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See detailGeorges Ier d’Amboise, amateur d’art
Fagnart, Laure ULg

Conference (2015, June 18)

Figure emblématique de la Renaissance rouennaise et normande, Georges Ier d’Amboise rassemble, on le sait, une bibliothèque exceptionnelle, notamment constituée de manuscrits ayant appartenu aux rois ... [more ▼]

Figure emblématique de la Renaissance rouennaise et normande, Georges Ier d’Amboise rassemble, on le sait, une bibliothèque exceptionnelle, notamment constituée de manuscrits ayant appartenu aux rois aragonais de Naples. Le cardinal s’intéresse également à l’architecture, comme peu de ses contemporains, privilégiant les formes et les fonctions nouvelles, spécialement celles en vigueur en Italie. Il participe aussi à la fortune française d’artistes italiens de renom, comme Andrea Mantegna, Léonard de Vinci, Pérugin ou Andrea Solario, dont il commande ou acquiert des œuvres afin de décorer ses demeures, le château de Gaillon en tête. Mais, alors que son rôle dans la diffusion, au nord des Alpes, des idées et des motifs venus d’Italie est indéniable, le portrait de Georges Ier d’Amboise amateur d’art comprend bien d’autres facettes. Prolongeant une recherche entamée à l’occasion de la parution de l’ouvrage Georges Ier d’Amboise 1460-1510. Une figure plurielle de la Renaissance (2013), cette communication entend revenir sur les objets et les œuvres d’art que l’on peut associer au mécénat et/ou aux possessions de l’archevêque de Rouen. Nous nous pencherons sur les productions italiennes qui sont liées à Georges Ier d’Amboise mais aussi sur les étoffes, les pièces d’orfèvrerie et les tableaux de chevalet, qui sont mentionnés en nombre dans les comptes de dépenses de la construction du château de Gaillon et dans les inventaires qui décrivent les biens meubles conservés dans les demeures du cardinal. L’analyse de ces sources – que jusqu’ici les historiens ont surtout utilisées pour restituer la chronologie du château de Gaillon, rétablir la distribution intérieure de la demeure ou décrire la célèbre bibliothèque du légat alors qu’elles se révèlent extrêmement précieuses pour présenter les collections du conseiller de Louis XII – montre que le goût de Georges Ier d’Amboise, bien que novateur, s’inscrit aussi dans la continuité de celui des amateurs français de la fin du Moyen Âge. [less ▲]

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See detailDes co-enquêteurs coriaces. Quand l'explicitation du travail de terrain complique les choses
Vangeebergen, Thomas ULg

Conference (2015, June 18)

La souplesse et la plasticité des problématiques abordées sont sans doute parmi les attraits majeurs que peuvent présenter les recherches qualitatives. Cette ouverture à une reconfiguration permanente des ... [more ▼]

La souplesse et la plasticité des problématiques abordées sont sans doute parmi les attraits majeurs que peuvent présenter les recherches qualitatives. Cette ouverture à une reconfiguration permanente des questions de recherches réside (entre autres) dans la place que l'on accorde aux acteurs. Plus que des « informateurs », ceux-ci peuvent participer véritablement à l'enquête, et sont alors en fait à la manoeuvre autant que le chercheur. D'acteurs, ils gagnent alors le statut de co-enquêteur. En nous renvoyant nos propres questions, en les reformulant, en les faisant apparaître sous un angle différent, les acteurs contribuent à (re)dessiner nos recherches. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristics and implementation of Hybrid Fire Testing (HFT)
Sauca, Ana ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Robert, Fabienne et al

Conference (2015, June 18)

This presentation is dedicated to real time hybrid testing of building members subjected to the action of fire. It will be shown why, whereas pseudo-dynamic testing is possible in other fields, real time ... [more ▼]

