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See detailL’aménagement forestier au Congo engendre-t-il plus de déforestation ?
Karsenty, Alain; Cerutti, P.; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg et al

E-print/Working paper (2016)

Un article publié dans Land Use Policy début 2016 arrive à la conclusion a priori étonnante que la déforestation serait, au Congo, plus élevée dans les concessions forestières avec des plans d’aménagement ... [more ▼]

Un article publié dans Land Use Policy début 2016 arrive à la conclusion a priori étonnante que la déforestation serait, au Congo, plus élevée dans les concessions forestières avec des plans d’aménagement que dans celles qui n’en ont pas. L’analyse d’évaluation d’impact qui a conduit ces chercheurs à un tel résultat se base sur un appariement de parcelles sélectionnées aléatoirement dans des concessions avec et sans plans d’aménagement. Ces chercheurs indiquent que le réseau de routes forestières plus développé dans les concessions aménagées serait un des facteurs explicatifs. L’autre facteur serait le développement local lié aux cahiers des charges des plans d’aménagement, lequel conduirait à une augmentation de la population dans ces concessions et à une déforestation accrue. Notre groupe d’une vingtaine de chercheurs connaissant bien la problématique de l’aménagement forestier en Afrique centrale s’est penché à son tour sur cette question et a analysé la déforestation au niveau des concessions sur le même intervalle de temps. Nos résultats montrent, cette fois, que la déforestation est moins importante dans les concessions avec un plan d’aménagement que dans les autres. Et si l’on compare à production égale la déforestation dans des concessions avec et sans plan d’aménagement, il apparaît que les UFA aménagées sont environ deux fois plus « efficaces », c’est-à-dire qu’on observe deux fois moins de perte de couvert forestier par mètre-cube produit. Nous en concluons qu’il est nécessaire d’analyser précisément la dynamique des différents facteurs de déforestation, et éviter d’imputer mécaniquement à l’aménagement forestier un rôle excessif dans l’évolution dans un sens ou dans l’autre du taux de déboisement. Enfin, toute évaluation doit rappeler que les effets de l’aménagement forestier doivent être mesurés sur le long terme : l’objectif de l’aménagement est de permettre une mise en valeur forestière durable, en conservant l’essentiel du capital productif pour éviter, autant que possible, la conversion à d’autres usages après les cycles de coupe initiaux. [less ▲]

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See detailGetting on Board but How? Conflicting Perspectives on the Role of the Social Sciences and Humanities in Radiation Protection
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg; Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Perko, Tanja et al

Conference (2016, March 14)

In Europe, science research policy is predicated on the understanding that science and technology (S&T) serve societal needs. Accordingly, European Framework Programs urge scientists and technologists to ... [more ▼]

In Europe, science research policy is predicated on the understanding that science and technology (S&T) serve societal needs. Accordingly, European Framework Programs urge scientists and technologists to give due attention to societal and ethical aspects of S&T, and to engage with social scientists and humanists when doing research and reaching out to society. Starting from these policy prescriptions and from invitations from befriended life scientists to "get on board," we explore the terms of our involvement as social scientists and humanists in a European Joint Program on radiation protection research (EJP-CONCERT). We illuminate recurring tensions between instrumental, normative, and substantive perspectives on the role of the social sciences and humanities (SSH) in radioprotection research and nuclear S&T. Our aim is to shed light on the controversial and contingent nature of integrating SSH into nuclear S&T, as actors articulate divergent assumptions and expectations about SSH and society. These expectations pertain to the value of SSH research for S&T, issues of trust and legitmacy, and different perspectives on risk and uncertainty. By rendering these tensions explicit we seek to probe the implications for SSH of developing a separate SSH Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) within radiation protection research. [less ▲]

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See detailAb initio phonon limited transport
Verstraete, Matthieu ULg

Speech/Talk (2016)

We revisit the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of two champion materials, PbTe and SnSe, using fully first principles methods. In both cases the performance of the material is due to subtle ... [more ▼]

