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See detailImpacts of Ionizing Radiation on the Different Compartments of the Tumor Microenvironment
Leroi, Natacha ULg; LALLEMAND, François ULg; COUCKE, Philippe ULg et al

in Frontiers in Pharmacology (2016), 7

During the last decade, the initial cancer cell-centered view of tumors has greatly evolved to an integrated vision of tumor biology taking into account the key contribution of the TME. Obviously, the ... [more ▼]

During the last decade, the initial cancer cell-centered view of tumors has greatly evolved to an integrated vision of tumor biology taking into account the key contribution of the TME. Obviously, the different compartments of TME are closely related and contribute not only to tumor progression, but also to its response to treatments. Importantly, the TME evolves over time during the different steps of cancer development and is also affected by different therapeutic modalities. Although, improvements have been achieved regarding RT delivery to the primary tumor, ionizing radiation also target nontumor cells that influence tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Different approaches have been proposed to overcome the radioresistance of cancer cells. The TME-mediated radioresistance is now the object of researches, which has been elegantly reviewed recently by Barker et al. (2015) and severalarticles pointed out the importance of treatments that modify the TME and likely radiosensitize tumor (Ansiaux et al., 2005; Crokart et al., 2005b; Frérart et al., 2008). However, the impact of anti-cancer treatments on the TME and consequently on the tumor phenotype, response to treatment and metastases, is often neglected. Here we pointed out the impact of RT on the TME. Recent findings emphasize the interest to optimize RT (i.e., dose per fraction) and timing of surgery (Leroi et al., 2015; Surace et al., 2015) in order to prevent metastatic spreading. The future challenge in RT will be to define the most appropriate combinations between RT, and other therapeutic modalities with the optimal sequence and timing of treatments. In this context, investigation of the TME-related acquired resistance will be essential and will provide important innovative data. [less ▲]

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See detailValeurs de l'information et performances algorithmiques pour des problèmes multi-périodes et stochastiques
Pironet, Thierry ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 30)

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See detailRevealing the role of network rigidity on the fragility evolution of glass-forming liquids
Yildirim, Can ULg; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Micoulaut, Mathieu

E-print/Working paper (2016)

If quenched fast enough, a liquid is able to avoid crystallization and will remain in a metastable supercooled state down to the glass transition, with an important increase in viscosity and relaxation ... [more ▼]

If quenched fast enough, a liquid is able to avoid crystallization and will remain in a metastable supercooled state down to the glass transition, with an important increase in viscosity and relaxation time towards equilibrium upon further cooling [1,2]. There are important differences in the way liquids relax as they approach the glass transition, rapid or slow variation in dynamic quantities under moderate temperature changes, and a simple means to quantify such variations is provided by the concept of "fragility". Here, we report molecular dynamics simulations of a typical network-forming glass, and find that the relaxation behaviour of the supercooled liquid is strongly correlated to the variation of rigidity with temperature and the spatial distribution of the corresponding topological constraints which, ultimately connect to fragility minima . This permits extending the fragility concept to aspects of topology/rigidity, and to the degree of homogeneity of the atomic-sale interactions for a variety of structural glasses. [less ▲]

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See detailhCG: false positives and persistent hCG levels
VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 29)

Human Chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a complex glycoprotein with several bioactive forms. These five variants comprise placental forms (hyperglycosilated hCG is the first form, then after 10 weeks of ... [more ▼]

Human Chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a complex glycoprotein with several bioactive forms. These five variants comprise placental forms (hyperglycosilated hCG is the first form, then after 10 weeks of pregnancy total hCG takes over), cancer promoter forms (hCGb, hyperglycosilated hCGb), and a pituitary form (sulfated hCG). Current routine laboratory tests do not discriminate between these multiple variants of hCG. Low persistent detectable levels of hCG may be associated with various benign and malignant conditions, such as quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease, raised pituitary hCG, or false positive elevation caused by circulating heterophilic antibodies. Clinico-biological discussion are mandatory to avoid erroneous diagnosis and treatment.In this review we summarize and discuss the different causes of false positive hCG assay. We suggest that current gynecological protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of trophoblastic disease should consider the inclusion of hCG test in urine and/or a test for heterophilic antibodies, when appropriate to avoid unnecessary studies and treatment. References. Valdes Socin H, Syrios P, Gadisseur R, et al. Persistent low levels of hCG: please do not miss phantom hCG! (pseudohypergonadotropinemia syndrome). Acta Clinica Belgica (abstract) 2013;68:465. Cole LA. hCG, the wonder of today’s science. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2012;10:24–42. B. González Aguilera, P. Syrios, R. Gadisseur, F. Luyckx, E. Cavalier, A. Beckers & H. Valdes-Socin. Persistent low levels of serum hCG due to heterophilic mouse antibodies: an unrecognized pitfall in the diagnosis of trophoblastic disease . Gynecological Endocrinology 2016. DOI:10.3109/09513590.2015.1132303 [less ▲]