This presentation is dedicated to real time hybrid testing of building members subjected to the action of fire. It will be shown why, whereas pseudo-dynamic testing is possible in other fields, real time hybrid testing is the only possible option for the evaluation of fire performance (except, perhaps, for pure metallic unprotected structures). For some structures subjected to fire, the load bearing mechanism in the physical component is completely modified during the test and this modification can take place within a very short period of time. Because of that, the computational demand can be very challenging if the simulated element is simulated in a fully nonlinear computer model, especially if the thermal problem (temperature distribution in the structure) and the mechanical problem have both to be solved within each time step. In order to avoid these difficulties, a possible solution may be to calculate the stiffness matrix that dictates the reaction of the simulated element on the tested element before the test. This matrix can be constant or vary as a function of the displacements measured at the interface during the test. This procedure is very robust but it also has some shortcomings and limitations. The main topic of this paper is the discussion of the advantages and limitations of this procedure applied to hybrid fire testing. A series of three tests which is now under preparation to be performed in the furnace PROMETHEE of CERIB, in France, will also be described in this respect. Preliminary results will be presented if some or all of the tests have been performed at the date of the conference. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigine et dynamique des populations d’arbres des forêts denses humides d’Afrique Centrale, le cas de Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn C.F. (Ochnaceae)
Biwole, Achille ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

The canopy of Central African rainforests is characterized by the abundance of light-demanding trees belonging to several species, suggesting that favorable conditions for their regeneration once ... [more ▼]

The canopy of Central African rainforests is characterized by the abundance of light-demanding trees belonging to several species, suggesting that favorable conditions for their regeneration once prevailed. Today this isn’t the case in light of the demographic structure of their populations, which shows a lack of regeneration. The appearance of such species in rainforests is the result of significant and sustainable openings in the forest canopy. Such events may have occurred with climatic changes and / or large-scale anthropogenic disturbances. The risk of their populations decline is increased by the fact that most of them are timber species. This is typically the case of Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn C.F., which is one of the most important Central African trees harvested, and is considered vulnerable by the IUCN. In the current context where the preservation of the biodiversity and the integrity of the forest cover is a major concern, the present PhD aims to understand the history and ecological requirements of L. alata in order to propose the sustainable management strategies. The history of L. alata has been studied using an approach integrating both anthracology and archeology. We found a large body of evidences (pottery fragments, palm nuts and charcoal) in the forests soil of southern Cameroon indicating human occupation and widespread fires over two periods : 2200 - 1500 years BP, and around 300 years BP. The age of the most recent events coincides with the probable age of the tallest specimens of L. alata. To determine the light requirements of the species and to better define its regeneration strategy, a quantitative study on the guild of juveniles was conducted for two years. The results show that L. alata has both the characteristics of a pioneer species and those of a non-pioneer species. Indeed, at low irradiances (1% of full sunlight), the plants mortality rate was very low and their biomass showed no signs of decline, a behavior observed in all non-pioneer species. By contrast, the response of leaf traits, patterns of biomass allocation, and the maximum growth of plants in the intermediate (23-43% of the relative irradiance) and high (100%) irradiance levels, according to the population origins, are typical of all pioneer species. These results emphasize the importance of the population origins when studying the response to light and the need to define a more encompassing classification system. In terms of the dynamics of mature populations, environmental conditions affect the diameter growth of trees, with better growth being realized in the evergreen forest. Nevertheless, even under these favorable conditions, simulations of the exploitable stocks and their recovery rates indicated a significant decline during the first three cutting cycles, which could lead to a decline in economic activity associated with this species. Our results allowed us to suggest a set of recommendations for the sustainable management of L. alata. [less ▲]

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See detailPromoting quarries biodiversity through partnerships: a Belgian case study
Seleck, Maxime ULg; Lussis, Benoit; Harzé, Mélanie ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 17)

Throughout the life cycle of quarries, a large diversity of temporary habitats is generated, sometimes left to evolve to more permanent ones. In many cases, the biological roles of quarries are neglected ... [more ▼]

