This thesis is about the computer vision-based automation of specific tasks of face perception, for specific applications where they are essential. These tasks, and the applications in which they are automated, deal with the interpretation of facial expressions. Our first application of interest is the automatic recognition of sign language, as carried out via a chain of automatic systems that extract visual communication cues from the image of a signer, transcribe these visual cues to an intermediary semantic notation, and translate this semantic notation to a comprehensible text in a spoken language. For use within the visual cue extraction part of such a system chain, we propose a computer vision system that automatically extracts facial communication cues from the image of a signer, based on a pre-existing facial landmark point tracking method and its various robust refinements. With this system, our contribution notably lies in the fruitful use of this tracking method and its refinements within a sign language recognition system chain. We consider the facial communication cues extracted by our system as facial expressions with a specific interpretation useful to this application. Our second application of interest is the objective assessment of visual pursuit in patients with a disorder of consciousness. In the clinical practice, this delicate assessment is done by a clinician who manually moves a handheld mirror in front of the patient's face while simultaneously estimating the patient's ability to track this visual stimulus. This clinical setup is appropriate, but the assessment outcome was shown to be sensitive to the clinician's subjectivity. For use with a head-mounted device, we propose a computer vision system that attaches itself to the clinical procedure without disrupting it, and automatically estimates, in an objective way, the patient's ability to perform visual pursuit. Our system, combined with the use of a head-mounted device, therefore takes the form of an assisting technology for the clinician. It is based on the tracking of the patient's pupil and the mirror moved by the clinician, and the comparison of the obtained trajectories. All methods used within our system are simple yet specific instantiations of general methods, for the objective assessment of visual pursuit. We consider the visual pursuit ability extracted by our system as a facial expression with a specific interpretation useful to this application. To some extent, our third application of interest is the general-purpose automatic recognition of facial expression codes in a muscle-based taxonomic coding system. We do not actually provide any new computer vision system for this application. Instead, we consider a supervised classification problem relevant to this application, and we empirically compare the performance of two general classification approaches for solving this problem, namely hierarchical classification and standard classification ("flat" classification, in this comparative context). We also compare these approaches for solving a classification problem relevant to 3D shape recognition, as well as artificial classification problems we generate in a simulation framework of our design. Our contribution lies in the general theoretical conclusions we reach from our empirical study of hierarchical vs. flat classification, which are of interest for properly using hierarchical classification in vision-based recognition problems, for example for an application of facial expression recognition. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (4 ULiège)
See detailParler le langage de l'ennemi: la revue TINA contre le storytelling
Claisse, Frédéric ULiege

Conference (2017, September 29)

Dans le sillage des analyses de C. Salmon (2007), le storytelling est devenu, en France, un terme repoussoir utilisé pour dénoncer des techniques nouvelles de communication politique, de marketing ou de ... [more ▼]