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See detailEspace, temps et angoisse psychotique : à propos d'un cas magistral
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 26)

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See detailZinc and Iron interplay in Arabidopsis relatives
Hanikenne, Marc ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 25)

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See detailA new method using insert-based systems (IBS) to improve cell behavior study on flexible and rigid biomaterials.
Grenade, Charlotte; Moniotte, Nicolas; Rompen, Eric ULg et al

in Cytotechnology (2016)

In vitro studies about biomaterials biological properties are essential screening tests. Yet cell cultures encounter difficulties related to cell retention on material surface or to the observation of ... [more ▼]

In vitro studies about biomaterials biological properties are essential screening tests. Yet cell cultures encounter difficulties related to cell retention on material surface or to the observation of both faces of permeable materials. The objective of the present study was to develop a reliable in vitro method to study cell behavior on rigid and flexible/permeable biomaterials elaborating two specific insert-based systems (IBS-R and IBS-F respectively). IBS-R was designed as a specific cylindrical polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) system to evaluate attachment, proliferation and morphology of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) on grade V titanium and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic discs characteristics of dental prostheses. The number of cells, their covering on discs and their morphology were determined from MTS assays and microscopic fluorescent images after 24, 48 and 72 h. IBS-F was developed as a two components system to study HGFs behavior on guided bone regeneration polyester membranes. The viability and the membrane barrier effect were evaluated by metabolic MTS assays and by scanning electron microscopy. IBS-R and IBS-F were shown to promote (1) easy and rapid handling; (2) cell retention on biomaterial surface; (3) accurate evaluation of the cellular proliferation, spreading and viability; (4) use of non-toxic material. Moreover IBS-F allowed the study of the cell migration through degradable membranes, with an access to both faces of the biomaterial and to the bottom of culture wells for medium changing. [less ▲]

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See detailDurée excessive d'une procédure pénale et mise en cause de la responsabilité civile de l'Etat
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2016), (2016/12), 569-574

Le jugement commenté présente la principale particularité d'aborder la mise en cause de la responsabilité civile de l'Etat en cas de dépassement du délai raisonnable d'une procédure pénale. Le commentaire ... [more ▼]

Le jugement commenté présente la principale particularité d'aborder la mise en cause de la responsabilité civile de l'Etat en cas de dépassement du délai raisonnable d'une procédure pénale. Le commentaire de cette décision s'attache encore à mettre en perspective cette décision avec l'arrêt Panju c. Belgique prononcé le 28 octobre 2014 par la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement de procédés sol-gel de fabrication de matériaux de batterie
Eskenazi, David ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Différents procédés, installations et moyens d'analyse ont été développés pour la fabrication de matériaux de batterie Li-ion par procédé sol-gel. Leur objectif est de faciliter l'utilisation industrielle ... [more ▼]

Différents procédés, installations et moyens d'analyse ont été développés pour la fabrication de matériaux de batterie Li-ion par procédé sol-gel. Leur objectif est de faciliter l'utilisation industrielle de ces matériaux. Il s'agit d'un réacteur continu de fabrication de xérogels de carbone sous forme de billes, d'un réacteur de nitruration de phosphates, et d'une technique d'analyse thermique couplée à de la spectrométrie de masse. [less ▲]

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See detailMesure, réalité et grandeurs intensives dans la Critique de la raison pure
Pieron, Julien ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 25)

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See detailLes troubles spécifiques du langage : la piste de la mémoire procédurale
Maillart, Christelle ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 25)

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See detailVoyage d'étude curriculum et évaluation de la qualité
Pirard, Florence ULg; Goossens, Xavier

Conference (2016, March 25)

Quand ils sont inscrits dans des dispositifs d’accompagnement organisé en réseau et ancré dans les pratiques professionnelles, on peut faire l’hypothèse que les voyages d’étude contribuent à une ... [more ▼]

