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See detailMultiscale study of the Carolingian mosaic of Germigny-des-Prés (Loiret, Fr
Van Wersch, Line ULg; Kronz, L.; Simon, K. et al

Conference (2016, July 08)

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See detailReproducibility of a tennis serve protocol
Tubez, François ULg; FORTHOMME, Bénédicte ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 08)

INTRODUCTION Serve in modern tennis game is a real offensive weapon for players. In kinematic analysis, it is the most studied stroke of this game because it is the only stroke played in a closed skill ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION Serve in modern tennis game is a real offensive weapon for players. In kinematic analysis, it is the most studied stroke of this game because it is the only stroke played in a closed skill. Players have a maximum of control on this stroke. It is unclear whether 3D kinematic tests are reproducible for the same player under identical conditions and if a familiarization session is necessary. In practice, with professional players, who have little time available to perform tests, familiarization sessions are difficult. The aim of our study is to measure the reproducibility of a 3D serve protocol test. METHODS Nine tennis players (righties, regional level, 20 ± 2 years) were asked to hit first flat serves in a 1 m² area placed on the "T" zone of deuce diagonal of the tennis court. Two identical tests are performed one week apart. For each test, we selected the three best serves of the 25 trials (with the highest speed and the highest accuracy). Kinetics measurements were performed using a 3D analysis system (Codamotion), a force platform (Kistler) and a radar gun. 28 markers were placed on the players’ bodies to measure kinematics of the movements: ankles, knees, hips, trunk, shoulder, elbow and wrist dominant side. We measured ball speed, leg drive, linear velocity of the racket and joints, joints range of motion and maximum angular velocities at different positions (armed, maximum external rotation and impact) (1). RESULTS All analyzed parameters (linear speeds of racket and joints, leg drive force, joint angles and angular velocities) are reproducible with exception of a small part of them. Our study shows that 5,7% (7 of 122 measurements) joint position parameters and 8,3% (4 of 48 measures) angular velocity parameters are not reproducible from a session to another. DISCUSSION Various errors sources encountered in 3D analysis can justify the presence of non-reproducible parameters (2-3). However, after this work, we can state that the established protocol provides reproducible results when analyzing the tennis serve. [less ▲]

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See detailClostridium difficile a new zoonotic agent? Assessment of human transmission potential of hypervirulent strains of Clostridium difficile through food products consumption
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium recognised as a major human pathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and nosocomial-antibiotic associated diarrhea. Traditionally ... [more ▼]

Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium recognised as a major human pathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and nosocomial-antibiotic associated diarrhea. Traditionally, hospitals were considered the main reservoirs for infection. However, in the last years the incidence, deaths, complications and costs of C. difficile infection (CDI) have been rising, not only in healthcare facilities, but also within the community. In the community, it has been detected in a growing number of CDI cases in previously healthy individuals without antimicrobial exposure, hospital stay or any other classical risk factors. Furthermore, the disease has been repeatedly described in younger patients, including children. Some hypotheses have been proposed to explain this peak of community cases, the most obvious being that nowadays more attention is given to CDI surveillance. In the last years, diarrhea due to C. difficile disease might have gone undiagnosed, and in many cases went unreported, particularly in the community. Since 2004, severe outbreaks of CDI have been documented increasingly in the United States, Canada and in Europe. These outbreaks have been associated with the emergence of a novel strain, known as PCR-ribotype 027, characterised by higher than usual levels of toxins A and B production, and the presence of a third toxin named CDT or binary toxin. This strain type is also characterised by its resistance to both erythromycin and fluoroquinolones (i.e. moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin). However, according to the latest hospital surveillance studies in Europe, since 2010 there is a decrease in the incidence rates of PCR-ribotype 027 while other PCR-ribotypes, including PCR-ribotypes 014, 020, 001, 002, 078 and 015 are increasing. Person to person contact is one source proposed for the spread in the community, occurring after visiting hospitalised patients or residents in long-term care facilities. Employees of these health-care settings can also carry spores and contaminate their entourage. The second hypothesis is contamination from the environment, following visits to a potentially contaminated place, such as hospitals or nursing homes. The two most important potential sources of CDI in the community, which have been demonstrated by investigations in the last decade are animals and foods. While C. difficile is also known as enteric pathogen in some food producing and companion animal species, there are several reports describing the presence of the bacterium in the intestinal contents of apparently healthy animals. Moreover, data published recently suggests animals as an important source of human CDI, which can spread disease through environmental contamination, direct or indirect contact, or food contamination, including carcass and meat contamination at slaughter or in the case of crops, through the use of organic animal manure. By definition, zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted directly or indirectly between animals and humans, through direct contact or close proximity with infected animals, or through the environment. Foodborne zoonotic pathogens are transmitted via the consumption of contaminated food or drink water. The first description of C. difficile in domestic animals and their environments dates from 1974 and possible foodborne transmission was reported for the first time in 1982. However, nowadays the importance of C. difficile as zoonotic disease remains largely unknown. The "One Health" concept is a worldwide strategy, which recognises that the health of humans and animals is connected and also depends on the environment. The present dissertation is a 5 year national study that has investigated the presence of C. difficile in animals and food, from “farm-totable”. The study was also extended to humans resident in a nursing home and in two hospitals in Belgium and in Spain. The characterisation of the isolates obtained has ultimately allowed comparison of the PCR-ribotype distribution in the different European hospitals, as well as with the PCR-ribotype distribution found in animals and foods. This work explores how C. difficile spreads among human patients, animals, foods and the environment to better understand the potential of the bacterium as a zoonotic or foodborne infectious agent. [less ▲]

