Last 7 days     Results 1441-1460 of 43716.   68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78   Breakthrough in cardiac arrest: reports from the 4th Paris International Conference.Kudenchuk, PJ; Sandroni, C; Drinhaus, HR et alin Annals of Intensive Care (2015)Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th Paris International Conference in Intensive Care", whose principle is to bring together the best international ... [more ▼]Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th Paris International Conference in Intensive Care", whose principle is to bring together the best international experts on a hot topic in critical care medicine. The 2014 theme was "Breakthrough in cardiac arrest", with many high-quality updates on epidemiology, public health data, pre-hospital and in-ICU cares. The present review includes short summaries of the major presentations, classified into six main chapters: Epidemiology of CA Pre-hospital management Post-resuscitation management: targeted temperature management Post-resuscitation management: optimizing organ perfusion and metabolic parameters Neurological assessment of brain damages Public healthcare." [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg) What Darkens the Greenland Ice Sheet?Teddesco, M; Doherty, S.; Warren, S. et alin EOS : Transactions, American Geophysical Union (2015)Most of the massive ice sheet that covers roughly four fifths of Greenland melts at the surface in summer. As long as the ice sheet regains its mass in the winter, this is not catastrophic. However, if ... [more ▼]Most of the massive ice sheet that covers roughly four fifths of Greenland melts at the surface in summer. As long as the ice sheet regains its mass in the winter, this is not catastrophic. However, if the ice sheet melted entirely, sea levels would rise by more than 7 meters, with obvious and severe consequences for human civilization. Not surprisingly, scientists are working hard to determine if and when the ice sheet will transition (or if it has already transitioned) from a stable state to a net mass loss state. The impact of increasing greenhouse gas levels on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) depends on many complex and interacting factors. One is the ice sheet’s albedo—the fraction of incoming solar radiation that is reflected from the surface of the ice sheet. Indeed, scientists have determined that net solar radiation reaching the ice is the largest contributor to the energy balance driving melting [e.g., van den Broeke et al., 2011]. Despite the crucial role of albedo in energy balance, we have yet to quantify the role of the different processes driving it. Such an understanding is crucial to determining the past behavior of the GrIS and projecting its future contribution to sea level rise. Scientists seeking to quantify how much various factors contribute to ice sheet albedo face numerous challenges. These include intrinsic limitations in current observational capabilities (e.g., spatial and radiometric resolution of currently available spaceborne sensors) and limitations on how accurately surface energy balance models handle ice sheet albedo. Moreover, the sparseness in space and time of in situ observations of quantities such as impurity concentrations, biological processes, and grain growth impedes our ability to separate their respective contributions to broadband albedo (integrated over the entire spectrum). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (0 ULg) Et... si nous montrions l'exemple?Choffray, Jean-Marie Diverse speeche and writing (2015)« Montrer l’exemple n’est pas le principal moyen d’influencer les autres, c’est le seul moyen! » (A. Einstein). Texte préparé pour l'Assemblée du 17 septembre 2015 de l'Association des Professeurs de l ... [more ▼]« Montrer l’exemple n’est pas le principal moyen d’influencer les autres, c’est le seul moyen! » (A. Einstein). Texte préparé pour l'Assemblée du 17 septembre 2015 de l'Association des Professeurs de l'Université de Liège. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 71 (14 ULg) Grandeur et misère de la démocratieDebras, François Conference given outside the academic context (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULg) Campagne d'investigation géophysique en terrain karstique en vue d'identifier les zones karstifiées, contournement de CouvinDelvoie, Simon ; Collin, Frédéric Report (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 15 (4 ULg) How education adapts to meet the requirements?Billen, Roland Scientific conference (2015, September 17)Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg) Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) using abandoned worksPujades, Estanislao ; Willems, Thibault ; Orban, Philippe et alPoster (2015, September 17)Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) using abandoned works is an interesting alternative to increase the efficiency of some power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity ... [more ▼]Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) using abandoned works is an interesting alternative to increase the efficiency of some power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand. UPSH plants can store (pumping water from an underground to an upper reservoir) or produce energy (releasing water from an upper to an underground reservoir) during the low or high demand periods. Two considerations must be taken into account in order to construct an UPSH plant: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant, which depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary to design a plant. However, a screening methodology to apply during the early stages of the design of a UPSH plant in order to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a pseudo-steady state (magnitude and head reached during oscillations do not vary anymore with time) depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. From the numerical study, a screening methodology, which is based on existing analytical procedures (solutions for large diameter wells, methodologies for cyclic pumpings and the image well theory), is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants and their efficiency regarding the groundwater evolution inside the reservoir. The procedure can be applied in a relatively short period of time and is useful to select those appropriate sites to construct a UPSH plant. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (6 ULg) Hydrogeological assessment of diaphragm walls used to excavate deep shafts associated to tunnels constructionPujades, Estanislao ; Jurado, Anna; Carrera, Jesus et alPoster (2015, September 17)Deep shafts are usually required during tunnels construction (for maintenance tasks when tunnel boring machines –TBM- are used) and/or the operation stage of tunnels (emergency exits). Generally, these ... [more ▼]Deep shafts are usually required during tunnels construction (for maintenance tasks when tunnel boring machines –TBM- are used) and/or the operation stage of tunnels (emergency exits). Generally, these shafts are constructed below the water table and by the cut and cover method. Therefore, impervious diaphragm walls are desired for two main reasons: (1) to reduce risks (stability, inflows, flooding, etc.) and outside impacts (loose of groundwater resource, holes and sinkholes, etc.) during the excavation stage of a shaft and, (2) to avoid leaks and inflows of groundwater during the operation stage once the shaft is finished. Given that defects in diaphragm walls are frequent and can relatively easy be repaired before starting the excavation stage, a useful and new methodology to assess the state of enclosures before excavation is proposed. Its use would allow to reduce impacts on groundwater (construction and operation stages) and costs in case of defects as well as to increase the safety during the construction. The groundwater response regarding different scenarios of diaphragm walls is studied numerically in order to propose a successful procedure to evaluate underground enclosures imperviousness by internal pumping tests. The scenarios consist in circular and square enclosures where the diaphragm walls are assumed as homogeneous (with numerous defects) or heterogeneous (one discrete defect). The homogeneous cases are modeled by considering different effective hydraulic conductivities, while the size and position of the single defect is varied in the simulations of heterogeneous walls. An analysis of diagnostic plots and the comparison between the expected and measured groundwater evolutions inside the enclosure, is proposed to ascertain: (1) if the diaphragm walls can be considered as homogeneous or heterogeneous, (2) the effective hydraulic conductivity of the walls (if they are homogeneous) and, (3) the position of a defect (if they are heterogeneous). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (2 ULg) 60 questions étonnantes sur la musique et les réponses qu'y apporte la scienceVanootighem, Valentine Book published by Mardaga (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 26 (6 ULg) Use of dual carbon-chlorine isotope analysis to identify degradation pathways of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in groundwaterPalau, Jordi; Jamin, Pierre ; Badin, Alice et alConference (2015, September 17)The high susceptibility of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) like 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) to be transformed via different competing pathways (biotic and abiotic) complicates the ... [more ▼]The high susceptibility of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) like 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) to be transformed via different competing pathways (biotic and abiotic) complicates the assessment of their fate in groundwater. This knowledge is necessary to evaluate contaminant degradation and potential formation of toxic intermediates. Identifying pathways is further complicated in sites contaminated by mixed CAHs because some degradation products of 1,1,1-TCA can be formed from different precursors. Here, identification of pathways based solely on substrate-product concentration relationships may lead to ambiguous interpretations. This study investigates, for the first time, dual C−Cl isotope fractionation as a means of identifying and assessing degradation pathways of 1,1,1-TCA in groundwater. Distinctly different dual isotope trends (L = Δδ13C/Δδ37Cl) were observed for 1,1,1-TCA transformation via oxidation with heat-activated persulfate (L = ∞), reduction with zerovalent iron (L = 1.5 ± 0.1), hydrolysis and dehydrohalogenation (HY/DH, L = 0.33 ± 0.04) in laboratory experiments, illustrating the potential of a dual isotope approach. This approach was evaluated in an aerobic aquifer impacted by 1,1,1-TCA and trichloroethylene (TCE) with concentrations of up to 20 mg/L and 3.4 mg/L, respectively. For 1,1,1-TCA, the dual isotope slope determined from field samples (L = 0.6 ± 0.2, r2 = 0.75) was close to the slope observed for HY/DH in the laboratory (L = 0.33 ± 0.04), indicating that HY/DH was the predominant degradation pathway of 1,1,1-TCA in the aquifer. The observed deviation could be explained by a minor contribution of additional degradation processes. This result, along with the little degradation of TCE determined from isotope measurements, confirmed that 1,1,1-TCA was the main source of the 1,1-dichlorethylene (1,1-DCE) detected in the aquifer with concentrations of up to 10 mg/L. This study demonstrates that a dual C-Cl isotope approach can strongly improve the qualitative and quantitative assessment of 1,1,1-TCA degradation processes in the field. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (4 ULg) Surgir dans le paysage urbain. Analyse sociocritique du projet SelfiecityHagelstein, Maud Conference (2015, September 17)Mon intérêt pour le selfie s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une réflexion plus large sur la photographie vernaculaire (ou commune – au double sens du terme), c’est-à-dire celle qui n’est ni professionnelle, ni ... [more ▼]Mon intérêt pour le selfie s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une réflexion plus large sur la photographie vernaculaire (ou commune – au double sens du terme), c’est-à-dire celle qui n’est ni professionnelle, ni explicitement artistique. Le selfie est un outil visuel qui me semble pouvoir bien fonctionner avec la thématique de l’espace urbain : *le selfie travaille à la mise en scène d’un sujet dans un contexte au sein duquel il s’implique, le sujet ayant ceci de particulier qu’il se constitue à la fois comme observateur d’une scène, opérateur de l’image (= opérateur de la représentation de cette scène) et comme figurant de celle-ci (partie de son contenu). *En tant qu’il indique donc bien souvent une interaction entre un sujet et son environnement (spatial, social), le selfie pourrait être un bon indicateur du rapport de figuration, d’intégration, liant l’homme à son espace urbain (direct ou indirect). Il m’intéressera ici pour une seconde raison (dont les enjeux sont plus directement politiques) : puisque le dispositif est relativement nouveau, en développement, le selfie peut servir en quelque sorte de laboratoire dans lequel on pourrait observer la constitution de normes formelles. Autrement dit, la nouveauté de cette forme d’expression lui permet d’échapper relativement (et sans doute provisoirement) à l’inévitable institutionnalisation progressive que connaît généralement l’art urbain. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (1 ULg) Geophysics for the quantification of water fluxes in the soil-plant systemGarré, Sarah ; Binley, AndrewConference (2015, September 17)Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Bioinspired polymers for the functionalization of stainless steel surfaces by green processesDetrembleur, Christophe Scientific conference (2015, September 17)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) On the importance to consider sequential presentation in magnitude processing for mathematical ability: evidence from Turner syndromeAttout, Lucie ; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Rousselle, Laurence Poster (2015, September 17)Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) Growth partitioning within beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) varies in response to summer heat waves and related droughtsLatte, Nicolas ; Lebourgeois, François; Claessens, Hugues in Trees (2015)To characterize growth partitioning within the tree and its responses to climate, we studied 8 dominant beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) of a pure, even-aged 98-year-old stand in Belgium. We sampled 10 ... [more ▼]To characterize growth partitioning within the tree and its responses to climate, we studied 8 dominant beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) of a pure, even-aged 98-year-old stand in Belgium. We sampled 10 disks along the stem from breast height to treetop and examined the inter-annual patterns of, and discrepancies between, ring-area and volume increments by performing detailed stem analysis and dendroecological investigations. Although the common inter-annual variation among all increment series was high, we observed increasing growth variability and climate sensitivity with height, leading to notable bole-crown discrepancies. Both the common inter-annual variation and bole-crown discrepancies were mainly driven by summer heat waves and related droughts of the previous year, and spring droughts of the current year. Despite these discrepancies, the radial growth at breast height can be considered a good estimate of the tree volume increment but not for the purpose of focusing on climatic effects of isolated years. Extreme climatic conditions increase the risk of inaccurate estimations. The results of the present study are discussed in relation to tree ecophysiology hypotheses. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (4 ULg) Stability and Aging of Phase Change Materials : An Ab Initio PerspectiveRaty, Jean-Yves Conference (2015, September 17)Data recording with Phase Change Materials is a much studied topic as the writing/erasing characteristics, cyclability and downscaling properties of these materials allow for efficient data storage in ... [more ▼]Data recording with Phase Change Materials is a much studied topic as the writing/erasing characteristics, cyclability and downscaling properties of these materials allow for efficient data storage in future generations of devices. Nevertheless, some aspects of phase change materials are limiting their performances and delaying their wider technological application. First, aging phenomena are common to all amorphous structures, but of special importance PCMs since it impedes the realization of multi-level memories. Different interpretations have been proposed, but we focus here on the structural relaxation of amorphous GeTe, chosen because it is the simplest system that is representative of the wider class of GST alloys, lying along the GeTe-Sb2Te3 composition line of the GeSbTe phase diagram. One difficulty encountered in the simulation of these amorphous systems is that the direct generation of an amorphous structure by quenching a liquid using Density Functional Theory (DFT) based Molecular Dynamics leads to one sample with a small number of atoms, and, hence of small number of atomic environments. Here we sample a large number of local atomic environments, corresponding to different bonding schemes, by chemically substituting different alloys, selected to favor different local atomic structures. This enables spanning a larger fraction of the configuration space relevant to aging. Our results support a model of the amorphous phase and its time evolution that involves an evolution of the local (chemical) order