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See detailL’histoire et ses marges : les récits photographiques d’Arlette Farge
Servais, Amandine ULg

Scientific conference (2015, June 02)

Au départ de l’analyse de La chambre à deux lits, un essai de l’historienne Arlette Farge, j’observe comment la discipline historique peut faire usage de la photographie et, surtout, quels sont les effets ... [more ▼]

Au départ de l’analyse de La chambre à deux lits, un essai de l’historienne Arlette Farge, j’observe comment la discipline historique peut faire usage de la photographie et, surtout, quels sont les effets, sur le savoir historien, d’un recours à la photographie. Cette communication montre que, parfois, le voir précède, initie et détermine le savoir historien.
Dans ce cadre, la question du temps est essentielle : l’image est l’opérateur d’un brouillage heureux des temporalités linéaires, fussent-elles multiples, en lesquelles s’inscrit encore très généralement le récit historien. On est là confronté à des notions telles que l’anachronisme, les causalités multiples, la coprésence des temporalités et des significations. Nous voyons, grâce aux travaux d’Arlette Farge, que tous ces éléments, loin d’être des obstacles insurmontables ou des apories méthodologiques pour l’historien, peuvent devenir de véritables outils à l’élaboration d’un récit de connaissance en histoire, certes marginal mais néanmoins puissamment porteur de sens. [less ▲]

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See detailL'image dans le concours EUROPAN : étude de l'évolution de la représentation graphique du projet
Boutemadja, Abdelkader ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

Conference (2015, June 02)

EUROPAN se distingue par sa volonté de mettre en avant de jeunes architectes mais aussi « d’approfondir les connaissances et les réflexions dans le domaine de l’habitat et de l’urbanisme ». Le fait que le ... [more ▼]

EUROPAN se distingue par sa volonté de mettre en avant de jeunes architectes mais aussi « d’approfondir les connaissances et les réflexions dans le domaine de l’habitat et de l’urbanisme ». Le fait que le projet lauréat a pour visée d’être traduit en une commande et une réalisation concrète permet d’attirer des projets réalistes dont la finalité est de s’inscrire dans un processus décisionnel complexe et complet. En outre, signalons que les auteurs de projets y présentent leur idées presqu’exclusivement au travers de la représentation graphique dont le support est le même pour tous (3 planches A1) et que ce concours a fait l’objet d’un archivage important. Ainsi, ce champ d’expérimentation nous permet d’analyser l’évolution durant les dernières décennies des modes de représentation graphique du projet dans le cadre du concours d’idées architecturales et urbaines. L’analyse des documents graphiques retenus dans ce champ d’expérimentation nous a permis de relever les différentes typologies graphiques utilisées dans leur composition. Il s’agit de : chorèmes, de schémas, de plans/coupes/élévations, d’images 3D et de textes. Ces différentes typologies se déclinent en sous-entités suivant les relations que les unes établissent avec les autres (par exemple : des schémas en 3D ou des images 3D intégrant des coupes …). Grâce à une analyse comparative du nombre de types utilisés et des surfaces dédiées à chacun d’eux au cours des différentes sessions, nous avons constaté un usage assez constant des chorèmes et des schémas mais une évolution de l’utilisation des images 3D par rapport aux plans/coupes/élévations donnant de plus en plus d’importance aux images 3D au détriment de documents graphiques plus conventionnels avec même parfois des transferts de charges symboliques d’un type à l’autre. Cette recherche montre ainsi que l’image 3D est désormais intégrée comme l’un des moyens les plus importants de communication et de partage d’informations concernant le projet urbain. Enfin, cette recherche révèle l’intérêt pour notre discipline de développer une méthode spécifique de lecture de la représentation graphique du projet architectural et urbain, de manière à étudier l’image non seulement comme support de représentation mais aussi en tant que système de communication. La méthode de lecture des images proposée est fondée sur l’utilisation et l’adaptation de méthodes et techniques d’interprétations de projets et d’images développées initialement dans les domaines de la systémique et de la sémiotique ; elle pourra être utilisée dans des recherches ultérieures pour continuer d’améliorer notre compréhension de l’évolution des représentations graphiques du projet. [less ▲]

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See detailReconstruire sa vie après un handicap dans Mitchell’s Plain (Le Cap, Afrique du Sud)
Schnitzler, Marie ULg

