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See detailDéfinition d’un outil d’aide à la décision spatiotemporel structurant et articulant les potentialités de développement agricole : cas du Niger
Andres, Ludovic ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

The concern about food insecurity in rural populations needs to be rethought and adapted to the overall living conditions of households by shifting to a concentrated spatial scale and a long-term analysis ... [more ▼]

The concern about food insecurity in rural populations needs to be rethought and adapted to the overall living conditions of households by shifting to a concentrated spatial scale and a long-term analysis. This change will allow identifying territories on a finer scale than the national level in order to allocate development objectives and to link them to areas with high development potential. The finer level of analysis will also allow regrouping the actions carried out on a smaller scale in order to structure all the activities carried out on the targeted area and population. The general comment that the development and emergency aid has been focused in circumscribed areas and that the level of analysis is based on two scales, one "macro" (national, regional, departmental) and the other "micro" (village, community, household, individual and community) reinforces the need to create an intermediate level of analysis. The latter will serve to improve the structure other actions carried out at different levels and the articulation of the activities to be carried out and the targeted population. From a state of the art analysis of subject such as development, targeting, territory, food security, resilience, etc; different finding have led to the definition of a major question and an objective which form the core structure of the present dissertation. The research question is defined as "how to structure the targeting and identification of areas with high potential to articulate all the emergency and development actions carried out on several scales of analysis?”. At the end of these observations, the objective of this research is "the establishment of a tool to support spatial and temporal decision making in structuring the emergency and development actions and targeting of populations subjected to food insecurity ". Three considerations emerge from this objective and research question: spatiotemporal analysis and targeting, development potentials, rural production systems. The various productions are also studied over a long series in order to consider the yield variations over time. Finally, these two analyzes, spatial (systems) and temporal (yields) are crossed in order to demonstrate the contribution of this decision-supporting tool in the articulation and structuring of the other two levels of targeting populations to food insecurity. The decision-supporting tool has been tested on the case study of the Nigerian population. The main outcomes are: the characterization of the opportunities and constraints of the Nigerian rural production systems; the identification of the products to be developed by production system; the identification of the most promising pathways by means of the distribution of the yields by systems. Finally, an essential point must be made about the increase of conservation methods and transformations for increasing the added value obtained by Nigerian households. At the end of this dissertation, the tool demonstrated its importance in structuring and articulating the targeting of food insecurity in the field of emergency aid and development: The territorial zones in the production systems identify the problems to which one or several solutions must be found. Production systems allow a concentration of actions according to the definition of the general and specific objectives of the agricultural development assistance programs. Potential outputs to be developed in production systems allow diversification of agriculture and structuring of development from a national point of view. The actions defined by the Technical and Financial Partners at the level of a village, a community and / or a commune can be more easily integrated into this scale of analysis and can be structured later in national development policies Agricultural policy. The increase in productivity in Niger depends on the development of products within the most favorable zones and not on the whole territory. However, this tool is complementary to the other targeting tools already in place. It should also be complemented by the same type of analysis at the level of West Africa and an analysis of the flows and prices condition to favor the flow of production. [less ▲]

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See detail“Flippons nos classes de FLE !" : Le modèle de classe inversée adopté à l’université de Liège pour l’enseignement/apprentissage du FLE
Thonard, Audrey ULiege

Conference (2017, September 21)

Dix ans après la création d’un premier dispositif d’apprentissage en ligne, l’Institut Supérieur des Langues Vivantes a souhaité revoir son intégration du numérique dans les cours de FLE destiné aux ... [more ▼]

Dix ans après la création d’un premier dispositif d’apprentissage en ligne, l’Institut Supérieur des Langues Vivantes a souhaité revoir son intégration du numérique dans les cours de FLE destiné aux étudiants Erasmus « in ». Dans cette communication, nous présenterons les contraintes et les opportunités qui ont modifié, lentement mais sûrement, notre conception de l’enseignement en ligne et celle de la classe inversée. [less ▲]

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See detailLa communication scientifique directe vers un public élargi. L’actualité sociale traitée par des chercheurs dans les carnets de recherche Hypothèses
Mayeur, Ingrid ULiege

in Revue Française des Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication (2017), 11

This contribution aims to examine a social mediation allowed by the open access, which is imparting knowledge in Social Sciences and Humanities (thereafter SSH) through a broader public. I will consider ... [more ▼]

This contribution aims to examine a social mediation allowed by the open access, which is imparting knowledge in Social Sciences and Humanities (thereafter SSH) through a broader public. I will consider the platform OpenEdition (and specifically Hypothèses that concerns academic blogging) as a ground of investigation. The matter will be a specific way to impart knowledge, which is the treatment of the actuality by researchers through their reading grids in SSH. In the corpus analysis, I will stress the appropriation modes of the device by the researchers that comment the actuality, the expected audience and practices that the texts suggest, and the discursive processes that are used. I also will question how “direct” such scientific communication is on an academic blog published on a platform in open access. [less ▲]