towards that of the crystal. On the other hand its electronic properties drift away from those of the crystal, driven by an increase of the Peierls-like distortion of the local environments in the amorphous, as compared to the crystal [1]. A second problem faced by PCMs is the fact that data recording is limited at high temperature due to the increased propensity to recrystallize. One approach to counter this is to stabilize the PCM using impurity atoms such as C or N. Using DFT and the analysis of the mechanical properties (constraints theory), we demonstrate how these impurity atoms modify the rigidity of the network, which is experimentally correlated with the activation energy for crystallization [2]. Finally, the crystal phase itself has been shown to have variable conductivities depending on the thermal history and annealing conditions. If this could be used profitably for multi-level recording, it also indicates that the crystal is undergoes some temporal evolution. Using DFT, we clarify the stability behavior of GST crystal and show that the metal-insulator transition is driven by the migration of intrinsic vacancies and an Anderson localization transition [3]. [1] J.Y Raty, W. Zhang, J. Luckas, C. Chen, R. Mazzarello, C. Bichara and M. Wuttig, Nat. Comm. (2015) [2] G. Ghezzi, J.Y. Raty, S. Maitrejean, A. Roule, E. Elkaim and F. Hippert, Applied Physics Letters, 99 (2011) 151906 [3] W. Zhang, A. Thiess, P. Zalden, R. Zeller, P. H. Dederichs, J-Y. Raty, M.Wuttig, S. Blügel et R. Mazzarello, Nature Materials 11 (2012) 952 [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 49 (2 ULg) Faecal microbiota characterisation of horses using 16 rdna barcoded pyrosequencing, and carriage rate of clostridium difficile at hospital admissionRodriguez Diaz, Cristina ; Taminiau, Bernard ; Brévers, Bastien et alin BMC Microbiology (2015), 15Background The equine faecal microbiota is very complex and remains largely unknown, while interspecies interactions have an important contribution to animal health. Clostridium difficile has been ... [more ▼]Background The equine faecal microbiota is very complex and remains largely unknown, while interspecies interactions have an important contribution to animal health. Clostridium difficile has been identified as an important cause of diarrhoea in horses. This study provides further information on the nature of the bacterial communities present in horses developing an episode of diarrhoea. The prevalence of C. difficile in hospitalised horses at the time of admission is also reported. Results Bacterial diversity of the gut microbiota in diarrhoea is lower than that in non-diarrhoeic horses in terms of species richness (p-value <0.002) and in population evenness (p-value: 0.02). Statistical differences for Actinobacillus, Porphyromonas, RC9 group, Roseburia and Ruminococcaceae were revealed. Fusobacteria was found in horses with diarrhoea but not in any of the horses with non-diarrheic faeces. In contrast, Akkermansia was among the three predominant taxa in all of the horses studied. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in the total samples of hospitalised horses at admission was 3.7 % (5/134), with five different PCR-ribotypes identified, including PCR-ribotype 014. Two colonised horses displayed a decreased bacterial species richness compared to the remaining subjects studied, which shared the same Bacteroides genus. However, none of the positive animals had diarrhoea at the moment of sampling. Conclusions The abundance of some taxa in the faecal microbiota of diarrhoeic horses can be a result of microbiome dysbiosis, and therefore a cause of intestinal disease, or some of these taxa may act as equine enteric pathogens. Clostridium difficile colonisation seems to be transient in all of the horses studied, without overgrowth to trigger infection. A large proportion of the sequences were unclassified, showing the complexity of horses’ faecal microbiota. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (5 ULg) Exoplanet science with the LBTI: instrument status and plansDefrère, D.; Hinz, P.; Skemer, A. et alin Shaklan, Stuart (Ed.) Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets VII (2015, September 16)The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) is a strategic instrument of the LBT designed for high-sensitivity, high-contrast, and high-resolution infrared (1.5-13 $\mu$m) imaging of nearby ... [more ▼]The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) is a strategic instrument of the LBT designed for high-sensitivity, high-contrast, and high-resolution infrared (1.5-13 $\mu$m) imaging of nearby planetary systems. To carry out a wide range of high-spatial resolution observations, it can combine the two AO-corrected 8.4-m apertures of the LBT in various ways including direct (non-interferometric) imaging, coronagraphy (APP and AGPM), Fizeau imaging, non-redundant aperture masking, and nulling interferometry. It also has broadband, narrowband, and spectrally dispersed capabilities. In this paper, we review the performance of these modes in terms of exoplanet science capabilities and describe recent instrumental milestones such as first-light Fizeau images (with the angular resolution of an equivalent 22.8-m telescope) and deep interferometric nulling observations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg) Building bridges (preliminary steps towards a new dictionary of Ancient Egyptian)Winand, Jean Conference (2015, September 16)Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg) Agnolo Bronzino, Portrait d’une dame en rouge, 1525-1530, Francfort-sur-le-main, Städel Museum (notice). Id., Portrait de Lorenzo Lenzi, 1527-1530, Milan, Pinacoteca del Castello Sforzesco (notice). Id. Portrait de Laura Battiferri, 1555-1560, Florence, Museo di Palazzo Vecchio (notice).Geremicca, Antonio in Falciani, carlo (Ed.) Florence. Portrait à la cour des Médicis (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)