Scientific conference (2015, June 02)

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See detailQuand évoquer l'origine héréditaire d'une neuropathie périphérique
WANG, François-Charles ULg

Scientific conference (2015, June 02)

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See detailGlobal parasite and Rattus rodent invasions: The consequences for rodent-borne diseases
Morand, Serge; Bordes, Frédéric; Chen, Hsuan-Wien et al

in Integrative Zoology (2015)

We summarize the current knowledge on parasitism-related invasion processes of the globally invasive Rattus lineages, originating from Asia, and how these invasions have impacted the local epidemiology of ... [more ▼]

We summarize the current knowledge on parasitism-related invasion processes of the globally invasive Rattus lineages, originating from Asia, and how these invasions have impacted the local epidemiology of rodent-borne diseases. Parasites play an important role in the invasion processes and successes of their hosts through multiple biological mechanisms such as "parasite release", "immunocompetence advantage", “biotic resistance” and "novel weapon". Parasites may also greatly increase the impact of invasions by spillover of parasites and other pathogens, introduced with invasive hosts, into new hosts potentially leading to novel emerging diseases. Another potential impact is the ability of the invader to amplify local parasites by spill-back. In both cases, local fauna and humans may be exposed to new health risks, which may decrease biodiversity and may potentially cause increases in human morbidity and mortality. Here we review the current knowledge on these processes and propose some research priorities. [less ▲]

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See detailAliphatic polyphosphates, a promising class of polymers for drug delivery
Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie ULg; Clément, Benoit; Molin, Daniel G. et al

Conference (2015, June 02)

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See detailImpact des changements climatiques sur la principale réserve en eau souterraine alimentant la ville de Liège (Belgique)
Goderniaux, Pascal; Orban, Philippe ULg; Compère, Jean-Michel et al

in Des villes et des territoires sobres et sûrs, Synthèse des interventions (2015, June 02)

Le changement climatique amène de nouvelles 'pressions' sur les ressources en eaux de surface et souterraines dans de nombreuses zones du monde. Des travaux scientifiques sont nécessaires pour aider les ... [more ▼]

Le changement climatique amène de nouvelles 'pressions' sur les ressources en eaux de surface et souterraines dans de nombreuses zones du monde. Des travaux scientifiques sont nécessaires pour aider les gestionnaires de l'eau à planifier les changements futurs. Un générateur de climats transitoire sophistiqué est utilisé en combinaison avec une modélisation intégrée hydrologique (HydroGeoSphere) pour évaluer les impacts sur les ressources en eaux souterraines de façon probabiliste. Cette nouvelle méthodologie est appliquée pour l'aquifère crayeux de Hesbaye (bassin Geer en Belgique) qui est le principal réservoir d'eau souterraine pour l'alimentation de la ville de Liège. Les sources d'incertitude étudiées sont les suivantes: (1) l'incertitude liée à la calibration du modèle hydrologique, en utilisant 'UCODE_2005'; (2) l'incertitude liée aux modèles climatiques mondiaux et régionaux (GCM et RCM); (3) l'incertitude liée à la variabilité naturelle du climat, en utilisant des scénarios stochastiques de changement climatique locaux. 100 changements climatiques équiprobables scénarios ont été générés sur 2010-2085 pour chacun des six RMC différents. Les résultats montrent que bien que les intervalles de confiance à 95% calculés autour des niveaux piézométriques calculés restent importants, l'effet du changement climatique devient clair et plus prononcé que la variabilité naturelle du climat d'ici 2085. Cette méthodologie constitue une réelle amélioration dans le domaine des prévisions de l'évolution des réserves en eau souterraine dans des conditions de changement climatique car il permet aux gestionnaires d'analyser les risques et prendre des décisions en toute connaissance du degré de confiance des résultats. [less ▲]

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See detailAuroral emission at Jupiter, through Juno's UVS eyes
Grodent, Denis ULg; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Gladstone, G. et al

Conference (2015, June 02)

Juno’s orbit insertion around Jupiter will take place in little bit more than one year (July 2016). After a 107-day capture orbit (Oct. 2016), it will perform a series of 33 eleven-day science polar ... [more ▼]

