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See detailCompeting Latin American Regionalisms in a changing world
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Telò, Mario (Ed.) European Union and New Regionalism. (2014)

Collective ambitions in Latin America (LA) go hand in hand with the processes of independence and the creation of States. Since the 19th century, the continent has experienced wave after wave of different ... [more ▼]

Collective ambitions in Latin America (LA) go hand in hand with the processes of independence and the creation of States. Since the 19th century, the continent has experienced wave after wave of different types of regionalism: the ‘Bolivarian’ joint project, ‘introverted’ regional associations and ‘open’ regionalism. LA’s ‘left-turn’ has given rise to a new wave of regional projects. Described by some as post-liberal, these projects have also seen changes. Shared ambitions have therefore continued to be at the heart of the political debate of LA decision-makers. Nonetheless, while LA regionalism is a constant over time, it is still a work-in-progress. Its nature keeps evolving, based on changes in the domestic and international political context. As a political phenomenon, regionalism covers a dynamic and shifting reality. This reality can move forward, slow down or move backwards, as this comparative analysis of LA regional organisations (ROs) shows. These changes can also be the result of competition between these projects. We will also see that, while regionalisms are the result of a political will of their own, they can also be fashioned by external actors’ strategies. The US’s penchant for bilateralism and the EU’s role as an active promoter of international regionalism all affect these collective LA projects. Thus, this paper does not just aim to study regionalism in a comparative way but also to situate it in its links with international relations (IR). The article is structured in three parts. The first aims to study the structural nature of regionalism in LA. To do so, a comparative analysis of the different regional initiatives is suggested, plus a look at the impact from outside factors and actors. This approach will also allow us to bring out the similarities and differences between the different waves of regionalism, to understand what has been achieved and the lessons learnt from old projects in order to better grasp the specificity and nature of current regional initiatives. Our last point will focus on the implications of LA and global geopolitical changes for the new regionalism in LA. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and Characterization of a Halotolerant, Cold-Active Marine Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase by Using Functional Metagenomics of Seaweed-Associated Microbiota
Martin, Marjolaine ULg; Biver, Sophie ULg; Steels, Sébastien ULg et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2014), 80(16), 4958-4967

A metagenomic library was constructed from microorganisms associated with the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Functional screening of this library revealed 13 novel putative esterase loci and two ... [more ▼]

A metagenomic library was constructed from microorganisms associated with the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Functional screening of this library revealed 13 novel putative esterase loci and two glycoside hydrolase loci. Sequence and gene cluster analysis showed the wide diversity of the identified enzymes and gave an idea of the microbial populations present during the sample collection period. Lastly, an endo-β-1,4-glucanase having less than 50% identity to sequences of known cellulases was purified and partially characterized, showing activity at low temperature and after prolonged incubation in concentrated salt solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailPhénologie et intensité de la migration postnuptiale diurne en Ardenne du nord-est par le suivi migratoire (Ramecroix, 2006 à 2010)
Beckers, Arnaud ULg; Baron, André

in Aves (2014), 51(2), 87-106

We present the results of five years of monitoring postnuptial migration in the northeast Ardennes (the Ramecroix site) from 2006 to 2010. The timing and intensity of migration have been calculated for ... [more ▼]

We present the results of five years of monitoring postnuptial migration in the northeast Ardennes (the Ramecroix site) from 2006 to 2010. The timing and intensity of migration have been calculated for the 19 commonest species. Phenology for each species varied markedly from year to year. The passage of two particular species (Northern Lapwing and Song Trush) was extremely concentrated in time. Comparison with data from the Netherland and from Les Awirs (Liège, Belgium) show differences between locations, for which we propose some explanations. The full dataset constitute a useful benchmark for future studies on the spatial variability of migration flow. [less ▲]

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See detailRural Credit and Farms Efficiency : Modelling Farmers Crédit Allocation Decisions, Evidences from Benin
Sossou, Comlan ULg; Noma, Freddy; Yabi, Jacob

in Economics Research International (2014), 2014

This paper analyses farmers’ credit allocation behaviors and their effects on technical efficiency. Data were collected from 476 farmers using themultistage sampling procedure.The stochastic frontier ... [more ▼]