We revisit the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of two champion materials, PbTe and SnSe, using fully first principles methods. In both cases the performance of the material is due to subtle combinations of structural effects, scattering, and phase space reduction. In PbTe anharmonic effects are completely opposite to the predicted quasiharmonic evolution of phonon frequencies and to frequently (and incorrectly) cited extrapolations of experiments. This stabilizes the material at high T, but also tends to enhance its thermal conductivity, in a non linear manner, above 600 Kelvin. This explains why PbTe is in practice limited to room temperature applications. SnSe has recently been shown to be the most efficient TE material in bulk form. This is mainly due to a strongly enhanced carrier concentration and electrical conductivity, after going through a phase transition from 600 to 800 K. We calculate the transport coefficients as well as the defect concentrations ab initio, showing excellent agreement with experiment, and elucidating the origin of the double phase transition as well as the new charge carriers. AH Romero, EKU Gross, MJ Verstraete, and O Hellman PRB 91, 214310 (2015) O. Hellman, IA Abrikosov, and SI Simak, PRB 84 180301 (2011) [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (2 ULg)
See detailJean-Jacques Boissard dit le Bisontin : un antiquaire du XVIe siècle
De Marco, Rosa ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Né à Besançon, Jean-Jacques Boissard (1528-1602) arpente l’Europe. En Allemagne, en Prusse, en Italie, en Grèce, il dessine les reliefs antiques et entretient des échanges savants avec les plus grands ... [more ▼]

Né à Besançon, Jean-Jacques Boissard (1528-1602) arpente l’Europe. En Allemagne, en Prusse, en Italie, en Grèce, il dessine les reliefs antiques et entretient des échanges savants avec les plus grands érudits de son temps en partageant la passion archéologique et l’idéal humaniste. La communication approfondira les voyages romains de Boissard, ses rencontres, ses explorations, sa vision de Rome antique et moderne. En parcourant l’œuvre multiforme de l’antiquaire, collectionneur, faussaire, poète, moraliste bisontin, nous montrerons la manière dont l’auteur appréhende l’Antiquité et ses vestiges : données documentaires, mise en scène antiquisante, ou encore signes et reliques d’un passé supérieur. [less ▲]

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See detailAgeism and communication in oncology
Schroyen, Sarah ULg; Adam, Stéphane ULg; Marquet, Manon ULg et al

Poster (2016, March 11)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (4 ULg)
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See detailSaisir les transformations des espaces politiques par le prisme des instruments de finances publiques
Piron, Damien ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 11)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 ULg)
See detailVirtual Leodium - Modélisation 3D de la ville de Liège - Etat d’avancement mars 2016
Carré, Cyril ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (5 ULg)
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See detailEffect of DOPA and dopamine coupling on protein loading of hydroxyapatite
Ozhukil Kollath, Vinayaraj ULg; Mullens, Steven; Luyten, Jan et al

in Materials Technology: Advanced Performance Materials (2016)

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a promising carrier material for oral delivery of biomolecules such as proteins and drugs. Ways to increase the loading of such molecules on HA will lead to better nanomedicine ... [more ▼]

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a promising carrier material for oral delivery of biomolecules such as proteins and drugs. Ways to increase the loading of such molecules on HA will lead to better nanomedicine. This study reports the surface functionalisation of HA particles using the mussel inspired molecules dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA), in order to increase protein loading. The adsorption mechanisms are discussed based on the adsorption isotherms, zeta potential, thermal analysis and theoretical models. Results show that DA functionalisation enhanced the loading, while DOPA functionalisation was ineffective. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (9 ULg)
See detailFive years on for Fukushima's IDPs: Life with radiological risk and without a community safety net
Hasegawa, Reiko ULg

E-print/Working paper (2016)

On the fifth anniversary of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the article analyses what are at stake in the communities affected by the disaster, based on the result of the field interviews conducted in ... [more ▼]

On the fifth anniversary of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the article analyses what are at stake in the communities affected by the disaster, based on the result of the field interviews conducted in Fukushima. [less ▲]

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See detailPerturbations of interactome networks in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: identification of EXT1 tumor suppressor as a Notch pathway regulator
Daakour, Sarah ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Whole genome sequencing technologies have enabled the identification of mutations implicated in diseases including cancer. Recently, research efforts to compare and categorize mutations, genes expression ... [more ▼]