Juno’s orbit insertion around Jupiter will take place in little bit more than one year (July 2016). After a 107-day capture orbit (Oct. 2016), it will perform a series of 33 eleven-day science polar orbits offering unprecedented views of the auroral regions of Jupiter. The science payload of Juno includes an UltraViolet Spectrograph (UVS) that will characterize the UV auroral emissions of Jupiter over all science orbits. It will obtain high-resolution images and spectra that will provide context for Juno’s in situ particles and fields measurements in the larger polar magnetosphere with Juno’s JADE and JEDI detectors. At the same time, the MAG instrument will accurately constrain magnetic field models, which will provide the connection between Juno and its field line footprint in the Jovian aurora. The UVS instrument consists of a solar blind MCP detector with a “dog-bone” shape FOV of 0.2°x2.5°+0.025°x2°+0.2°x2.5° providing a spatial resolution of 125 km from 1RJ above the aurora and a spectral resolution of ~0.5 nm (~2 nm for extended sources). It is sensitive to EUV-FUV radiation ranging from 70 nm to 205 nm. Juno is a spin-stabilized spacecraft and is rotating at a frequency of 2 RPM. UVS will take advantage of this motion to scan the auroral regions in the direction perpendicular to the slit, while its steerable pickup mirror (±30° from the spin plane) will make it possible to point at specific regions of the aurora. Juno’s highly eccentric science orbits have a perijove close to 1.05 RJ (~5000 km above cloud deck) and an apojove at ~38 RJ. These orbits approximately lie in the Dawn meridian plane and are such that each successive pass is at a Jovian longitude displaced by 204° from the previous perijove. At perijove, Juno’s velocity will be ~60 km/s and about 20 km/s above the poles, meaning that the spacecraft will move over the northern and southern auroral regions in approximately two hours. In this study, we are using existing HST STIS time-tag sequences of Jupiter’s UV aurorae in order to simulate the expected measurements through UVS FOV along Juno’s predicted trajectory. The simulations account for realistic instrumental specifications and pointing and for the temporal and spatial variability of the aurora. We show the results of image reconstruction obtained from scanning the auroral region with UVS slit and provide some limits on the expected data quality as a function of the location of Juno along its orbit. We also suggest portions of the science orbits for which supporting HST observations will be necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanical approach for the characterization of loess deposits from the CBR’s Romont quarry (Eben-Emael, Belgium) and correlations with loess stratigraphy
Delvoie, Simon ULg; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg; Cerfontaine, Benjamin ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 01)

Aeolian silts (loess) are near surface deposits covering about 10% of the continent surfaces . Therefore a good knowledge of their mechanical behavior is an issue for designing subsurface engineering ... [more ▼]

Aeolian silts (loess) are near surface deposits covering about 10% of the continent surfaces . Therefore a good knowledge of their mechanical behavior is an issue for designing subsurface engineering structures. Usually this material is considered as homogeneous for an engineering point of view. Aeolian silt deposits are continuously well developed in Hesbaye Region (Belgium) reaching locally 20m thick (see document in attachment). They are mainly related to the last interglacial (Eemian) and glacial (Weichselian) periods . Nevertheless the pedostratigraphical, chronostratigraphical and paleoclimatic approaches have shown these silt deposits are usually composed of a series of paleosoils (i.e. Rocourt soil, Humiferous Complex of Remicourt, Harmignies Soil, Nagelbeek Tongued Horizon) interbedded with stratified or homogeneous aeolian silt layers. This study aims to characterize the variability of the in situ mechanical characteristics of the loess deposits from Hesbaye Region at the site scale and at the laboratory scale. Cone penetration tests (CPT), electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT) and drillings have been performed through a 10m thick loess layer in an investigation site located close to the CBR’s Romont quarry (Eben-Emael, Belgium) . Continuous undisturbed silt samples from drillings have been physically (granulometry, Atterberg limits, water content, organic matter content, carbonate content) and mechanically (oedometer test, triaxial test) characterized at the laboratory. Mechanical behavior and physical characteristics have underlined a series of layers with variable mechanical properties through depth. Some of these layers correlated with a detailed stratigraphy cross-section close to the investigation site could correspond to well-known paleosoils. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Holothuroid Ichtyotoxic Saponins on the Gills of Free-Living Fishes and Symbiotic Pearlfishes
Eeckhaut, Igor; Caulier, Guillaume; Brasseur, Lola et al

in The Biological Bulletin (2015), 228(3), 253-265

Several carapid fishes, known as pearlfishes, are endosymbiotic in holothuroids and asteroids. These echinoderms contain a strong concentration of saponins that are efficient membranolytic repellents to ... [more ▼]