This paper analyses farmers’ credit allocation behaviors and their effects on technical efficiency. Data were collected from 476 farmers using themultistage sampling procedure.The stochastic frontier truncated-normal with conditional mean model is used to assess allocation schemes effects on technical efficiency. Tobitmodel reveals the impact of farmers’ sociodemographic characteristics on efficiency scores. Results reveal that farm revenue (about 2,262,566 Fcfa on average) is positively correlated with land acreage, quantity of labour, and costs of fertilizers and insecticides. Farmers’ behaviors respond to six schemes which are categorized in two allocations contexts : out-farm and in-farm allocations. The model shows that only scheme (e) positively impacts technical efficiency.This scheme refers to the decision to invest credit to purchase better quality of pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and so forth. The positive effect of the scheme (c) may be significant under conditions of farmers’ education level improvement. Then, scheme (e) is a better investment for all farmers, but effect of credit allocation to buy agricultural materials is positive only for educated farmers. Efficiency scores are reduced by household size and gender of the household head. Therefore a household with more than 10 members and a woman as head is likely to not be technically efficient. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to simulate quickly and efficiently a flow over a spillway ?
Goffin, Louis ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

Conference (2014, August)

Flows over hydraulic structures, such as weirs or spillways, can be modelled using different techniques. New models such as SPH or PFEM are becoming more and more popular. These models are particle and/or ... [more ▼]

Flows over hydraulic structures, such as weirs or spillways, can be modelled using different techniques. New models such as SPH or PFEM are becoming more and more popular. These models are particle and/or meshless and consequently require a lot of computational power. Other methods such as VOF also require a lot of computational time. In the frame of 2-D vertical flows, other techniques use much less computation time. For irrotationnal flows, solving the Laplace equation can be done very efficiently. The difficulty of this method lies in the definition of boundary conditions. The free-surface, which is naturally determined when using Lagrangian methods, needs a heavy iterative solving due to its non-linear nature when expressed in the frame of the Laplace equation. This paper will present an original technique that allows a quicker and easier determination of the free-surface. An irregular mesh for boundaries is used and discussed. The method is validated with analytical solutions and experimental measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailCT FEATURES OF A LACRIMAL GLAND TUMOR IN A DOG
Etienne, Anne-Laure ULg; Grauwels, Magda ULg; Storms, Goedele ULg et al

Poster (2014, August)

Background: In the dog, neoplasms of the lacrimal gland are rare. Lacrimal cysts were also reported. Computed tomography (CT) scan findings of these lacrimal gland abnormalities have not been described in ... [more ▼]

Background: In the dog, neoplasms of the lacrimal gland are rare. Lacrimal cysts were also reported. Computed tomography (CT) scan findings of these lacrimal gland abnormalities have not been described in dogs. Purpose: The present report describes clinical and CT features of a lacrimal gland tumor in a dog. Methods: A 3,5 year old female intact Leonberger with a good general health status was presented with a progressive swelling at the level of the supero-temporal area of the left upper eyelid and of the bulbar conjunctiva since 3 weeks. Ocular examination revealed a slight enophthalmia and a ventronasal strabismus, the presence of a firm mass in the upper eyelid which was anteriorly well circumscribed and extending posteriorly between the globe and the orbital ligament. Findings: A CT scan pre- and post- contrast studies of the head were performed. A 3 cm hypoattenuating (+/- 10 HU) ovoid mass was observed dorsolateral to the indented left globe. This mass was well circumscribed by an unevenly thick irregular soft tissue- attenuating wall (50HU), which was strongly contrast-enhanced (150HU) and measured about 2 to 10mm in thickness. The left globe was displaced caudoventromedially. No adjacent bone lesion, or foreign body was observed. No normal left lacrimal gland was observed. These findings were suggestive of an abscess or an orbital tumor with a necrotic/cystic center; a lacrimal cyst was considered less likely because of the unevenness and the thickness of the wall. Complete surgical ablation was done by a modified lateral orbitotomy. Histopathology revealed a mixed benign tumor of the lacrimal gland and a lymphocytic necrotic adenitis. Six months postoperatively no recurrence is noted and the tear production is 15mm/min. Conclusion: The lacrimal gland is located dorsolateral to the globe and produces tears. In human medicine, a wide range of lacrimal gland pathologies were described and assessed by computed imaging techniques. Pleomorphic adenomas (mixed benign tumor) could reveal irregular bone erosion and could undergo malignant transformation. In dogs, lacrimal cysts were described as thin walled structures.4 Only few articles reported lacrimal gland tumor. To the authors knowledge, CT findings of a lacrimal gland tumor have not been described previously. In conclusion, lacrimal gland tumor should be included in the differential diagnosis of a firm ovoid cystic/necrotic mass dorsolateral to the orbit. [less ▲]