Quand ils sont inscrits dans des dispositifs d’accompagnement organisé en réseau et ancré dans les pratiques professionnelles, on peut faire l’hypothèse que les voyages d’étude contribuent à une transformation à la fois des acteurs qui découvrent d’autres manières de penser et d’agir et des actions qu’ils sont susceptibles d’améliorer. Ils s’inscrivent dans des dispositifs qui relèvent d’une culture de la professionnalisation. Nous analyserons un dispositif d’accompagnement centré sur le travail avec les familles qui intègre des voyages d’étude pour des professionnel-le-s de l’accueil en collectivité (fonction d’accueil, direction et coordination). Elle questionne la place du voyage d’étude dans le dispositif, les conditions de sa mise en œuvre et les effets observés sur les pratiques professionnelles. [less ▲]

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See detailUne généralisation du triangle de Pascal et la suite A007306
Stipulanti, Manon ULg

Conference (2016, March 25)

We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on bino- mial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a word appears as a subsequence of another finite word ... [more ▼]

We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on bino- mial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a word appears as a subsequence of another finite word. Similarly to the Sierpinski gasket that can be built as the limit set, for the Hausdorff distance, of a convergent sequence of normalized compact blocks extracted from Pascal triangle modulo 2, we describe and study the first properties of the subset of [0, 1]×[0, 1] associated with this extended Pascal triangle modulo a prime p. We consider a sequence (S(n))n≥0 counting the number of positive entries on each row of the generalized Pascal triangle. By introducing a convenient tree structure, we provide a recurrence relation for (S(n))n≥0, we prove that the sequence is 2-regular, give a linear representation and make the connection with the sequence of denominators occurring in the Farey tree. [less ▲]

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See detailThymus and Type 1 diabetes: Where are we now?
Geenen, Vincent ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 24)

Our studies have demonstrated that the thymus programs central self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions through transcription of neuroendocrine-related genes in thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However ... [more ▼]

Our studies have demonstrated that the thymus programs central self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions through transcription of neuroendocrine-related genes in thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However, thymic neuroendocrine precursors are not secreted but processed as the source of neuroendocrine self-antigens that are presented by thymic proteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This process, highly specific of the thymus, has allowed an integrated and harmonious coevolution of the neuroendocrine and immune systems when recombination-activating genes and the subsequent adaptive immune response have emerged in cartilaginous fishes some 450-500 millions years ago. All the members of the insulin gene family are expressed in murine TECs under the control of AutoImmune Regulator (AIRE) according a precise hierarchy: Igf2 >Igf1>Ins2>Ins1. Igf2 transcription is defective in TECs of autoimmune diabetes-prone BB rats, and tolerance to insulin is severely impaired in Igf2-/- mice as well as in Igf2-loxP/Foxn1-cre mice with Igf2 deletion targeted in TECs. In addition, the diabetogenic coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) is able to persistently infect human and murine TECs and to inhibit Igf2 transcription and IGF-2 synthesis in a murine medullary TEC line (coolaboration with D. Hober, Laboratory of Virology, CHRU and University of Lille 2, France). These studies show that: 1° IGF-2 is the dominant tolerogenic precursor of the family and mediates cross-tolerance to insulin; 2° a thymus dysfunction plays a crucial role in the development of the diabetogenic autoimmune response; and 3° a thymic infection by CV-B4 is implicated in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Most probably due to its very low level of expression in the thymus, the protein insulin is highly immunogenic and is the primary autoantigen tackled in T1D. On the basis of the tolerogenic properties of IGF-2, we are currently working on the development of a negative/tolerogenic self-vaccine against T1D. [less ▲]

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See detailVoyage[s] through the thymus, the small central 'brain' of the adaptive immune system
Geenen, Vincent ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 24)

Our studies have demonstrated that the thymus programs central self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions through transcription of neuroendocrine-related genes in thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However ... [more ▼]

Our studies have demonstrated that the thymus programs central self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions through transcription of neuroendocrine-related genes in thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However, thymic neuroendocrine precursors are not secreted but processed as the source of neuroendocrine self-antigens that are presented by thymic proteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This process, highly specific of the thymus, has allowed an integrated and harmonious coevolution of the neuroendocrine and immune systems when recombination-activating genes and the subsequent adaptive immune response have emerged in cartilaginous fishes some 450-500 millions years ago. All the members of the insulin gene family are expressed in murine TECs under the control of AutoImmune Regulator (AIRE) according a precise hierarchy: Igf2 >Igf1>Ins2>Ins1. Igf2 transcription is defective in TECs of autoimmune diabetes-prone BB rats, and tolerance to insulin is severely impaired in Igf2-/- mice as well as in Igf2-loxP/Foxn1-cre mice with Igf2 deletion targeted in TECs. In addition, the diabetogenic coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) is able to persistently infect human and murine TECs and to inhibit Igf2 transcription and IGF-2 synthesis in a murine medullary TEC line (coolaboration with D. Hober, Laboratory of Virology, CHRU and University of Lille 2, France). These studies show that: 1° IGF-2 is the dominant tolerogenic precursor of the family and mediates cross-tolerance to insulin; 2° a thymus dysfunction plays a crucial role in the development of the diabetogenic autoimmune response; and 3° a thymic infection by CV-B4 is implicated in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Most probably due to its very low level of expression in the thymus, the protein insulin is highly immunogenic and is the primary autoantigen tackled in T1D. On the basis of the tolerogenic properties of IGF-2, we are currently working on the development of a negative/tolerogenic self-vaccine against T1D. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse qualitative et quantitative des populations de norovirus murins générées lors d’infections in vitro synchrones et asynchrones avec des souches homologues : détection de phénomènes de dominance, d’interférence due aux particules non-infectieuses et d’exclusion à la surinfection
Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ludwig, Louisa ULg; Toffoli, Barbara et al

