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See detailProofing & Reduction Strategies Used by Emergency Residents to Manage Fatigue-related Risk
Berastegui, Pierre ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULg

Poster (2016, July 29)

Fatigue and sleep loss are typically associated with psychomotor and cognitive impairment resulting in poorer task performance. Most of these studies are conducted in controlled settings and involve the ... [more ▼]

Fatigue and sleep loss are typically associated with psychomotor and cognitive impairment resulting in poorer task performance. Most of these studies are conducted in controlled settings and involve the completion of experimental tasks. Only a few field studies involving exhausted residents have been conducted over the past decade, and they yielded to contradictory results (Ellman et al., 2004). One of the key factors that could be involved in the non-linear relationship between fatigue and performance in specific work context reside in the mobilization of Fatigue Proofing Strategies. FPS are adaptive and protective risk-reduction behaviors that improve the resilience of a system of work (Dawson et al., 2012). In this study, we aimed to identify and classify proofing strategies mobilized by EMS residents using an inductive content analysis approach. EMS residents reported a range of strategies for reducing subjective level of sleepiness (reduction strategies, n=15) or managing its consequences (proofing strategies, n=17). Content analysis yielded to three sub-categories of proofing strategies: Behavioral Compensation (n=8), Error’s Opportunity Reduction (n=5) and Error’s Consequences Mitigation (n=4). Our results show that EMS residents use both types of strategies although none of the proofing strategies were part of their training program. Despite the current informal use, there is significant potential for implementation of more formal processes. [less ▲]

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See detailScaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).
Bousquet, J.; Farrell, J.; Crooks, G. et al

in Clinical and translational allergy (2016), 6

Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic ... [more ▼]

Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. [less ▲]

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See detailL'Alliance stratégique entre les acteurs étatiques et non-étatiques au Moyen-Orient : Le cas de l'Alliance entre l'Iran, la Syrie et le Hezbollah.
Bayramzadeh, Kamal ULg

Conference (2016, July 28)

L’Alliance stratégique entre les acteurs non-étatiques et étatique au Moyen-Orient : le cas du Hezbollah libanais avec l’Iran et la Syrie et son rôle dans le conflit syrien ; Depuis 1979, il y a une ... [more ▼]

L’Alliance stratégique entre les acteurs non-étatiques et étatique au Moyen-Orient : le cas du Hezbollah libanais avec l’Iran et la Syrie et son rôle dans le conflit syrien ; Depuis 1979, il y a une alliance entre le régime iranien et le régime syrien. Le moteur principal de cette alliance a été au départ l’hostilité de ces deux régimes aux Etats-Unis, au régime irakien (Saddam Hussein), et à Israël. Mais après la chute du régime irakien en 2003, il y a eu un changement dans les relations entre ces deux pays et l’Irak, mais l’hostilité à l’égard des Etats-Unis et de l’Etat hébreu a continué. Le caractère durable des relations entre l’Iran et la Syrie est lié aux facteurs stratégique et géopolitique et notamment à l’existence de l’ennemi commun et aux menaces sécuritaires. Dans le conflit syrien, les acteurs de cette alliance en particulier l’Iran a joué un rôle important. Pour comprendre la position de l’Iran au sujet du conflit syrien, il est important d’observer que depuis la Révolution de 1979, la Syrie occupe une place très importante dans la stratégie diplomatique régionale de l’Iran, car la Syrie permet au régime iranien d’accéder au monde arabe et de jouer en particulier un rôle dans la vie politique libanaise par le biais du Hezbollah : la fondation de ce parti politique est l’une des conséquences de la politique d’exportation de la révolution iranienne. Selon le régime iranien, la Syrie, le Hezbollah et l’Iran font partie de « l’axe de la résistance » à Israël. Dans ce sens la Syrie joue un rôle important dans les relations entre l’Iran et le Hezbollah qui est le bras armé du régime iranien au Liban. C’est pourquoi la Syrie est la profondeur stratégique de l’Iran dans sa rivalité avec l’Etat hébreu. De ce fait, le renversement du régime syrien contribuerait à la diminution de l’influence de l’Iran. L’Iran affiche sans tarder un appui visible (par l’envoi de matériels et de personnels) au régime de Damas car il craint les répercutions d’un effondrement de son allié principal. L’éviction du clan alaouite risquerait de mettre en place un pouvoir à majorité sunnite pas favorable au Hezbollah, ni à la République islamique. Dans cette présentation, nous allons d’abord voir le rôle du Hezbollah au Liban ainsi que ses fondements idéologiques. Ensuite nous allons analyser sa place dans la stratégie régionale de l’Iran et son rôle dans l’Alliance avec l’Iran et la Syrie notamment dans le conflit syrien. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Mechanical Loading on Peri-Implant Bone Remodeling Measured with Time-Lapsed Imaging and Finite Element Analysis
Li, Zihui; Betts, Duncan; Kuhn, Gisela et al