Dans le sillage des analyses de C. Salmon (2007), le storytelling est devenu, en France, un terme repoussoir utilisé pour dénoncer des techniques nouvelles de communication politique, de marketing ou de gestion des organisations, qui adoptent la forme du récit à des fins explicites d’influence ou de manipulation. Cette mobilisation de « l’art de raconter des histoires » dans des contextes extra-littéraires n’a pas manqué de faire réagir certains écrivains, inquiets de cette concurrence illégitime sur leur propre terrain. En donnant un nom à « l’ennemi », l’essai de Salmon a ainsi eu pour effet de rendre disponible un nouveau répertoire critique et d’ouvrir à de nouveaux questionnements quant aux pouvoirs que pourrait opposer la littérature à cette emprise de la logique marchande, véritable « hold-up sur l’imaginaire ». Cette réaffirmation de la littérature passe par la promotion de la singularité de son rapport au récit et au langage contre leur dévoiement et leur instrumentalisation par le néolibéralisme. Le mouvement critique s’opère à deux niveaux au moins. D’une part, face à l’inauthenticité du langage du storytelling, l’écriture poétique, déjà profondément renouvelée dans ses modes d’expression depuis les années 1990 (Espitallier, 2011), a encore multiplié la production d’ « objets littéraires non identifiés ». Ces derniers, que C. Hanna théorise sous le nom de « dispositifs » (2010), sont caractérisés par un niveau élevé d’expérimentation, dans des formes et des formats qui investissent souvent ou détournent le « langage de l’ennemi » (pour reprendre l’expression de J-C. Masséra), afin de le dynamiter de l’intérieur (E. Arlix, Y. Pagès, H. Jallon). D’autre part, face à l’impuissance dans laquelle nous laissent les récits dominants, le pouvoir qu’ont les récits d’affecter les individus et les collectifs peut être utilisé à des fins d’émancipation, dans une logique « contre-fictionnelle » (Citton, 2010 ; Revue Multitudes 2012), qui mobilise le « pouvoir de scénarisation » afin de revendiquer notre imaginaire captif. En huit numéros publiés entre 2008 et 2011, la revue de « Littératures » TINA a été un laboratoire où ont convergé ces deux formes de critique, artiste et sociale, du storytelling (et plus largement du néolibéralisme dont il est indissociable). C’est ce corpus que nous nous proposons d’analyser dans cette communication. Contre le double constat d’une « désertification de l’espace littéraire » (éditorial du numéro 1) et d’une certaine désaffection de l’extrême-gauche pour la littérature (Quintane, 2014), TINA a renoué avec une conception exigeante de la littérature comme « lieu de tous les savoirs » et de la fiction comme territoire à part entière où explorer des enjeux politiques et sociaux. Sous quelles formes cette convergence entre création littéraire et critique des mondes contemporains s’est-elle manifestée ? Quel jeu de prises ou d’arguments peut-on dégager des nombreux dispositifs expérimentés par la revue, entre la première partie, explicitement fictionnelle, de chaque numéro, et la seconde, centrée sur des « dossiers » (« territoires », « capitalismes », « argent », « Gender surprise », etc.) ? Enfin, quels acteurs (écrivains, artistes, philosophes, sociologues) ont participé à cette aventure qui marque aussi, sous une forme atténuée, le retour d’une certaine logique collective défensive, générationnelle ou groupale (également perceptible au sein du collectif Inculte), dans un champ littéraire de plus en plus menacé dans son autonomie. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailExploring possibilities through imagination. What can be conceived and what can be seen
Leclercq, Bruno ULiege

Conference (2017, September 29)

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See detailLa réalité virtuelle, un outil issu de la recherche et dédié aux traitements des peurs !
Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege; Stassart, Céline ULiege; Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULiege et al

Speech/Talk (2017)

Une série de projets scientifiques sont en cours dans le domaine des soins de santé globale au sein de la Faculté de Psychologie, Logopédie et Science de l’Education prenant appui sur la technologie de la ... [more ▼]

Une série de projets scientifiques sont en cours dans le domaine des soins de santé globale au sein de la Faculté de Psychologie, Logopédie et Science de l’Education prenant appui sur la technologie de la réalité virtuelle. L’équipe travaille notamment sur la dépendance à l’alcool, la douleur, l’obésité, le bégaiement, etc… Pour ces recherches, elle utilise des environnements virtuels en 3D en temps réel. Ces environnements virtuels permettent de naviguer librement dans des scénarios, d’incorporer progressivement des sensations physiques et émotionnelles et de graduer les interactions au rythme des utilisateurs. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristic of Guinea Fowl breeding in West Africa: Review
Houndonougbo, Pascal ULiege; Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege; Chrysostome, A.A.M. Christophe et al

in Tropicultura (2017), 35(3), 222-230

Guinea fowl production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is generally practiced under family and traditional rearing systems mainly for consumption and income generation, but this species plays also a major ... [more ▼]

Guinea fowl production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is generally practiced under family and traditional rearing systems mainly for consumption and income generation, but this species plays also a major socio-cultural role in specific ceremonies. Birds are kept in free range or in confinement with outdoor access and fed on grain cereals, vegetables, edible termites and kitchen residues found in nature or occasionally supplied by the farmers. Several Guinea fowl varieties are observed and all are characterized by slow growth, high mortality of young and a relatively wild instinct. Although this avian species is less sensitive to some poultry diseases (Newcastle disease, Marek disease, Gumboro disease, etc), local guinea fowl are very sensitive to other poorly controlled diseases that require further study. These varieties differ greatly by their feather color, their morphological characteristics and growth performance, but further thorough and sustained research is needed to quantify these differences. Several researches established the nutritional requirements of local Guinea fowl but in terms of breeding, little works were done compared to chicken. Some recessive and dominant genes as well as genotypic differences were highlighted between varieties. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (13 ULiège)