Poster (2016, March 24)

RÉSUMÉ Buts du travail La recombinaison est un des mécanismes moteurs de l’évolution génétique des norovirus. Malgré une détection fréquente de séquences recombinantes à partir d’échantillons de terrain ... [more ▼]

RÉSUMÉ Buts du travail La recombinaison est un des mécanismes moteurs de l’évolution génétique des norovirus. Malgré une détection fréquente de séquences recombinantes à partir d’échantillons de terrain, la reproduction du phénomène de recombinaison en conditions de laboratoire semble difficile. Utilisant le modèle du norovirus murin, cette étude a pour objectif d’évaluer de manière qualitative et quantitative les populations virales, y compris potentiellement recombinantes, générées lors de variations des conditions de temps et de multiplicité d’infection dans des expériences de coinfections ou de surinfections in vitro. Méthodes Des cellules RAW264.7 ont été inoculées par deux souches homologues de norovirus murins (infection primaire : Wu20 ; surinfection : CW1) en utilisant des multiplicités d’infection (MOI : Wu20 = 1; CW1= 0.1, 1 ou 10) et des temps d’inoculation (surinfection après un délai allant de 0 minutes à 24 heures) variables. Les surnageants ont été prélevés 24h post-surinfection et une quantification moléculaire discriminante sur la région 5’ du génome a été réalisée. Des cellules ont été ré-inoculées par ces surnageants et 36 isolats ont été amplifiés. Ces isolats ont été caractérisés moléculairement comme de type CW1, Wu20 ou recombinant par une méthode discriminante sur leurs extrémités génomiques 3’ et 5’. Les recombinants potentiels ont été séquencés sur la région génomique classiquement impliquée dans la recombinaison (chevauchement ORF 1/2). Résultats et discussion L’analyse des ratios des isolats a montré une tendance à une dominance potentielle de Wu20 sur CW1 pour les conditions de MOI relatives 0.1/1 et 1/1 avec un phénomène d’exclusion à la surinfection entre les temps t4 (4h post-infection primaire) et t8. Cependant, cette tendance n’a pas été détectée dans la condition de MOI relative 10/1. Ceci suggère une hypothèse de présence de particules défectives interférentes (PDI) dans la population de Wu20 qui pourrait interférer avec les étapes précoces de l’attachement et de l’entrée et donc modifier les ratios attendus 24h post-infection. La comparaison des ratios de copies génomiques a soutenu l’hypothèse de présence de PDI dans la population de Wu20 avec des ratios différents de ceux logiquement escomptés aux MOI relatives 0.1/1 et 1/1, et qui se sont vérifiés cette fois en condition 10/1 (condition dans laquelle CW1 peut retrouver une chance réelle dans la compétition à l’attachement et à la pénétration). Cependant le temps t1 de cette condition a dévié clairement de la tendance générale et pourrait constituer une population virale de choix pour la présence de recombinants ou suggérer un autre mécanisme par lequel CW1 pourrait momentanément être dominant par rapport à Wu20. L’exclusion à la surinfection a également pu être corroborée par l’analyse moléculaire quantitative. Trois isolats ont été détectés comme des recombinants potentiels mais les séquençages n’ont pu les confirmer. Les évènements de recombinaison pourraient avoir eu lieu sur une autre région que celle classiquement décrite. Cette étude permet de montrer que la composition de la population virale peut avoir un effet majeur sur la compétition entre deux norovirus. Elle suggère également l’existence d’un mécanisme d’exclusion à la surinfection. Elle confirme enfin que malgré les fréquentes détections de souches recombinantes in silico, le phénomène de recombinaison est difficile à reproduire in vitro chez les norovirus. [less ▲]

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