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See detailL’argumentation de l’image scientifique : une affaire de méréologie
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Pollet, Marie-Christine; Glorieux, Carole (Eds.) Argumenter dans les écrits scientifiques (2016, July 07)

Ce texte vise à étudier, dans une perspective sémiotique, le discours scientifique de recherche et celui de la vulgarisation et notamment les images présentes dans ces deux genres de discours. Nous ... [more ▼]

Ce texte vise à étudier, dans une perspective sémiotique, le discours scientifique de recherche et celui de la vulgarisation et notamment les images présentes dans ces deux genres de discours. Nous examinons des travaux relevant de l’astrophysique et notamment la manière dont les images argumentent. Le corpus sera abordé à partir de la notion de rhétorique entendue comme un ensemble d’opérations méréologiques. Nous reprendrons à ce propos la théorie de l’iconicité de Jean-François Bordron, illustrée par ses deux derniers livres, L’iconicité et ses images (2011) ainsi qu’Image et vérité. Essais sur la dimension iconique de la connaissance (2013). [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear analysis of compliant mechanisms: application to tape springs
Dewalque, Florence ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg

Poster (2016, July 07)

Brief summary of the mechanical behaviour of tape springs. Main results obtained by the means of finite element models. Description of the experimental set-up and results. See the extended abstract for ... [more ▼]

Brief summary of the mechanical behaviour of tape springs. Main results obtained by the means of finite element models. Description of the experimental set-up and results. See the extended abstract for more details. [less ▲]

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See detailAu-delà des success stories, quel processus de libération ? Étude de cas au sein du secteur public belge
Fox, Fanny ULg; Pichault, François ULg

Conference (2016, July 07)

Si l’on peut s’attendre à ce qu’un processus de libération s’inscrive logiquement dans une perspective polyphonique (Pichault, 2013) – marquée par l’importance de la communication et de la mobilisation ... [more ▼]

Si l’on peut s’attendre à ce qu’un processus de libération s’inscrive logiquement dans une perspective polyphonique (Pichault, 2013) – marquée par l’importance de la communication et de la mobilisation des acteurs, mais aussi par les affrontements entre voix opposées (Sullivan & McCarthy, 2008), il peut tout aussi bien être sous-tendu par un volonté de contrôle et de disciplinarisation du corps social relevant davantage du panoptisme. À travers une recherche qualitative, nous explorons la mise en œuvre du processus de libération : ses étapes, les obstacles rencontrés et la façon dont ils ont été – ou non – surmontés, l’implication des différentes parties prenantes et les négociations y afférentes, les résistances et les tensions suscitées, etc. Cet article, de nature empirique, repose sur une étude de cas originale réalisée dans le secteur public belge, marquée par une forte présence syndicale. Il ambitionne d’éclairer certaines contradictions de l’entreprise libérée envisagée sous l’angle de la gestion du changement. [less ▲]