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See detailOscar Orban est-il l'Albert Dicey du plat pays?
Bouhon, Frédéric ULiege

Conference (2017, September 20)

L'exposé porte sur la personnalité d'Oscar Orban, professeur de droit public à l'Université de Liège au début du 20e siècle. Elle se focalise sur son oeuvre majeure, "Le droit constitutionnel de la ... [more ▼]

L'exposé porte sur la personnalité d'Oscar Orban, professeur de droit public à l'Université de Liège au début du 20e siècle. Elle se focalise sur son oeuvre majeure, "Le droit constitutionnel de la Belgique", publiée en trois volumes entre 1906 et 1911. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Vedic Consecration and the Birth of the Hero in Sanskrit Epic
Swennen, Philippe ULiege

Conference (2017, September 20)

When they give birth to these heros, Arjuna's mother and Râma's mother are both compared to the Vedic goddess Aditi. This suggests that the author of the Mahâbhârata was comparing Arjuna to a Vedic ... [more ▼]

When they give birth to these heros, Arjuna's mother and Râma's mother are both compared to the Vedic goddess Aditi. This suggests that the author of the Mahâbhârata was comparing Arjuna to a Vedic sacrificer, which was perfectly clear for the author of the Râmâyana inspired by the Mahâbhârata. [less ▲]

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See detailRéflexions sur la vie et la carrière de M. Pierre Pescatore
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 20)

In this presentation, I offered an overview of the life, career and lasting impact of the scholarship and practice of M. Pierre Pescatore, former judge at the Court of Justice of the European Union and ... [more ▼]

In this presentation, I offered an overview of the life, career and lasting impact of the scholarship and practice of M. Pierre Pescatore, former judge at the Court of Justice of the European Union and professor at the University of Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailLegitimating innovation by foreign traditions: the case of the Roman Republican divination
Berthelet, Yann ULiege

Conference (2017, September 20)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULiège)
See detailLipin-1 regulates cancer cell phenotype and is a potential target to amplify the effect of metabolic inhibitors
Brohée, Laura ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

An increased lipogenesis was reported in various cancers and its inhibition represses proliferation and induces apoptosis of cancer cells while barely affecting most normal cells. The family of lipins ... [more ▼]

An increased lipogenesis was reported in various cancers and its inhibition represses proliferation and induces apoptosis of cancer cells while barely affecting most normal cells. The family of lipins encompasses three members: lipin-1, -2 and -3. All exhibit dual functions as enzymes, catalyzing the de-phosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and as co-transcriptional regulators. Thus, they are able to regulate lipid homeostasis at several nodal points. However, no studies addressed the involvement of these proteins in cancer progression neither in vitro nor in vivo. During this PhD work, we first investigated the importance of lipin-1 on prostate cancer cell phenotype. We showed that lipin-1 expression is increased in various cancer cell types both in vitro and in vivo in human prostate tumor samples. The specific inhibition of lipin-1 in prostate and breast cancer cells demonstrated its critical importance for cell proliferation and migration through deregulation of several intracellular signaling pathways. This study demonstrated for the first time that the targeting of lipin-1 is a potential new anti-cancer strategy that could be used alone or in combination with drugs like rapamycin. During the course of these investigations, we also observed a compensatory regulation between lipin-1 and lipin-2 preventing the complete inhibition of lipins enzymatic activity when using a siRNA approach. Therefore, we focused our interest on inhibiting all lipins through treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor, propranolol. This drug also induced a blockade of the late phases of autophagy, likely because the inhibition of all lipins decreases diacylglycerol synthesis, which is required for the maturation of autolysosomes. Autophagy is a pro-survival mechanism induced by several stresses or by anticancer agents. In the case of the glycolysis inhibitor 2DG, the induction of autophagy limits its anticancer effects in monotherapy. In the light of their individual specific effects on cancer cells, we hypothesized that the combination of propranolol and 2DG might exert a more than additive toxic effect on cancer cells. In this second study, we report that combined treatment is effective on preventing prostate cancer cell proliferation, inducing cell apoptosis, altering the function of several organelles as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in vitro but also in suppressing tumor growth in vivo. Altogether, our data suggest that lipins are key players involved in cancer progression. Targeting lipins, alone or in combination with other treatments, could open new avenues in anticancer therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailWP1 - A summary
Sanchez, Christelle ULiege

