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See detailRessources secondaires et matériaux innovants pour une construction durable
Courard, Luc ULg; Evrard, Arnaud

Conference (2015, December 10)

Le recyclage n'est pas un luxe ou une mode mais une nécessité, qui provient d'une constatation fort simple: nous vivons dans un monde limité. Contrairement à ce que nous avons cru fort longtemps, notre ... [more ▼]

Le recyclage n'est pas un luxe ou une mode mais une nécessité, qui provient d'une constatation fort simple: nous vivons dans un monde limité. Contrairement à ce que nous avons cru fort longtemps, notre activité humaine n'est pas infiniment développable, car limitée en termes d'énergie, de ressources naturelles, d'espace ou simplement de capacité d'adaptation de la nature. De cette constatation et de cette prise de conscience doit découler un comportement qui, essentiellement, est basé sur le respect que nous avons de nous-mêmes et donc de la nature (à ménager et non à aménager). Cette démarche nécessite une vision d'ensemble de la vie du matériau ou de l'objet (Analyse du Cycle de Vie), au cours de laquelle un bilan est établi à chaque étape de vie - extraction des matières premières, fabrication, transformation, recyclage, élimination. Par ailleurs, le monde de la construction constitue à la fois un gisement et un marché énormes. Les ressources secondaires provenant du recyclage et de la biomasse représentent autant de possibilités de développer des nouveaux matériaux mieux adaptés aux exigences physiques et mécaniques. La construction traditionnelle vit en effet de profonds changements liés au fait que la « résistance » n’est plus le seul critère de qualité : l’argile crue, la paille, le miscanthus, …… se retrouvent aujourd’hui à la base de développements expérimentaux et numériques qui contribuent à une meilleure isolation thermique en même temps qu’un confort hygro-thermique mieux adapté. L’habitat exploite les ressources secondaires et les matériaux bio-sourcés en vue d’une meilleure intégration de l’activité humaine dans son environnement naturel, contribuant par là-même à la protection et la préservation de notre patrimoine commun. [less ▲]

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See detailDuality of migrant lives: Gendered migration and agricultural production in Red River Delta region, Vietnam
Nguyen Thi, Dien; Nguyen Thi Minh Khué, ULg; Ngo Trung, Thanh et al

Conference (2015, December 10)

This research analyzes the gender dimensions of labor migration and agricultural production among farm households in Red River Delta region of Vietnam. Through surveying 215 households in Bac Ninh ... [more ▼]

This research analyzes the gender dimensions of labor migration and agricultural production among farm households in Red River Delta region of Vietnam. Through surveying 215 households in Bac Ninh province, the paper explores impacts of female and male migration on agricultural production and its implications on rural development. The results show that in comparison to male migration household, the female one tends to focus on agricultural production by taking the opportunities to rent more land (26.3%) and effective use their own allocated land for agricultural production (97.4%). The overall impacts of migration on agricultural production are the aging of farm labor force (49.6 year old in average) and higher female participation in agricultural production. The findings suggest that female migrants have a greater contribution in agriculture production both in term of working time and agricultural capital investment while male migrants enhance household income by accumulating capital outside agriculture. Through the gender lens, this research emphasizes the duality in the nature of migrant lives and the implications of rural labor migration on the fixed categories. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of shoreline changes on population in Cotonou, Benin
de Longueville, Florence; Hountondji, Yvon Carmen; Gemenne, François ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 10)

The coast of Cotonou (Benin) is affected by an intensive coastal erosion for several decades, mainly due to unsuitable port infrastructures and human activities. In the future, the process will very ... [more ▼]