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See detailRelaxations for multi-period optimal power flow problems with discrete decision variables
Gemine, Quentin ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg; Louveaux, Quentin ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 18th Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC'14) (2014, August)

We consider a class of optimal power flow (OPF) applications where some loads offer a modulation service in exchange for an activation fee. These applications can be modeled as multi-period formulations ... [more ▼]

We consider a class of optimal power flow (OPF) applications where some loads offer a modulation service in exchange for an activation fee. These applications can be modeled as multi-period formulations of the OPF with discrete variables that define mixed-integer non-convex mathematical programs. We propose two types of relaxations to tackle these problems. One is based on a Lagrangian relaxation and the other is based on a network flow relaxation. Both relaxations are tested on several benchmarks and, although they provide a comparable dual bound, it appears that the constraints in the solutions derived from the network flow relaxation are significantly less violated. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle des chemins de fer. La ligne de chemin de fer Stavelot-Malmedy : construction, inauguration et expérience de guerre
Bechet, Christophe ULg

in Lensen, Jean-Pierre (Ed.) 1914-1918. Visé. Une Cité Martyre au coeur de la Grande Guerre (2014)

Cet article s'attarde non seulement sur les préparatifs belges de sabotage des lignes de chemin de fer en 1914, mais également sur les conséquences de ces destructions pour la logistique allemande. L ... [more ▼]

Cet article s'attarde non seulement sur les préparatifs belges de sabotage des lignes de chemin de fer en 1914, mais également sur les conséquences de ces destructions pour la logistique allemande. L'auteur se focalise notamment sur la ligne de chemin de fer Stavelot-Malmedy à proximité du camp d'Elsenborn dont le sabotage ne fut pas à la hauteur des espérances belges. Pendant la guerre ce débouché ferroviaire fut particulièrement surveillé par le réseau d'espionnage de Dieudonné Lambrecht. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of nitric oxide by diaminofluorescein visualizes the skeleton in living zebrafish.
Renn, Jörg ULg; Pruvot, Benoist; Muller, Marc ULg

in Journal of Applied Ichthyology (2014), 30(4), 701706

Several in vivo stainings, such as Calcein, Alizarin Red and Quercetin are commonly used to visualize ossification in living teleost specimen. These staining techniques represent important tools for bone ... [more ▼]

Several in vivo stainings, such as Calcein, Alizarin Red and Quercetin are commonly used to visualize ossification in living teleost specimen. These staining techniques represent important tools for bone research in fish, but do not visualize cartilage. In the present study, we show that nitric oxide (NO) labelling by DAF-FM DA visualizes both bone and cartilage in vivo during zebrafish skeletogenesis. NO detection performed in Tg(osterix:mCherry) or in combination with Alizarin Red in wild-type zebrafish reveals that intense staining through NO labelling colocalizes with the appearance of osteoblasts and characterizes ossified structures. Cartilage structures are clearly distinguished in the living larvae, although the labelling is less intensive when compared to ossified structures. This method is the first and easy to handle alternative to cartilage and bone double stainings on fixed samples. In contrast to most live skeletal stainings, which only stain the mineralized bone structures, this protocol in addition allows in vivo visualization of cartilage. [less ▲]

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See detailReliabilität und Validität des "Voice Handicap Index (VHI) adaptiert an die Gesangsstimme"
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Barsties, B.; Kropp, J. et al

in Laryngo Rhino Otologie (2014)

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See detailMultidisciplinary approaches and fractionations to study lower termite symbiotic system and ligno-cellulose digestion
Bauwens, Julien ULg; Brasseur, Catherine ULg; Tarayre, Cédric ULg et al