Several carapid fishes, known as pearlfishes, are endosymbiotic in holothuroids and asteroids. These echinoderms contain a strong concentration of saponins that are efficient membranolytic repellents to predators. We compared the effects of exposure to saponins from the sea cucumber body wall and from the Cuvierian tubules on the behavior and gill ultrastructure of pearlfishes and free-living fishes. Saponins were extracted from the body wall of two holothuroids, the Mediterranean Holothuria forskali and the tropical Bohadschia atra, and from the water surrounding the Cuvierian tubules of B. atra. Five species of carapids that live in symbiosis with holothuroids and seven species of free-living fishes were exposed to these extracts. The free-living fishes exhibited a stress response and died about 45 times faster than pearlfishes when exposed to the same quantity of saponins. Cuvierian tubules and saponins extracted from the body wall were lethal to the free-living fishes, whereas the carapids were much less sensitive. The carapids did not exhibit a stress response. The high toxicity shown by Cuvierian tubules was not explained by the nature of the saponins that were identified by mass spectrometry, but it is likely due to the higher concentration of saponins in the tubules. Histology and scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the gills of the free-living fishes and pearlfishes showed that saponins act at the level of the secondary lamellae where they induce the detachment of the epithelia, create edema at the level of the epithelia, and induce pores in the epithelial cells that lead to their destruction and the invasion of inner cells (pillar cells and red blood cells). This sequence of events happens 5 min after saponin exposure in free-living fishes and after 1 h in carapids. [less ▲]

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See detailThe systematic price of credit risk
François, Pascal; Heck, Stéphanie ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 01)

Using corporate bond index series over a period of 16 years, we provide a detailed decomposition of a bond’s expected returns. We are able to distinguish between the pre- mium related to systematic ... [more ▼]

Using corporate bond index series over a period of 16 years, we provide a detailed decomposition of a bond’s expected returns. We are able to distinguish between the pre- mium related to systematic default risk and the premium related to the default event. We further analyze the determinants of expected returns and of the identified risk premiums, using variables constructed from credit markets, from stock markets and from moment related risk. The variables successfully explain a large part of the variations in those two premiums, however the signs on the variables are exactly opposed in the explanation of the systematic default risk premium and the default event premium. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel nanosized water soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded perylene diimide fluorophores for potential biomedical applications: Cell permeability, localization and cytotoxicity
Bryaskova, Rayna; Georgiev, Nikolai I.; Dimov, Stefan M. et al

in Materials Science & Engineering : C (2015), 51

Novel biocompatiblewater-soluble fluorescent micelleswithembedded perylene diimides (PDI) for intracellular applications have been prepared by self assembling of amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly ... [more ▼]

Novel biocompatiblewater-soluble fluorescent micelleswithembedded perylene diimides (PDI) for intracellular applications have been prepared by self assembling of amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVA-b-PAN) copolymers in the presence of synthesized fluorophores. Amphiphilic PVA-b-PAN copolymers were obtained by selective hydrolysis of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVAc-b-PAN) copolymer. The preparation of the novel fluorescence micelles consisting of PVA hydrophilic shell and PAN hy- drophobic core with incorporated PDI fluorophores has been confirmed by DLS and TEManalysis. The cytotoxic- ity of the water-soluble fluorophores and their internalization into living cells depending on the micellar concentration have been tested. Itwas shown that they could successfully enter in living cellswithout destroying their morphology. The results obtained indicate that the novel water-soluble fluorescent micelles with embed- ded PDI fluorophores would be suitable for potential intracellular biomedical applications. [less ▲]

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See detailThe nonlinear piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber
Soltani, Payam ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Smart Materials and Structures (2015), 24(07), 075015

This paper proposes a piezoelectric vibration absorber, termed the nonlinear piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber (NPTVA), for the mitigation of nonlinear resonances of mechanical systems. The new ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a piezoelectric vibration absorber, termed the nonlinear piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber (NPTVA), for the mitigation of nonlinear resonances of mechanical systems. The new feature of the NPTVA is that its nonlinear restoring force is designed according to a principle of similarity, i.e., the NPTVA should be an electrical analog of the nonlinear host system. Analytical formulas for the NPTVA parameters are derived using the homotopy perturbation method. Doing so, a nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog’s equal-peak tuning rule is developed for piezoelectric vibration absorbers. [less ▲]