The coast of Cotonou (Benin) is affected by an intensive coastal erosion for several decades, mainly due to unsuitable port infrastructures and human activities. In the future, the process will very likely be worsen by sea level rise as a consequence of global warming. In this study, we use a combination of very high resolution satellite images from Google Earth recorded in 2002, 2011, 2013 and 2014 and carry out field missions in September 2012, September 2013, July 2014 and February 2015 to assess the retreat of the coastline and to understand the dynamic of population in the risk area. Multi-temporal analyses of satellite images show that nearly 93 hectares of land (including 40 hectares off) were progressively eroded by the sea between 2002 and 2014 on the stretch of the first eight kilometers at the east of the Safiato groyne. This corresponds to an average coastline’s retreat of 115 meters in 13 years, with variations from 38 to 145 meters, depending on the location. Thanks to the comparison between the images of 2002 and 2014, we assess that around 765 houses disappeared by the encroachment of the sea over the distance of 8 km to the East of the Safiato groyne, of which 60 villas and about 705 makeshift houses (informal settlements). Well-off population leave the risk area when their houses are threatened and go inland, fishermen prefer to stay in the risk area to be close to their activities and precarious population have no financial and social capitals to migrate, they are trapped in the risk area. Other precarious population coming from somewhere else settle in the coastal area and grow the at-risk population. The use of intermediate images and the results of field works confirm a rapid process of settlement/destruction of makeshift houses in the coastal area. Poor people carry out simply short displacements in the risk area. There is an urgent need to secure these populations. Update and respect of urban planning regulations, good governance, cooperation with other countries and involvement of local communities are all factors that are expected to reach this objective. [less ▲]

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See detailDark Vador
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailAssessing Pain and Communication in Disorders of Consciousness
Chatelle, Camille ULg; LAUREYS, Steven ULg

Book published by Psychology Press (2015)

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See detailAménités résidentielles et périurbanisation: enseignements de l'approche hédonique appliquée au marché foncier liégeois
Maldague, Hubert ULg; Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg

Scientific conference (2015, December 10)

La présente communication est une réflexion sur la périurbanisation observée dans le bassin d'emploi de Liège sur base des résultats d'un mémoire de master en sciences géographiques (Maldague, 2014). Les ... [more ▼]

La présente communication est une réflexion sur la périurbanisation observée dans le bassin d'emploi de Liège sur base des résultats d'un mémoire de master en sciences géographiques (Maldague, 2014). Les modèles développés montrent en effet une forte opposition entre la vieille agglomération industrielle délaissée et les périphéries plus vertes et agréables. Cette dualité contribue au maintien de l'importe périurbanisation que connait la région de Liège depuis plusieurs décennies. [less ▲]

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See detailLaser cooling of iron atoms
Huet, Nicolas ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

The work presented in this thesis is dedicated to the development and implementation of a cold atom experiment which handles an atomic species that has not been cooled down so far: iron. The experiment ... [more ▼]

The work presented in this thesis is dedicated to the development and implementation of a cold atom experiment which handles an atomic species that has not been cooled down so far: iron. The experiment requires the use of two UV laser radiations (at 372 and 358 nm) that are frequency stabilized by means of saturation spectroscopy, an iron atomic beam, and a vacuum system, which we contributed to implement and characterize. In addition to this development, several spectroscopic studies were carried out in this thesis. By means of saturation spectroscopy, the hyperfine structure of the molecular-iodine R(90)3-10 transition at 716 nm was first studied following its involvement in the frequency stabilization of the 358-nm radiation. A spectroscopic study of the 358-nm Fe I cooling transition, which was totally unknown prior to this thesis, was also conducted using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. With the same technique, a high accuracy measurement of the iron 358-nm transition frequency with respect to the molecular-iodine R(90)3-10 transition was performed. For this measurement, we implemented a particular configuration which allowed for the minimising of an important systematic error. The first laser cooling of iron is also reported. For this purpose, the Zeeman slowing technique was implemented following a particular two-laser scheme. To our knowledge, this Zeeman slower is the first of this kind. Furthermore, the complete characterization of the cold iron atomic beam produced at the output of the Zeeman slower was done, which allowed for an optimized loading of the magneto-optical trap. Finally, the creation of a cold cloud of iron atoms demonstrated the Zeeman slower ability to properly load an iron magneto-optical trap. [less ▲]

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See detailPrincipal static wind loads within a rigorous methodology to the envelope reconstruction problem
Blaise, Nicolas ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Static wind loads are being used for the design of large civil structures such as high-rise buildings, large roofs and long-span bridges. Once static wind loads are known, they are used through the ... [more ▼]