Poster (2014, August)

Wood-feeding termites are a considerable source of enzymes active on ligno-cellulosic compounds. These enzymes are produced by the termite host and some representatives of its symbiotic microbial ... [more ▼]

Wood-feeding termites are a considerable source of enzymes active on ligno-cellulosic compounds. These enzymes are produced by the termite host and some representatives of its symbiotic microbial community, and are of particular interest in regard second generation biofuel. However, the complexity of microbial interactions renders micro-organisms isolation very difficult. Culture-independent methods permitted to gather a large amount of data and to understand a little more the role of each microbial population, particularly the prokaryotes. Proteomics allows working on the final product of gene expression, and corresponds more to the real operation of the digestive system. In order to investigate such a complex system, it is necessary to use multidisciplinary approaches and to fractionate this system. Zymography or affinity chromatography are used in parallel of routine proteomics techniques such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and nano-LC ESI-MS/MS. We used an artificial-diet based rearing to induce changes in microbial population balance. We performed preliminary assay to investigate the glycosylated proteome in the hindgut of a lower termite, using Multi-Lectin Affinity Chromatography (M-LAC) and enzymatic activity of harvested fractions was assessed on cellulosic substrates. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-period vehicle loading with stochastic release dates
Arda, Yasemin ULg; Crama, Yves ULg; Kronus, David ULg et al

in EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics (2014), 3(2), 93-119

This paper investigates a multi-period vehicle loading problem with stochastic information regarding the release dates of items to be transported. The deterministic version of the problem can be ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates a multi-period vehicle loading problem with stochastic information regarding the release dates of items to be transported. The deterministic version of the problem can be formulated as a large-scale set covering problem. Several heuristic algorithms are proposed to generate decision policies for the stochastic optimization model over a long rolling horizon. The resulting policies have been extensively tested on instances which display the main characteristics of the industrial case-study that motivated the research. The tests demonstrate the benefits of the multi-period stochastic model over simple myopic strategies. A simple and efficient heuristic is shown to deliver good policies and to be robust against errors in the estimation of the probability distribution of the release dates. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison and impact of waste heat recovery technologies on passenger car fuel consumption on a normalized driving cycle
Legros, Arnaud ULg; Guillaume, Ludovic ULg; Diny, Mouad et al

in Energies (2014)

The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative graphs. In the second part, simulation models are built and calibrated in order to assess the fuel consumption reduction that can be achieved on a real driving cycle. The strength of this article is that the models are calibrated using actual data. Finally, those simulations results are analyzed and the Rankine cycle and turbocompound are the two most profitable solutions. However the simulations of the turbocompound shows its limitations because the impact on the exhaust pressure drop is not taken into account in the assessment of the car fuel consumption. Fuel reduction of up to 6% could be achieved, depending on the driving cycle and the waste heat recovery technology. [less ▲]

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See detailScalar triplet flavored leptogenesis: a systematic approach
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Dhen, Mikael; Hambye, Thomas

in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics [= JCAP] (2014), 2014

Type-II seesaw is a simple scenario in which Majorana neutrino masses are generated by the exchange of a heavy scalar electroweak triplet. When endowed with additional heavy fields, such as right-handed ... [more ▼]

Type-II seesaw is a simple scenario in which Majorana neutrino masses are generated by the exchange of a heavy scalar electroweak triplet. When endowed with additional heavy fields, such as right-handed neutrinos or extra triplets, it also provides a compelling framework for baryogenesis via leptogenesis. We derive in this context the full network of Boltzmann equations for studying leptogenesis in the flavored regime. To this end we determine the relations which hold among the chemical potentials of the various particle species in the thermal bath. This takes into account the standard model Yukawa interactions of both leptons and quarks as well as sphaleron processes which, depending on the temperature, may be classified as faster or slower than the Universe Hubble expansion. We find that when leptogenesis is enabled by the presence of an extra triplet, lepton flavor effects allow the production of the B-L asymmetry through lepton number conserving CP asymmetries. This scenario becomes dominant as soon as the triplets couple more to leptons than to standard model scalar doublets. In this case, the way the B-L asymmetry is created through flavor effects is novel: instead of invoking the effect of L-violating inverse decays faster than the Hubble rate, it involves the effect of L-violating inverse decays slower than the Hubble rate. We also analyze the more general situation where lepton number violating CP asymmetries are present and actively participate in the generation of the B-L asymmetry, pointing out that as long as L-violating triplet decays are still in thermal equilibrium when the triplet gauge scattering processes decouple, flavor effects can be striking, allowing to avoid all washout suppression effects from seesaw interactions. In this case the amount of B-L asymmetry produced is limited only by a universal gauge suppression effect, which nevertheless goes away for large triplet decay rates. [less ▲]