Whole genome sequencing technologies have enabled the identification of mutations implicated in diseases including cancer. Recently, research efforts to compare and categorize mutations, genes expression and genomic characteristics helped generating literature-curation databases. A large number of databases were developed to address data integration and standardization for human cancers, such as Catalogue Of Somatic Mutations In Cancer (COSMIC), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), International Cancer Genome Consortium, Integrative Onco Genomics (IntOGen). Although the identification of these mutations highlights “cancer causative genes”, it does not give a detailed explanation of molecular mechanisms leading to the development of cancer. Though, understanding mechanisms leading to cancer development and progression remains a challenge that requires further investigations. The great majority of mutated genes are found in liquid tumors such as leukemia and lymphomas. In the first part of this study, we reasoned that leukemia associated genes could be extended to additional candidates identified using interactomic approaches. We used protein-protein interaction (PPI) mapping strategies to explore information on cancer genes frequently mutated in Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We first extracted mutational data associated to ALL, and used interactome mapping analysis for literature-curated interactions and yeast two-hybrid experimental data in order to identify potential novel target genes associated with ALL. We highlighted mutated hub proteins interconnected in an ALL-cancer gene products network and identified novel interacting partners that link key ALL-cancer driver gene products. We identified EXT1 tumor suppressor gene as a novel common interactor for NOTCH1 and FBXW7. In the second part of this study, we experimentally validated EXT1, as a novel player in the regulation of the Notch pathway. Our study thus provides a proof-of-concept on how systematic interactome approaches could allow identification of novel targeted genes and pathways associated to human cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement d'une filière de petite hydroélectricité en Wallonie: entre expertise et opportunités
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Duchesne, Niels

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

S'il y avait 3000 moulins en activité en 1900 en Wallonie, aujourd'hui il n'y en a plus qu'une centaine, constate Niels Duchesne (Administrateur-délégué, Merytherm). Doté d'un diplôme d'ingénieur ... [more ▼]

S'il y avait 3000 moulins en activité en 1900 en Wallonie, aujourd'hui il n'y en a plus qu'une centaine, constate Niels Duchesne (Administrateur-délégué, Merytherm). Doté d'un diplôme d'ingénieur électromécanicien et intéressé depuis toujours par les énergies renouvelables, ce dernier s'est spécialisé dans l'hydroélectricité avec une visée de transition énergétique. Passionné également par l'idée de donner une seconde vie à tout un patrimoine de notre région, il ne cache pas les difficultés contextuelles existantes (permis, législation, …) et plaide pour une politique davantage levier pour les potentialités offertes par cette filière. Au cours de son exposé, Niels a présenté plusieurs travaux réalisés par son bureau d'études Portfolio complété par ceux menés par le Laboratoire d'Hydraulique des constructions de l'ULg, dirigé par Sébastien Erpicum. A son tours, ce dernier a exposé les services de son laboratoire, dont la modélisation physique offre un bel outil garantissant des installations hydrauliques efficaces. A côté des considérations techniques liées aux turbines, Sébastien Erpicum a alors évoqué une série de paramètres entourant ces technologies (comme l'impact sur les poissons, l'étude de la réoxygénation des eaux, …) dont il faut tenir compte en tant que contraintes. On retiendra en tout cas que les centrales hydrauliques représentent une belle alternative et offrent une réelle solution pour des problèmes de stockage d'énergie, à une époque où notre modèle énergétique doit nécessairement évoluer. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Macroeconomics of PAYG Pension Schemes in an Ageing Society
Artige, Lionel ULg

Conference (2016, March 10)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg)
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See detailL'ENMG...c'est le pied
WANG, François-Charles ULg

Conference (2016, March 10)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (4 ULg)
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See detailPrincipal static wind loads within a rigorous methodology to the envelope reconstruction problem
Blaise, Nicolas ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Static wind loads are being used for the design of large civil structures such as high-rise buildings, large roofs and long-span bridges. Once static wind loads are known, they are used through the ... [more ▼]