Conference (2016, July 28)

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See detailGroundwater flow and transport modelling at regional scale: lessons learned from different applications in the Walloon Meuse basin
Dassargues, Alain ULg; Goderniaux, Pascal; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 28)

An overview is proposed of the recent groundwater modelling works, at the groundwater body scale, performed by the Hydrogeology & Environmental Geology team of the University of Liège. The developed ... [more ▼]

An overview is proposed of the recent groundwater modelling works, at the groundwater body scale, performed by the Hydrogeology & Environmental Geology team of the University of Liège. The developed modelling tools are built in the general objective of improving our understanding and management, at short, middle and long terms, of the groundwater bodies. The general strategy to be followed implies that conceptualization, parameterization and calibration must be adapted to the actual objectives of each model (Wildemeersch et al., 2014). 3 specific applications are illustrated involving two main groundwater bodies: - application of the HFEMC method (Wildemeersch et al., 2010) within the SUFT3D code for groundwater flow modelling of the ‘Synclinorium of Dinant’ (Orban et al., 2010 and Brouyère et al., 2011); - application of the HFEMC method and the SUFT3D code for the nitrate trends (Batlle-Aguilar et al., 2007) simulations in the Geer basin (Orban et al., 2010) for different scenarios of nitrate inputs; - application of the HGS integrated model for assessing the impact of climate change on the groundwater reserves in the Geer basin (Brouyère et al., 2004, Goderniaux et al., 2009 and 2011) with quantification and comparison of the different uncertainty sources (Goderniaux et al., 2015) Lessons and perspectives are learned and proposed from these modelling experiences at the scale of the groundwater body. [less ▲]

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See detailHow groundwater interactions can influence UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity) operations
Bodeux, Sarah ULg; Pujades, Estanislao ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 28)

In the current energy grid, renewable energy has an increasing role to play. However, their intermittence cannot afford to regulate the produced electricity according to the irregular demand (Evans et al ... [more ▼]

In the current energy grid, renewable energy has an increasing role to play. However, their intermittence cannot afford to regulate the produced electricity according to the irregular demand (Evans et al., 2012). Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a well-known efficient technology to store and release electricity according to the demand needs but appropriate potential new sites are getting scarce (Steffen, 2012). An innovative alternative consists in using abandoned mines as lower reservoir of an Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plant. In such configuration, large amount of water will be pumped or injected in underground cavities, creating subsequently head oscillations in the surrounding aquifers. Consequently, this seepage occurring between the considered cavity and the varying groundwater heads in the surrounding geological medium may influence the efficiency of the UPSH plant but also the magnitude of the potential impacts on the groundwater resources. A hybrid 3D finite element mixing cell method (Brouyère et al., 2009) is used to simulate numerically the use of a representative UPSH cavity and calculate the induced changes in groundwater heads in the surrounding geological medium. Different scenarios are computed varying parameter values (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics), boundary conditions, and pumping/injection time-sequences. By analyzing the computed piezometric heads at different distances from the underground reservoir, the magnitude of the aquifer response to pumping storage operations is assessed. The most expected and noticeable effect is the oscillation of groundwater levels. The existence a mean pseudo/ dynamic steady-state and the required time to reach it are also determined. The head difference and its time evolution between the cavity and the surrounding medium is triggering the leakage of groundwater into the cavity or the contrary. The resulting effects on the UPSH plant efficiency can be estimated. Combining these outcomes, some feasibility criteria of this type of projects are identified. Going into practice, further models should include more in de-tails local and specific geometrical and hydrogeolog-ical data of the considered old mine cavities used as lower reservoir. This kind of modelling approach can be used as a first approach for determining how the aquifer will response to short and long term changes in UPSH pumping/injection schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailRepetition and Negation as Dialogic Devices in Caryl Phillips's "Northern Lights"
Tunca, Daria ULg

Conference (2016, July 28)

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See detailBiofilm fermentation for the production of insect pathogenic fungi
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Delvigne, Frank ULg

Poster (2016, July 27)

Currently, integrated pest management that aims to reduce the use of synthetic insecticides by considering all appropriate alternative methods, is promoted. In that context, insect pathogenic fungi could ... [more ▼]