Static wind loads are being used for the design of large civil structures such as high-rise buildings, large roofs and long-span bridges. Once static wind loads are known, they are used through the iterative design process without repeating cumbersome dynamical analyses. In this framework, structural engineers can effectively focus on the structural sizing since static analyses are straightforward. No codified wind loads, however, exist for those large structures with unique shapes and there is no consensual view on how to formally derived them. For each new major project, the challenge consists therefore in deriving a relevant set of static wind loads. Obviously, these loads must provide the actual envelope values of structural responses of interest. This states the objective of the envelope reconstruction problem and constitutes the core of this thesis. The proposed developments to solve this problem are relevant for structures responding with a linear dynamic behavior to the buffeting action of synoptic winds in a stationary framework. The pioneering concept of Equivalent Static Wind Load is normally considered for the design. An extensive review points out two main limitations of the current formulations. They have been originally established in a Gaussian context, are associated with either a nodal or nodal-modal basis and do not have a formal definition. The proposed Conditional Expected Load method overcomes the three drawbacks by defining a Conditional Expected Static Wind Load. This novel approach presents a general rigorous formulation for linear structural behavior, irrespective of the basis used for the analysis and relevant in a non-Gaussian context. The method is particularized for a certain class of non-Gaussian processes through a bicubic translation model. This model covers a large range of non-Gaussianity in the random processes and therefore paves the way for the formal establishment of “non-Gaussian” static wind loads. Other kinds of static loads such as the covariance proper transformation loading modes and the modal inertial loads are additionally studied. Unfortunately, both sets of loads are simply relevant for two limit structural behaviors, quasi-static and resonant, respectively. Moreover, they do not adapt to the set of structural responses of interest. From both points of view, one key result from our study is the innovative concept of Principal Static Wind Load as a sound solution for the envelope reconstruction problem. The concept relies upon a robust mathematical foundation. These loads are determined by the singular value decomposition of a large set of equivalent static wind loads. This decomposition can be seen as a way to rank the most relevant load patterns for the envelope reconstruction problem. The principal static wind loads have also the added distinctive advantage to be flexible. They are, indeed, able to naturally adapt to the set of structural responses of interest. Finally, a complete methodology to solve the envelope reconstruction problem irrespective of the structure, its load-bearing system and its susceptibility to vibrations in a Gaussian or non-Gaussian context is rigorously conceptualized. The intrinsic controllability of a set of pertinent parameters provides a smart balance between over and underestimation of the actual envelope. Moreover, combinations of static wind loads are computed to speed-up the reconstruction of the envelope values. The problem of determining these combination coefficients is formulated as a constrained nonlinear optimization. Equivalent and principal static wind loads, covariance proper transformation loading modes and modal inertial loads are implemented within the proposed methodology. Three examples: a four-span bridge, a real-life large stadium roof and a low-rise building demonstrate that the envelope reconstruction accuracy is considerably improved with principal static wind loads and with combinations thereof. [less ▲]

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See detailPrelimary report of the Programme Committee of World Conference of Humanities
Winand, Jean ULg

Conference (2015, December 09)

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See detailLa traduction de l’humour dans la poésie orale peule du Cameroun
Oumarou Mal Mazou, Rachid ULg

Poster (2015, December 09)

Le poster présente le projet de thèse en cours de finalisation à l'Université de Liège

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See detailProlonger la vie, "Refaire" la société ?
Absil, Gaëtan ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Nous vivons de plus en plus vieux. Cette conférence interroge cette vérité sous l’angle de l’anthropologie. Ainsi si nous vivons de plus en vieux, nous devons nous interroger sur le sens de ce « nous » et ... [more ▼]

Nous vivons de plus en plus vieux. Cette conférence interroge cette vérité sous l’angle de l’anthropologie. Ainsi si nous vivons de plus en vieux, nous devons nous interroger sur le sens de ce « nous » et sur le sens de « vieux ». Qui seront les personnes, les groupes sociaux qui vivront les plus vieux ? Que pourrait signifier la vieillesse ? Au coeur de ces questions se situent différents enjeux qui structureront la conférence. Une première série d’enjeux concerne la manière dont l’allongement de la vie, et peut-être l’immortalité promise par le transhumanisme, pourraient inciter à refaire, dans le sens de changer, la société et donc les rapports sociaux. Une deuxième série d’enjeux, connexes aux premiers, interroge les limites de l’allongement de vie sous l’angle d’un « refaire » qui pourrait être un jeu de dupe. [less ▲]