Static wind loads are being used for the design of large civil structures such as high-rise buildings, large roofs and long-span bridges. Once static wind loads are known, they are used through the iterative design process without repeating cumbersome dynamical analyses. In this framework, structural engineers can effectively focus on the structural sizing since static analyses are straightforward. No codified wind loads, however, exist for those large structures with unique shapes and there is no consensual view on how to formally derived them. For each new major project, the challenge consists therefore in deriving a relevant set of static wind loads. Obviously, these loads must provide the actual envelope values of structural responses of interest. This states the objective of the envelope reconstruction problem and constitutes the core of this thesis. The proposed developments to solve this problem are relevant for structures responding with a linear dynamic behavior to the buffeting action of synoptic winds in a stationary framework. The pioneering concept of Equivalent Static Wind Load is normally considered for the design. An extensive review points out two main limitations of the current formulations. They have been originally established in a Gaussian context, are associated with either a nodal or nodal-modal basis and do not have a formal definition. The proposed Conditional Expected Load method overcomes the three drawbacks by defining a Conditional Expected Static Wind Load. This novel approach presents a general rigorous formulation for linear structural behavior, irrespective of the basis used for the analysis and relevant in a non-Gaussian context. The method is particularized for a certain class of non-Gaussian processes through a bicubic translation model. This model covers a large range of non-Gaussianity in the random processes and therefore paves the way for the formal establishment of “non-Gaussian” static wind loads with a physical interpretation. Other kinds of static loads such as the covariance proper transformation loading modes and the modal inertial loads are additionally studied. Unfortunately, both sets of loads are simply relevant for two limit structural behaviors, quasi-static and resonant, respectively. Moreover, they do not adapt to the set of structural responses of interest. From both points of view, one key result from our study is the innovative concept of Principal Static Wind Load as a sound solution for the envelope reconstruction problem. The concept relies upon a robust mathematical foundation. These loads are determined by the singular value decomposition of a large set of equivalent static wind loads. This decomposition can be seen as a way to rank the most relevant load patterns for the envelope reconstruction problem. The principal static wind loads have also the added distinctive advantage to be flexible. They are, indeed, able to naturally adapt to the set of structural responses of interest. Finally, a complete methodology to solve the envelope reconstruction problem irrespective of the structure, its load-bearing system and its susceptibility to vibrations in a Gaussian or non-Gaussian context is rigorously conceptualized. The intrinsic controllability of a set of pertinent parameters provides a smart balance between over and underestimation of the actual envelope. Moreover, combinations of static wind loads are computed to speed-up the reconstruction of the envelope values. The problem of determining these combination coefficients is formulated as a constrained nonlinear optimization. Equivalent and principal static wind loads, covariance proper transformation loading modes and modal inertial loads are implemented within the proposed methodology. Three examples: a four-span bridge, a real-life large stadium roof and a low-rise building demonstrate that the envelope reconstruction accuracy is considerably improved with principal static wind loads and with combinations thereof. [less ▲]

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See detailTerpenoids from Phaulopsis imbricata (Acanthaceae)
Kengne, A.B.O.; Tene, M.; Tchinda Tiabou, Alembert ULg et al

in Journal of Medicinal Plants Research (2016), 10(10), 122-129

The whole plant of Phaulopsis imbricata (Forssk.) Sweet (Acanthaceae) was collected at Bansoa, Cameroon, shade dried and extracted by maceration in methanol. This study was carried out to isolate ... [more ▼]

The whole plant of Phaulopsis imbricata (Forssk.) Sweet (Acanthaceae) was collected at Bansoa, Cameroon, shade dried and extracted by maceration in methanol. This study was carried out to isolate secondary metabolites from this plant species that has not been investigated so far. Two lupane-type triterpenoids, one β-type carotenoid, one eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid, and one sterol glycoside were isolated from the dried methanol extract using solvent partitioning, column chromatography and re-crystallization. They were identified as lupeol, betulin, (all-E)-lutein, cryptomeridiol, and sitosterol 3- O-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods including 1D- and 2D- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR) and mass spectrometry (MS). This is the first report of these compounds from the genus Phaulopsis. To the best of our knowledge, P. imbricata is also the first species of the genus to be phytochemically studied. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (8 ULg)