Throughout the life cycle of quarries, a large diversity of temporary habitats is generated, sometimes left to evolve to more permanent ones. In many cases, the biological roles of quarries are neglected though they are playing a significant role as stepping-stones and regulating green infrastructure in landscapes. In highly urbanized and controlled landscapes, quarries are an exceptional opportunity to maintain rare and threatened transient habitats hosting fugitive species. Such ephemeral biodiversity is hard to manage through a site legal protection status. As exploitation progresses, more permanent, biodiverse habitats settle in abandoned areas but the biologic potential could also be maximized by optimized groundwork through the whole exploitation process. Exploitation plans taking into consideration biodiversity could allow maximizing quarry biodiversity hosting capacity during the exploitation phase and in further rehabilitation schemes. In 2012, FEDIEX - the Belgian federation of extractive industries - committed itself to a sectorial charter on “Quarries and Biodiversity”. The charter defines an action plan based on three main axes: i) raising members’ awareness; ii) promoting the integration of practical recommendations for the protection and management of biodiversity in exploitation plans; iii) quarries’ personnel trainings. Since 2012 FEDIEX engaged in a partnership with Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (University of Liège). Our presentation will trace realizations undertaken under this collaboration, among which the “Mr/Ms Biodiversity” training organized in 2013, 2014 and 2015, the publication of folders popularising the management and enhancement of nature in active quarries and the collaboration in the redaction of a “LIFE in Quarries” project (LIFE Biodiversity) submitted for the 2014 LIFE call. [less ▲]

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See detailLa flexicurité revisitée : analyse qualitative interdisciplinaire du discours de travailleurs à l'aide d'un logiciel collaboratif »
Beuker, Laura ULg; DE CIA, Julie ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 17)

La flexicurité constitue un oxymore qui prône la recherche d’un équilibre entre besoins de flexibilité et de sécurité sur le marché du travail. Cet équilibre est avant tout un objectif politique, mais il ... [more ▼]

La flexicurité constitue un oxymore qui prône la recherche d’un équilibre entre besoins de flexibilité et de sécurité sur le marché du travail. Cet équilibre est avant tout un objectif politique, mais il reste fragile aux yeux des acteurs concernés. En cherchant à croiser le regard analytique de trois disciplines – psychologie, gestion et sociologie –, nous avons recouru au logiciel Cassandre (Lejeune, 2008) pour dégager des tensions discursives autour des notions de flexibilité et de sécurité dans un corpus de vingt entretiens qualitatifs. L’article permet ainsi de concrétiser l’intérêt et les limites de l’utilisation d’un logiciel d’analyse qualitative dans le cadre d’un travail interdisciplinaire. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvanced characterisation to investigate the effect of raw material properties on the kinetics of iron ores granulation
Jaimes Contreras, Rafael Antonio; van Loo, Frédéric; Douce, Jean-François et al

Speech/Talk (2015)

The objective of this paper is to study the effect of raw material properties on the kinetics of iron ore granulation considering in particular the layering mechanisms in wet granulation for different ... [more ▼]

The objective of this paper is to study the effect of raw material properties on the kinetics of iron ore granulation considering in particular the layering mechanisms in wet granulation for different iron ore types. For that purpose, the granulation behaviour of single iron ore binary mixtures and more complex mixtures (iron ores and return fines) has been studied at laboratory scale using pilot drums. A particular interest is paid to the influence of morphology and wettability of iron ores. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of 16S rDNA Metagenetics and classical Microbiology to Assess the bacterial superficial Contamination Patterns in Bovines Classically Slaughtered or following the Halal Ritual
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Hupperts, Caroline et al

Poster (2015, June 17)

In Belgium and in several European countries, two cattle slaughtering protocols exist: the classical method, that encompasses a stunning step before the sticking procedure, and the halal method, combining ... [more ▼]