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See detailSexual attraction in lady beetles: fundamentals and applications
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg

Scientific conference (2015, December 09)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (2 ULg)
See detailA la recherche des traducteurs. Ou comment faire parler les archives.
Letawe, Céline ULg

Conference (2015, December 09)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg)
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See detailModelling of cooling and heat treatment of bimetallic rolling mill rolls
Neira Torres, Ingrid ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

This work is focused on the modelling of post casting cooling and heat treatment stages, using a coupled thermo-mechanical metallurgical model in order to understand the behavior of bimetallic rolling ... [more ▼]

This work is focused on the modelling of post casting cooling and heat treatment stages, using a coupled thermo-mechanical metallurgical model in order to understand the behavior of bimetallic rolling mill rolls. The case of interest is a bimetallic rolling mill roll which materials and geometry present a risk of failure in industrial manufacturing. The analysis of residual stress fields together with a rough damage approach allows the understanding of the failure event and predicting trends when industrial conditions are modified. Performed finite element modelling requires a complete set of materials parameters. Experimental and numerical methods are applied in order to obtain thermophysical, mechanical, metallurgical and coupled parameters. Sensitivity analysis is performed in order to evaluate the effect of numerical predictions to different input data, modeling eventual modifications of materials or geometries. Finally, conclusions and perspectives obtained from this research allow establishing some weakness of the implemented model, enhancing the importance of considering more advanced damage models. In addition, it is settled that the material characterization must be improved by considering materials pollution and complexity. However the work provides a convincing explanation of the observed phenomena of ruptures. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom sample hunt to sequence processing, the journey of a biologist
André, Adrien ULg; Millien, Virginie; Michaux, Johan ULg

Conference (2015, December 08)

Metabarcoding studies are becoming more and more popular with a field of applications constantly increasing. However, the methods used are sometimes complex and might remain “obscure” for most of us. The ... [more ▼]

Metabarcoding studies are becoming more and more popular with a field of applications constantly increasing. However, the methods used are sometimes complex and might remain “obscure” for most of us. The objective of this presentation is therefore to familiarize people with this field of research by giving an overview of the different steps permitting the achievement of metabarcoding studies. Field work, lab work and bioinformatics will be subsequently detailed and accessibly explained. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 ULg)
See detailSynthesis and characterization of novel donor-acceptor isoindigo-based conjugated copolymers and small molecules and their integration in organic photovoltaics
Tomassetti, Mirco ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

The conversion of solar energy into electricity is an environmentally friendly, safe and low- cost way of renewable energy production. Among the different photovoltaic technologies, organic photovoltaics ... [more ▼]

The conversion of solar energy into electricity is an environmentally friendly, safe and low- cost way of renewable energy production. Among the different photovoltaic technologies, organic photovoltaics (OPV) have particular assets in terms of aesthetics, flexibility and low-cost large area coverage. Nevertheless, the moderate OPV efficiencies (˞11%) and lack of durability (< 10 years) strongly limit their large-scale exploitation in particular consumer goods. The main goal of this thesis is to deal with these two drawbacks by designing novel conjugated polymers and small molecules with broad absorption in the visible range (i.e. low band gap), and by setting up strategies to improve the (thermal) stability of the photovoltaic cells. To this extent, novel push-pull type organic semiconducting materials have been synthesized, with different architectures and composed of electron-poor isoindigo building blocks alternating with electron-rich moieties, presenting a favorable spectral overlap with the solar emission. The optical properties of the novel materials were generally investigated by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, while cyclic voltammetry was implemented to estimate the frontier orbital (HOMO/LUMO) energy levels. Relationships between the chemical nature and architecture of the push-pull systems and their absorption spectra and HOMO-LUMO energy levels have been pursued. Finally, the photovoltaic performances of the new materials have been evaluated in conventional bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using methanofullerene acceptor materials. Correlations between the molecular and photovoltaic parameters have been established. Ultimately, cross-linkable diblock copolymers based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) have been synthesized to improve the long-term stability of P3HT/PC61BM photovoltaic cells. Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells have been prepared and their stability has been evaluated by accelerated ageing experiments and compared with standard P3HT-based devices. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (3 ULg)