Conference (2017, September 20)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULiège)
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See detailLéon Graulich (1887-1966)
Desseilles, François ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 20)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULiège)
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See detailPhenotyping hygienic behavior and studying diversity in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.): methodological issues and solutions
Leclercq, Gil ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are a crucial resource for world agriculture. The global stock of honey bees has increased over the last five decades. In contrast, honey bees have been declining in several ... [more ▼]

Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are a crucial resource for world agriculture. The global stock of honey bees has increased over the last five decades. In contrast, honey bees have been declining in several regions, especially in the northern hemisphere. Among the factors responsible for these regional declines, the parasitic mite Varroa destructor plays a central role and is considered as one of the main threats for apiculture. A sustainable solution to the problems caused by V. destructor is to breed Varroa-resistant honey bees. In this context, in Belgium, a research project was developed with the aim of studying the diversity of honey bees in Wallonia, and selecting, within this “local” diversity, Varroa-resistant honey bees. This project required methods to accurately phenotype Varroa-resistance traits, and methods to study the diversity of honey bee populations. In this thesis, we decided to work on these methods, which are a prerequisite for such research project. Two independent objectives were developed: (1) solving the controversy and methodological issues regarding the quantification of hygienic behavior in honey bee colonies, and (2) designing a new method to study the diversity of honey bee admixed populations covering a large-scale area, using pool-based sequencing data. The hygienic behavior of worker bees contributes to the social immunity of honey bee colonies. The manifestation of this behavior consists in detecting and removing unhealthy or dead brood. In this thesis, we reviewed the drawbacks, the benefits, and the methods to test for hygienic behavior, in honey bee colonies. We concluded that, while hygienic behavior was efficient against some brood diseases, it was difficult to draw any definitive conclusion on the efficiency of this behavior against V. destructor. Hygienic behavior likely contributes to Varroa-resistance, but the controversy is fueled by the use of inappropriate bioassays to quantify the hygienic removal of Varroa-infested brood. In our experiments, we showed that a commonly used bioassay, the freeze-killed brood removal bioassay, was unreliable to approximate the benefits arising from the hygienic removal of Varroa-infested brood. As an introduction to the second part of the thesis, we reviewed how human has contributed to reshape the diversity of honey bee populations worldwide, except in Africa. Human management was shown to increase the proportion of admixed populations, sometimes to the detriment of subspecies populations (such as in Belgium). Then, we presented a new approach to study the admixture of hybrid honey bee populations. It was based on a reduced representation of the genome (through genotyping-by-sequencing). In this approach, we enabled the use of pool-based sequencing data by simulating an individual genotype for each pool, sampled from a hybrid colony. Finally, some conclusions and discussion were brought on a few perspectives and research avenues about (1) the phenotyping of hygienic behavior towards Varroa-infested brood, and (2) the study of admixture in honey bee populations. [less ▲]

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See detailIntégration système et simulation
Hennaut, Samuel ULiege; Davin, Elisabeth ULiege; Baiwir, Romain ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2017, September 20)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULiège)
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See detailÉmile de LAVELEYE (1822-1892) et le « bon » gouvernement
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULiege

Conference (2017, September 20)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (3 ULiège)
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See detailBreed fast, die young - Demography of a Neotropical fossorial frog
Székely, Diana ULiege; Székely, Paul; Stănescu, Florina et al

Poster (2017, September 19)

Information regarding age- and size-related parameters is of paramount importance both to understanding the life-history of populations, and for designing effective conservation strategies; however, such ... [more ▼]

Information regarding age- and size-related parameters is of paramount importance both to understanding the life-history of populations, and for designing effective conservation strategies; however, such base-line data lacks for many species, especially for those inhabiting tropical habitats. Using skeletochronology, we provide the first detailed information regarding the demography of the Pacific horned frog, Ceratophrys stolzmanni, a vulnerable, fossorial amphibian, that lives in the Tumbesian dry-forests of Ecuador. The species shows an intense growth rate during the first activity season, both before and after metamorphosis. Sexual maturity is achieved by both sexes before the first year of life, after which growth rates abruptly decrease. Females are on average larger, but not older, than males, mean age being two years in both sexes. The rapid sexual maturation is associated with a short life-span, the observed maximum longevity being three years in males and four years in females. The short reproductive life-span, which offers few mating opportunities, might have important implications for the conservation of this species, that can be especially at risk in the case of prolonged droughts expected to affect its habitat. [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic multiscale modeling of MEMS stiction failure
Hoang Truong, Vinh ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

In the context of microelectromechanical systems, due to their reduced size, the surface phenomena, e.g. adhesion contact, play an important role in the reliability of the devices. Indeed, the adhesive ... [more ▼]