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See detailA Remark on the Poroelastic Center of Dilation
Huynen, Alexandre ULg; Detournay, Emmanuel

in Journal of Elasticity (2014), 116(2), 189-206

In the original derivation due to Dougall (1897), the center of dilation is constructed from the superposition of orthogonal force dipoles. However, it can also be built by combining dislocation dipoles ... [more ▼]

In the original derivation due to Dougall (1897), the center of dilation is constructed from the superposition of orthogonal force dipoles. However, it can also be built by combining dislocation dipoles. While the two representations are equivalent in elasticity, the different nature of the force and dislocation dipoles leads to different transient behaviors in poroelasticity, when the response evolves from undrained to drained. Indeed, we show that the poroelastic solution of a center of dilation is obtained by superposing the corresponding elastic solution and either an instantaneous fluid sink or an instantaneous fluid source, depending on whether the center of dilation is treated as a singular stress or displacement discontinuity. A simple explanation to the instantaneous injection or withdrawal of a finite volume of fluid from/to the singularity is given by adopting an exploded view of the poroelastic center of dilation. The exploration of the drained, undrained and transient responses of this singularity also requires to clarify the close relationship between an instantaneous fluid source and a continuous fluid dodecapole, an object constructed by collapsing onto a point three orthogonal pairs of fluid dipoles. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-104b and WASP-106b: two transiting hot Jupiters in 1.75-day and 9.3-day orbits
Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Armstrong, D. J. et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

We report the discovery from the WASP survey of two exoplanetary systems, each consisting of a Jupiter-sized planet transiting an 11th magnitude (V) main-sequence star. WASP-104b orbits its star in 1.75 d ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery from the WASP survey of two exoplanetary systems, each consisting of a Jupiter-sized planet transiting an 11th magnitude (V) main-sequence star. WASP-104b orbits its star in 1.75 d, whereas WASP-106b has the fourth-longest orbital period of any planet discovered by means of transits observed from the ground, orbiting every 9.29 d. Each planet is more massive than Jupiter (WASP-104b has a mass of 1.27±0.05 MJup, while WASP-106b has a mass of 1.93±0.08 MJup). Both planets are just slightly larger than Jupiter, with radii of 1.14±0.04 and 1.09±0.04 RJup for WASP-104 and WASP-106 respectively. No significant orbital eccentricity is detected in either system, and while this is not surprising in the case of the short-period WASP-104b, it is interesting in the case of WASP-106b, because many otherwise similar planets are known to have eccentric orbits. [less ▲]

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See detailTechniques et savoir-faire des artisans de tranchées
Peters, Arnaud ULg

in Créer avant de mourir. Des œuvres d'art dans les tranchées, 1914-1918 (2014)

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See detailDetection of wheat root and straw in soil by use of NIR hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy and Partial Least Square discriminant analysis
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio; Baeten, Vincent et al

in Szilvássy, Zoltán; Pepó, Péter; Csajbók, József (Eds.) Book of Abstracts, ESA XIIIth Congress : ESA, Debrecen 25-29 August 2014 (2014, August)

Monitoring of root systems development and crop residues decomposition is only possible if these constituents can be discriminated from soil and quantified. In this work, Near Infrared (NIR) combined with ... [more ▼]

Monitoring of root systems development and crop residues decomposition is only possible if these constituents can be discriminated from soil and quantified. In this work, Near Infrared (NIR) combined with Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) is proposed as a new rapid and reliable method to discriminate soil, roots and straws. NIR-HSI provides simultaneously spectral and spatial information and PLS-DA allows discrimination between classes based on spectra of each pixel linked to chemical nature of sample constituents on the image. [less ▲]

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