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See detailChapitre XIII. Droit du travail
Kéfer, Fabienne ULg

in Watté, Nadine; Lecocq, Pascale (Eds.) Droit de la Belgique (2016)

Présentation succincte du droit du travail Belge

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See detailLa biodiversité entomologique comme source d’aliments à Kinshasa (République démocratique du Congo)
Nsevolo, Papy; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg et al

in Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2016)

L’exploitation des produits forestiers non ligneux dont notamment les insectes comestibles jouent un rôle important dans les habitudes alimentaires et économies locales des populations autochtones du ... [more ▼]

L’exploitation des produits forestiers non ligneux dont notamment les insectes comestibles jouent un rôle important dans les habitudes alimentaires et économies locales des populations autochtones du bassin du Congo. Bien que la consommation d’insectes en République Démocratique du Congo soit une pratique ancienne, l’inventaire et l’identification taxonomique des espèces consommées ainsi que la caractérisation de la filière « entomophagie » sont encore mal maitrisés. Toutefois, nos études axées sur la ville de Kinshasa ont permis d’inventorier 14 espèces comestibles régulièrement consommées. Elles appartiennent à l’ordre des Lépidoptères (46,7%), des Isoptères (18,6%), des Orthoptères (17,6%), des Coléoptères (9,7%) et des Hyménoptères (3,7%). De façon générale, 80% de la population de Kinshasa consomment au minimum une espèce d’insecte 5 jours par mois avec des quantités variant de 66,4 à 154 g d’insectes par personne par jour en fonction des différents ordres. Les acteurs de la filière sont majoritairement des femmes. Les revenus générés par l’activité concourent au bien-être des ménages, à la réduction de la pauvreté et de l’insécurité alimentaire dans de la capitale Kinshasa. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle Molecule force spectroscopy on helical foldamers
Devaux, Floriane ULg; Li, Xuesong; Huc, Ivan et al

Scientific conference (2016, July 07)

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See detailDiversity and evolution of transposable elements in the Arabidopsis lyrata and A. halleri genomes
Caron, Thibault; Legrand, Sylvain; Schvartzman Echenique, Maria Sol ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 07)

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See detailNovel butanol pretreatment significantly improves delignification and saccharification of different lignocellulosic biomasses
Schmetz, Quentin ULg; Teramura, Hiroshi; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2016, July 07)

Organosolv pretreatment using diluted acid and butanol allows the separation of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin into three distinct phases. The butanol process has been investigated on six different ... [more ▼]

Organosolv pretreatment using diluted acid and butanol allows the separation of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin into three distinct phases. The butanol process has been investigated on six different biomasses: tall fescue, sugarbeet pulp, sugarcane bagasse, beech wood, eucalyptus and Japanese cedar. Dilute acid pretreatment has been performed under similar conditions for comparison. [less ▲]

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See detailTime travelling into human prehistory using GC×GC-TOFMS
Perrault, Katelynn ULg; Dubois, Lena ULg; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg et al

Scientific conference (2016, July 07)

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See detailFiniteness of the weighted likelihood estimator and applications to CAT
Magis, David ULg

Scientific conference (2016, July 07)

The purpose of this talk is to present some recent research on the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of ability in item response theory (IRT). This estimator is quite commonly used as an alternative to ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this talk is to present some recent research on the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of ability in item response theory (IRT). This estimator is quite commonly used as an alternative to usual maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimators. However, the uestion of providing finite ability estimates was left unsolved and led to some controversy. Recently, Magis and Verhelst (in press) established that the WLE always returns finite values, independently of the IRT model, the number of items, and the item responses. This general result will be briefly outlined. The finiteness of the WLE has straightforward impact within the field of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). One technical and crucial issue in CAT is to accurately estimate the latent ability at the early stages of the adaptive process, when only a few items are available. Currently heuristic adjustments are adviced to avoid infinite estimates with only a few item responses. In this talk it will be highlighted how the use of the WLE throughout the CAT can be a promising and performant approach to solve this issue. [less ▲]

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