In Belgium and in several European countries, two cattle slaughtering protocols exist: the classical method, that encompasses a stunning step before the sticking procedure, and the halal method, combining the stunning and the sticking in one single step. The main difference lies in the fact that, in the halal protocol, a single cut with a sharp knife is practiced directly on live cattle, instead of two cutting steps with two different knives for the sticking in the classical slaughtering technique. The unique section in the halal technique results generally in the cross section of trachea and esophagus of cattle. The aim of this study was to seek if the two slaughtering techniques were similar regarding the superficial contamination of carcasses, swabbed between 2 and 4 hours after the killing step. For this purpose, classical microbiological tests (TVC and Enterobacteriaceae) and 16S rDNA metagenetic analysis were carried out from 20 cattle carcasses (swabbing of “legal” zone – 1.600 cm2 – and in the neck area – 200 cm2). The classical microbiological results revealed no significant differences between the two slaughtering practices. Statistical analysis of pyrosequencing data showed that differences in bacterial population abundance between slaughtering methods were mainly found in the “legal” swabbing zone compared to the neck area. Bacterial genera belonging to Actinobacteria (Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium) were more aundant in “Halal” samples whereas populations from the Proteobacteria (Caulobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae) and Firmicutes (Lactobacillus) were more abundand in the “classical” group. The analysis of OTU abundance of bacteria from the digestive or respiratory tract revealed no differences beteween groups. In conclusion, the slaughtering method does not influence the superficial microbiological pattern in terms of specific microbiological markers of the digestive or respiratory tract. However, precise analysis to the genus level underlines differences between methods, the legal swabbing zone being still the best sampling zone compared to the neckline. The next step will be the identification of precise contamination origin of the differences found between slaughtering methods. [less ▲]

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See detailMAVEN IUVS observations of the aftermath of the Comet Siding Spring meteor shower on Mars
Schneider, Nick; Deighan, Justin; Stewart, Ian et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2015)

We report the detection of intense emission from magnesium and iron in Mars' atmosphere caused by a meteor shower following Comet Siding Spring's close encounter with Mars. The observations were made with ... [more ▼]

We report the detection of intense emission from magnesium and iron in Mars' atmosphere caused by a meteor shower following Comet Siding Spring's close encounter with Mars. The observations were made with the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph, a remote sensing instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft orbiting Mars. Ionized magnesium caused the brightest emission from the planet's atmosphere for many hours, resulting from resonant scattering of solar ultraviolet light. Modeling suggests a substantial fluence of low-density dust particles 1–100 µm in size, with the large amount and small size contrary to predictions. The event created a temporary planet-wide ionospheric layer below Mars' main dayside ionosphere. The dramatic meteor shower response at Mars is starkly different from the case at Earth, where a steady state metal layer is always observable but perturbations caused by even the strongest meteor showers are challenging to detect. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro model to study the biological properties of humic fractions from landfill leachate and leonardite during root elongation of Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn and Betula pendula Roth.
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg et al

in Plant Cell, Tissue & Organ Culture (2015), 122(3), 739-749

Humic substances (HS) are organic compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues. Our study aims to determine the main biological properties of HS ... [more ▼]

Humic substances (HS) are organic compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues. Our study aims to determine the main biological properties of HS comparing landfill leachate (LHS) source to a stable formulation extracted from leonardite (HHS), and using an in vitro system of root development from shoot and leaf explants of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn). Results showed that both explants of both species rooted closely to 100% when cultivated in absence of HS. The incorporation of HS or their fractions into the culture medium affect root growth, mainly lateral roots formation and primary root length. Applied at low concentration (10 ppm) HS stimulated especially primary root growth. But at high concentration (100 ppm), LHS inhibited root formation of alder, while birch was more tolerant. The application of 100 ppm of HHS, did not affect alder root growth but increased root growth in birch. Humic acids fractions (HA) were favorable and improved root growth while, fulvic acids (FA) and other molecules (OM) decreased significantly root growth, especially those extracted LHS. The root inhibition expressed at high LHS concentration may be due to the presence of different toxic molecules and root growth inhibitors in OM and FA fractions and that some of them remained in the OM fraction from leonardite. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of γ-radiation on free radicals formation, structural changesand functional properties of wheat starch
Atrous, Hager; Benbettaieb, Nasreddine; Hosni, Faouzi et al

in International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2015), 80

Wheat starch was treated by different γ-radiation doses (3, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 kGy). The effects of γ-radiation on structural, thermal, physicochemical, morphological and rheological properties of wheat ... [more ▼]