Currently, integrated pest management that aims to reduce the use of synthetic insecticides by considering all appropriate alternative methods, is promoted. In that context, insect pathogenic fungi could be developed as biopesticides in two ways: spores but also metabolites that are recognized as virulence factors. Targeting adequate fermentation method is an important requirement to obtain fungal products (i.e. spores, enzymes and metabolites) of biotechnological interest. The 'Microbial Processes and Interactions' laboratory has developed an innovative fermentation technology (referred to as ‘biofilm fermentation’) involving the growth of fungal biomass on inert supports that are immersed in a liquid nutrient medium. Confining fungal biomass on immersed inert structures provides a hybrid production system aiming to keep a solid-state physiology for sporulation and secretion of metabolites while controlling fermentation parameters. This research project proposes to transfer this technology to culture insect pathogenic fungi, such as Metarhizium anisopliae, for the production of spores and insecticidal metabolites. Development stages include the qualitative and quantitative characterization of its impact on insecticidal products as well as scale-up to industrial level. [less ▲]

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See detailL’instrumentation de la mémoire en Belgique : Comment les autorités publiques francophones et flamandes influencent-elles le jeu mémoriel ?
Nossent, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2016, July 27)

Les études mémorielles identifient généralement les mémoires collectives comme transmises au travers de groupes particuliers (familles, collectivités, nations,…et communautés). Parmi ces groupes, certains ... [more ▼]

Les études mémorielles identifient généralement les mémoires collectives comme transmises au travers de groupes particuliers (familles, collectivités, nations,…et communautés). Parmi ces groupes, certains peuvent se prévaloir de l’institutionnalisation des mémoires, faisant d’elles des mémoires collectives officielles, par le biais de politiques mémorielles. Les autorités publiques peuvent effectivement être considérées comme initiatrices de telles politiques, recourant pour ce faire à de multiples instruments mémoriels : commémorations, lois dites « mémorielles » ou autres instruments législatifs. En mars 2009, la Communauté française de Belgique s’est dotée d’un tel instrument mémoriel, le « décret mémoire ». Celui-ci vise à la transmission de la mémoire de crimes d’envergure (dont les génocides) et de la résistance à leurs instigateurs, par la promotion de certains organismes et activités. De l’autre côté de la frontière linguistique belge, la Communauté flamande s’est dotée, en 2008, d’un « Comité spécial d'éducation à la mémoire ». Ce Comité spécial organise la promotion d'activités en lien avec diverses mémoires. Les approches adoptées par les autorités publiques de part et d’autre de la frontière linguistique peuvent toutefois être étudiées en vis-à-vis, dans une perspective comparée. En interrogeant les similitudes et les divergences, les rôles des autorités publiques, les moyens et les buts poursuivis, la communication cherche à savoir si les cadres institués permettent l’égal soutien de mémoires plurielles ou, au contraire, s’ils rendent l’accès à celui-ci plus inégalitaires. [less ▲]

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See detailPolitiques mémorielles et contraintes juridiques
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Conference (2016, July 27)

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See detailAharonov-Bohm oscillations of bosonic matter-wave beams in the presence of disorder and interaction
Chrétien, Renaud ULg; Dujardin, Julien; Petitjean, Cyril ULg et al

Poster (2016, July 27)

We study the one-dimensional (1D) transport properties of an ultracold gas of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms through Aharonov-Bohm (AB) rings. Our system consists of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) that ... [more ▼]

We study the one-dimensional (1D) transport properties of an ultracold gas of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms through Aharonov-Bohm (AB) rings. Our system consists of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) that is outcoupled from a magnetic trap into a 1D waveguide which is made of two semi-infinite leads that join a ring geometry exposed to a synthetic magnetic flux φ. We specifically investigate the effects both of a disorder potential and of a small atom-atom contact interaction strength on the AB oscillations. The main numerical tools that we use for this purpose are a mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) description and the truncated Wigner (tW) method. We find that a correlated disorder suppress the AB oscillations leaving thereby place to Aronov-Al’tshuler-Spivak (AAS) oscillations. The competition between disorder and interaction leads to a peak inversion at Φ = π, that is a signature of a coherent backscattering (CBS) peak inversion. This is confirmed by truncated Wigner simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart co-phasing system for segmented mirror telescopes
Simar, Juan Felipe ULg; Stockman, Yvan ULg; Surdej, Jean ULg

in SPIE 9906, Ground-based and Airborne Telescopes VI (2016, July 27)

Space observations of fainter and more distant astronomical objects constantly require telescope primary mirrors with a larger size. The diameter of monolithic primary mirrors is limited to 10 m because ... [more ▼]