In the context of microelectromechanical systems, due to their reduced size, the surface phenomena, e.g. adhesion contact, play an important role in the reliability of the devices. Indeed, the adhesive forces, e.g. capillary and van der Waal forces, can lead to the stiction failure for which the two contacting surfaces can accidentally be stuck together permanently. This is a common failure of MEMS. Because of the comparability between the roughness of the contacting surfaces and the ranges of adhesive stress, the interaction area can be much smaller than the apparent one. Since the contact zone is reduced and becomes comparable with the characteristic length scale of the surface roughness, the behaviors of micro structures subjected to adhesion suffer from a scatter, i.e. while some devices are unstuck, the others with an identical design are stuck. The objective of this work is to predict in a probabilistic way the adhesion behaviors of MEMS by accounting for the randomness of the contacting surfaces. The straightforward solution toward this end consists in constructing a numerical model, e.g. using finite element method, and in performing a Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS) directly on that model. Because the problem spans multiple scales, including the nanometers range of adhesive stress and the micrometers length scale of MEMS, that method demands a huge computational cost and becomes unpractical. In this work, a stochastic model-based multiscale method is developed to fulfill the predefined objective while remaining efficient in terms of computational cost. In this model, MCS is also per- formed, however, in a scale-by-scale way. With this method, the model is executed with acceptable computational cost. To verify the proposed model, a comparison in terms of the numerical predictions obtained from two approaches, direct MCS and stochastic model-based method, is performed. Furthermore, the model is applied to simulate the stiction tests reported in the literature, and also on the experimental surfaces fabri- cated by our partner at IMT-Bucharest lab 1 (without stiction test). By comparing the numerical predictions with the experimental results, the model is then validated. The model is used to broaden our knowledge in stiction phenomenon by considering the effects of the following aspects on the adhesion energies: the roughness of surfaces, the non-Gaussianity in the probability distribution of surface heights, and the humidity of the environment conditions. Furthermore, the comparison between different sources of uncertainty, e.g. due to the surfaces roughness and in the geometry dimensions of the devices, is performed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Cassini-Huygens mission: tale of a 13-year journey in the Saturnian system
Palmaerts, Benjamin ULiege

Conference (2017, September 19)

On the 15th of September 2017, the Cassini spacecraft will plunge into the atmosphere of Saturn, making the end of the successful Cassini-Huygens mission. During this unprecedented mission, Cassini will ... [more ▼]

On the 15th of September 2017, the Cassini spacecraft will plunge into the atmosphere of Saturn, making the end of the successful Cassini-Huygens mission. During this unprecedented mission, Cassini will have spent 13 years around Saturn, achieving almost 300 orbits around the planet and continuously collecting observations of Saturn, its rings, moons and space environment. In this talk, after a short introduction about the genesis of the Cassini mission, I will give a review of all the important results of the mission. The dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere and magnetosphere will be discussed, as well as the discoveries about the evolution of the rings. An important part of the presentation will be also devoted to the moons Titan and Enceladus which both exhibit striking characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and quantitation of intact virus-like particles of human papillomavirus (HPV-VLP) using capillary electrophoresis
Bettonville, Virginie ULiege; Nicol, Jérôme; Furst, Tania et al

Conference (2017, September 19)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (7 ULiège)
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See detailSimple LC Isocratic Methods Development, Validation, and Application in the Analysis of Poor Quality Antimalarial Medicines
Habyalimana, Védaste ULiege; Mbinze Kindenge, Jéremie; Yemoa Loconon, Achille et al

in American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (2017), 8

Liquid chromatographic methods in isocratic mode for the analysis of poor quality medicines are privileged due to their simplicity and facility in methods development. They are generally fast; do not need ... [more ▼]

Liquid chromatographic methods in isocratic mode for the analysis of poor quality medicines are privileged due to their simplicity and facility in methods development. They are generally fast; do not need to be re-equilibrated between sample injections; have larger flexibility with acceptable changes on different column dimensions; and are applicable to LC systems equipped with simple or high developed pumps. In this study, we focused on developing simple isocratic methods using classical mobile phase composed by methanol and ammonium formate buffer for the analysis of most common antimalarial medicines marketed in malaria endemic countries and susceptible of being counterfeit/falsified, substandard and degraded. The selected medicines were quinine and related cinchona alkaloids in tablets and injectable forms; artemether/ lumefantrine tablets; and artemisinin compounds (arteether, artemether, and artesunate) in injectable forms. The current methods were developed thanks to simple methodological approach consisting in sequential isocratic runs through adjustment or adaptation of existing methods to obtain optimal analytical conditions without complex design of experiments that might be long and costly. Then, the new methods presented shorter analysis time; allowed increase of sample analysis throughput; and obviously consumed little mobile phase solvents on classical analytical columns: 50 - 250 mm of length (L), 4.6 mm of internal diameter (I.D.), and 3.5 - 5.0 μm of particle size (dp). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (1 ULiège)