Wheat starch was treated by different γ-radiation doses (3, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 kGy). The effects of γ-radiation on structural, thermal, physicochemical, morphological and rheological properties of wheat starch were studied. The presence of free radicals after γ-radiation treatment, which number decreased with time was confirmed. Structural analysis revealed decreases in the intensities of the O–H and C–H stretches and glycosidic linkages indicating the depolymerization of amylose and probably amy-lopectin into shorter chain molecules, but showed that γ-radiation treatment did not affect the crystalline structure. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) thermograms showed the absence of significant differences in the gelatinization temperatures, as well as the corresponding transition enthalpies since the DSC parameters are related to the crystalline ordering within the granules. Apparent amylose content decreased linearly with increasing irradiation dose leading to an increase in water solubility index. Anincrease in the swelling power was observed after irradiation treatment until 20 kGy, followed by a rapiddecrease at higher doses. Microscopic observations showed that the effect of γ-radiation was more visible on starch pastes than on starch granules. Rheological properties of the starch pastes decreased within creasing irradiation dose as a result of glycosidic bond cleavage. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial diversity and function during different bioremediation strategies of diesel-polluted soil
Masy, Thibaut ULg; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg et al

Poster (2015, June 16)

In numerous hydrocarbon-polluted sites, oxygen and pollutant bioavailability constitutes the main limiting factors for biodegradation because of the strong adsorption of hydrocarbons on organic soil ... [more ▼]

In numerous hydrocarbon-polluted sites, oxygen and pollutant bioavailability constitutes the main limiting factors for biodegradation because of the strong adsorption of hydrocarbons on organic soil particles (clay and peat). Therefore, several strategies such as biostimulation (with air/H2O2 and/or nutrients) or bioaugmentation are used, but often without understanding the endogenous microflora degrading capacity. This lack of differentiation between indigenous and added microorganisms could lead to poor predictability of the biodegradation efficiency. In addition, anaerobic degradation remains less applied in industrial settings for such compounds (especially for saturated hydrocarbons) as this process remains slow. In this context, the main objective of our study was to understand how the bacterial community evolves, in terms of species and degrading gene diversities, during the application of three different bioremediation strategies in a heavily diesel-polluted clay soil: (i) anaerobic natural attenuation, (ii) bioventing and (iii) bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1. In addition to the supply of new degrading genes, bioaugmentation with this biosurfactant-producing strain should facilitate the bioassimilation of desorbed hydrocarbons by the whole degrading microflora. This hypothesis is strengthened by previous results obtained during several microcosm- and pilot-scale experiments. Aerobic and anaerobic microcosms were set up with three different soil samples coming from the same polluted site. Initially, their global organic content was identical but their hydrocarbon and peat concentrations were different, which led to differential oxygen consumption. Soils were sampled every 10 days to extract the DNA to measure changes in bacterial populations (with RISA analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing) and function (with qPCR and sequencing of degrading genes). Further analyses of the hydrocarbon content by GC-MS and of the genetic diversity by MiSeq metagenomic analysis provided detailed chemical and functional microbial data related to compound degradation and relative gene increases. Initial results showed significant differences in the microbial community structure. Moreover, Rhodococci seem to be maintained in the soil after inoculation. [less ▲]

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See detailCompétition partisane, changement climatique et écologie politique : convergences et conflits sur les thématiques politiques
Piet, Grégory ULg

in Flipo, Fabrice (Ed.) Les actes du Colloque "Penser l'écologie politique" (2015, June 16)

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See detailModélisation de la mortalité de larves d'Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) par traitement anoxique pour la conservation d'objets d'intérêt patrimonial
de Streel, Géraud; Henin, Jean-Mac; Mercier, Emmanuelle et al

Poster (2015, June 16)

Au cours des dernières décénnies, les preuves scientifiques concernant les dangers des insecticides utilisés pour éliminer les insectes présents dans les œuvres d’art des points de vue de la santé du ... [more ▼]