Space observations of fainter and more distant astronomical objects constantly require telescope primary mirrors with a larger size. The diameter of monolithic primary mirrors is limited to 10 m because of manufacturing and logistics limitations. For space telescopes, monolithic primary mirrors are limited to less than 5 m due to fairing capacity. Segmented primary mirrors thus constitute an alternative solution to deal with the steadily increase of the primary mirror size. The optical path difference between the individual segments must be close to zero (few nm) in order to be diffraction limited over the full telescope aperture. In this paper a new system that may co-phase 7 segments at once with the light of a star and without artificial one is proposed. First the measuring methods and feedback system is explained, then the breadboard setup is presented and the results are analyzed and discussed, finally a comparison with Keck telescope is performed. This system can be adapted in order to be used in the co-phasing system of future segmented mirrors, its dynamic range starts from several hundred of microns till some tenths of nanometers [less ▲]

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See detailNitrate dynamic and pathways in fractured limestone aquifers : From soil leaching to groundwater discharge in surface water
Briers, Pierre ULg; Schmit, Flore; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 27)

Fractured – karstified limestone aquifers constitute important, but vulnerable groundwater reservoirs in many areas across the World. Such carbonate systems are highly heterogeneous leading to a high ... [more ▼]

Fractured – karstified limestone aquifers constitute important, but vulnerable groundwater reservoirs in many areas across the World. Such carbonate systems are highly heterogeneous leading to a high spatial and temporal variability of fluxes across the soil – vadose zone – groundwater – surface water continuum. One of the main challenges worldwide is to protect such groundwater bodies from diffuse pollutions, in particular agricultural chemicals such as nitrate. To face such problems and to propose adequate pollution mitigation scenarios, the objective here was to better understand and quantify nitrate dynamics and pathways in the subsurface and at the groundwater – surface water interface. The transfer of nitrate was investigated in different ways such as monitoring of concentrations in both groundwater and surface water, tracer experiments in the unsaturated – saturated continuum and regional investigations on groundwater chemistry including stable isotopes of nitrate and other compounds. Results show that nitrate concentrations are relatively stable both in groundwater and surface water during the low flow period (i.e. from spring to autumn). A temporary but significant increase in nitrate concentration is observed in groundwater and rivers during the winter, related to release of residual nitrate from agricultural soils driven by infiltration water. In period of high precipitations and runoff, dilution is measured in the river. Monitoring and tracer test results also highlight the fact that the migration of dissolved contaminants across the unsaturated zone of limestone rocks is very fast and governed by gravitational flows. In the rivers, macroinvertebrates and benthic diatoms were sampled at several sites to assess ecological status and structural and functional response to alteration of water quality (nutrient enrichment) and quantity (current velocity and stream habitats). Diatom indices and community structure indicated good to very good status in both studied streams, indicating that elevated nitrate concentration have no detectable effect on biological quality of the surface waters. The combination of all these results allows developing a detailed conceptual model of the dynamics of nitrate (and other agricultural contaminants) in fractured / karstified limestone aquifers, with improved estimates of nitrate trends and dynamics in both groundwater and rivers. [less ▲]

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See detailFruit biomass availability along a forest cover gradiant
Pessoa; Rocca, Larissa; Talora, Daniela et al

in Biotropica (2016)

Habitat loss is the main driver of the current high rate of species extinction, particularly in tropical forests. Understanding the factors associated with biodiversity loss, such as the extinction of ... [more ▼]

Habitat loss is the main driver of the current high rate of species extinction, particularly in tropical forests. Understanding the factors associated with biodiversity loss, such as the extinction of species interactions and ecological functions, is an urgent priority. Here, our aim was to evaluate how landscape-scale forest cover influences fruit biomass comparing different tree functional groups. We sampled 20 forest fragments located within landscapes with forest cover ranging from 2 to 93 percent in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. In each fragment, we established five plots of 25 × 4 m and carried out phenological observations on fleshy fruit throughout one year on all trees ≥ 5 cm dbh. We estimated fruit availability by direct counting all fruits and derived fruit biomass from this count. We used spatial mixed linear models to evaluate the effects of forest cover on species richness, abundance, and fruit biomass. Our results indicated that forest cover was the main explanatory variable and negatively influenced the total richness and abundance of zoochoric and shade-tolerant but not shade-intolerant species. A linear model best explained variations in richness and abundance of total and shade-tolerant species. We also found that forest cover was positively correlated with the fruit biomass produced by all species and by the shade-tolerant assemblages, with linear models best explaining both relationships. The loss of shade-tolerant species and the lower fruit production in fragments with lower landscape-scale forest cover may have implications for the maintenance of frugivore, seed dispersal service, and plant recruitment. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative characterization and calibration of salt water intrusion models with electrical resistivity tomography
Beaujean, Jean; Hermans, Thomas ULg; Vandenbohede, Alexander et al

Poster (2016, July 26)

Groundwater quality and coastal ecosystems in coastal areas are among the most vulnerable as they are threatened by excessive groundwater withdrawals, sea level rise and storm events potentially leading ... [more ▼]

Groundwater quality and coastal ecosystems in coastal areas are among the most vulnerable as they are threatened by excessive groundwater withdrawals, sea level rise and storm events potentially leading to salt water intrusions or infiltration into fresh water aquifers. The environmental protection and sustainable management of these groundwater resources often involves the development and calibration of a groundwater model subsequently used to forecast the total dissolved solid content (TDS). However, groundwater models are often built based on a limited number of sparse data due to borehole availability. Geophysical methods can provide spatially and temporally distributed data for hydrogeological modeling at relatively limited costs. In particular, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is very sensitive to the conductivity of pore water which is directly linked to the TDS content. The method is therefore well-suited for the monitoring of salt water intrusions. However, the inversion of ERT data involves a regularization process so that the resulting tomogram is only an estimate of the true resistivity distribution, suffering from smoothing and varying resolution. In many cases, the interpretation of ERT remains qualitative and skewed. In this contribution, we propose two different methods to improve the information content that can be extracted from ERT data. First, we show with a field example from Belgium how alternative regularization methods can be developed to integrate independent information into the inversion process of ERT. This enabled us to obtain a resistivity distribution much closer to the one observed in validation boreholes. Then, a site-specific petrophysical relationship is used to derive the TDS content of the aquifer from ERT tomograms. This can be directly used as input in the calibration process of a hydrogeological model. We also show how it is possible to counterbalance the effect of resolution loss with depth for surface ERT by filtering the results relative to their sensitivity. We show that this filtering is mandatory to use the ERT-derived information for calibrating a hydrogeological model. In a second example, we show how a fully coupled inversion approach can be used to directly invert geophysical data together with hydrogeological data for the calibration of hydrogeological models. At each iteration of the calibration, the simulated TDS content is transformed in a resistivity distribution using a parameterized petrophysical relationship and forward geophysical modeling yields the geophysical response. We show that this approach enables to better estimate the hydrogeological parameters of the simulated coastal aquifer than with an uncoupled approach if the conceptual model is sufficiently representative. With those two examples, we demonstrate the usefulness of ERT in the monitoring of salt water intrusions, both qualitatively to identify most vulnerable zones and quantitatively to estimate ERT-derived TDS contents or geophysical data and calibrate hydrogeological models. An innovative approach may consist in a conjunctive use of filtered geophysically-derived and geophysical data within the coupled hydrogeophysical inversion framework. Such an uncoupled-coupled approach based on a resolution threshold approach may offer a promising developing trend in hydrogeophysical inversion. [less ▲]

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See detailApports phénoménologiques à l’étude de la relation au corps dans le jeu vidéo
Delbouille, Julie ULg

in Implications philosophiques (2016)

J’évite un obstacle. Je cours. Je saute. Alors que quelques notes de musique m’avertissent de l’échec de ce dernier mouvement, je vois mon corps chuter, happé par le vide au-delà de l’écran. Cette scène ... [more ▼]

J’évite un obstacle. Je cours. Je saute. Alors que quelques notes de musique m’avertissent de l’échec de ce dernier mouvement, je vois mon corps chuter, happé par le vide au-delà de l’écran. Cette scène, qui tout comme ses multiples variations s’inscrit en filigrane au cœur de nombreuses expériences vidéoludiques, soulève la question du rapport au corps dans le jeu vidéo. Dans le champ des Game et des Play Studies, nombreux sont les chercheurs qui se sont déjà emparés de l’interactivité comme objet d’étude, et d’une de ses modalités dans le jeu vidéo : l’avatar. Interface récurrente entre le joueur et l’univers vidéoludique, nous postulons que cette « enveloppe pilotable » constitue une porte d’entrée pour envisager la problématique corporelle dans le jeu vidéo. En effet, la fonction d’incarnation permise par l’avatar ajoute à la relation entre le corps et l’esprit du joueur une dimension nouvelle : celle du corps virtuel. Ce corps « autre », dont le joueur prend possession, constitue une des conditions de son « insertion » dans le monde du jeu. [less ▲]

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