Au cours des dernières décénnies, les preuves scientifiques concernant les dangers des insecticides utilisés pour éliminer les insectes présents dans les œuvres d’art des points de vue de la santé du personnel et des visiteurs, des risques environnementaux et des risques pour les œuvres ont conduit le monde de la conservation patrimoniale à se tourner vers des techniques alternatives de désinsectisation. Le traitement par anoxie fait partie de ces techniques. Il s’agit de soumettre les insectes à une atmosphère à faible teneur en oxygène (généralement < 0.1%) pendant une certaine durée pour les éliminer sans causer de dégât à l’œuvre ni laisser de résidus toxiques. Cette technique souffre toutefois de deux inconvénients majeurs. Le premier concerne l’importante durée de traitement nécessaire et le second concerne la sensibilité des résultats à un grand nombre de paramètres environnementaux. Cette étude a pour but d’analyser l’impact des températures élevées comme moyen pour accélérer le traitement ainsi que d’établir des modèles de mortalité intégrant certain paramètres qui influencent l’efficacité du traitement en vue de faciliter la détermination de la durée de ce dernier. Cette étude est réalisée en collaboration avec l’Institut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique (IRPA), et a également pour but de leur fournir un protocole permettant d’assurer une efficacité de traitement proche de 100%. Il a été montré que, conformément à ce qui existe dans la littérature, la température, la durée de traitement et le poids initial des larves influencent significativement la probabilité de mortalité des larves soumises au traitement tandis que le fait que la larve se situe dans une boite de Pétri ou dans une planchette de bois ne joue pas de rôle significatif. Il est également mis en évidence que, si la déshydratation des insectes lors du traitement joue un rôle important sur la mortalité, ce n’est pas le seul mécanisme impliqué. Des recherches supplémentaires sont nécessaires à ce sujet. Des modèles ont également pu être établis et ils permettent de déterminer qu’à température ambiante et 50% d’humidité du flux de gaz, la durée de traitement nécessaire pour éliminer 99% des insectes est de 26 jours [less ▲]

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See detailConcept of robustness
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2015, June 16)

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See detailRobustimpact project - System design
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2015, June 16)

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See detailDenjoy-Carleman classes and lineability
Esser, Céline ULg

Conference (2015, June 16)

The Denjoy-Carleman classes are spaces of smooth functions which satisfy growth conditions on their derivatives defined through weight sequences. In this talk, given a Denjoy-Carleman class E of Beurling ... [more ▼]

The Denjoy-Carleman classes are spaces of smooth functions which satisfy growth conditions on their derivatives defined through weight sequences. In this talk, given a Denjoy-Carleman class E of Beurling type that strictly contains another non-quasianalytic class F of Roumieu type, we handle the question of knowing how large the set of functions in E that are nowhere in the class F is. In particular, we prove the dense-lineability of the set of functions of E which are nowhere in F. Consequences for the Gevrey classes are also given. We extend then these results to the case of classes of ultradifferentiable functions defined using weight functions. [less ▲]

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See detailA generalization of the Snu spaces: getting rid of dyadic scales
Kleyntssens, Thomas ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2015, June 16)

The Snu spaces have been introduced by S. Jaffard to develop a new multifractal formalism that allows to improve the study of irregular functions. This type of formalism is connected to Besov spaces. From ... [more ▼]

The Snu spaces have been introduced by S. Jaffard to develop a new multifractal formalism that allows to improve the study of irregular functions. This type of formalism is connected to Besov spaces. From a theoretical point of view, the Snu spaces gave birth to counterexamples in functional analysis. In this talk, I present the first results on a generalization of these spaces. I also present some links between these new spaces and the generalized Besov spaces defined with wavelet coefficients. [less ▲]

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See detailEVALUATION OF CONTINUOUS SUPRASCAPULAR NERVE BLOCKADE IN THE TREATMENT OF REFRACTORY ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS : A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY
MUTSERS, Pierre ULg; LECOQ, Jean-Pierre ULg; GOFFIN, Pierre ULg et al

in Abstract Book du Residence Meeting de la Société Belge d'Anesthésie (2015, June 15)

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