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See detailThe physics of badminton
Cohen, Caroline; Darbois-Texier, Baptiste ULg; Quéré, David et al

in New Journal of Physics (2015), 17

The conical shape of a shuttlecock allows it to flip on impact. As a light and extended particle, it flies with a pure drag trajectory.We first study the flip phenomenon and the dynamics of the flight and ... [more ▼]

The conical shape of a shuttlecock allows it to flip on impact. As a light and extended particle, it flies with a pure drag trajectory.We first study the flip phenomenon and the dynamics of the flight and then discuss the implications on the game. Lastly, a possible classification of different shots is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-period vehicle assignment problem with stochastic transportation order availability
Pironet, Thierry ULg; Crama, Yves ULg

Conference (2015, June 01)

This work investigates optimization techniques for a vehicle-load assignment problem. A company owning a limited fleet of vehicles wants to maximize its operational profit over an infinite horizon divided ... [more ▼]

This work investigates optimization techniques for a vehicle-load assignment problem. A company owning a limited fleet of vehicles wants to maximize its operational profit over an infinite horizon divided into periods. The profit stems from revenues for transporting full truckloads and costs derived from waiting idle and moving unladen. The stochastic component of the problem arises from projections on the realization of each transportation order, i.e. load. The methodology is based on optimizing decisions for deterministic scenarios. Several policies are generated in this way, from simple heuristics to more complex approaches, such as consensus and restricted expectation algorithms, up to policies derived from network flow models formulated over subtrees of scenarios. Myopic and a-posteriori deterministic optimizations models are used to compute bounds allowing for performance evaluation. Tests are performed on various instances featuring different number of loads, graph sizes, sparsity, and probability distributions. Performances are compared statistically over paired samples. The robustness of various policies with respect to erroneous évaluations of the probability distributions is also analyzed. [less ▲]

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See detailBIOREFINE Project – Recovery of useful nutrients from organic wastes produced in five European countries (3AV.3.55)
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; De Clercq, Lies; Michels, Evi et al

Poster (2015, June 01)

At this time, many wastes are used or eliminated through processes that do not really consider their potential applications. Such wastes contain useful nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), the ... [more ▼]

At this time, many wastes are used or eliminated through processes that do not really consider their potential applications. Such wastes contain useful nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), the importance of which has been demonstrated in agriculture for many years. The composition of wastes is highly heterogeneous, which makes treatment techniques more difficult to apply on a large scale. Sewage sludge is usually used as a fertilizer in agriculture, in energy production or in the field of construction. The main use of manure is agriculture, although considerable amounts of nutrients are lost and cause pollution. Digestate is also used in agriculture, but other alternatives have been proposed. Ashes should also be highlighted, although they do not contain nitrogen, which is lost into the atmosphere during the combustion process. Finally, household and industrial wastes are resources that should be considered as well. Those different types of wastes could be recycled to produce environment-friendly fertilizers. Here, we propose to investigate these opportunities inside five European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, United Kingdom and The Netherlands) through five work packages with the BioRefine Project. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la périménopause à la ménopause, quel intérêt d'un examen biologique
BELIARD, Aude ULg

in Revue de la Médecine Générale (2015), 324

Do hormonal blood tests provide support to the management of perimenopause? Should there be a systematic biological assessment before initiating hormonal therapy and to help monitoring it?

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See detailLinking political discourses on science with an evolving and densely populated context: Exploring the prospects of Cultural Political Economy
Charlier, Nathan ULg

Conference (2015, June)

As a PhD student, I investigate the multiple ways science is conceived and valued in a research and innovation (R&I) policy context under seismic shifts (Tyfield, 2012): I aim at analyzing and comparing ... [more ▼]

As a PhD student, I investigate the multiple ways science is conceived and valued in a research and innovation (R&I) policy context under seismic shifts (Tyfield, 2012): I aim at analyzing and comparing the various political discourses about R&I in Flanders and Wallonia (the two main regions of Federal Belgium). With regards to that goal, I am currently in the process of analyzing a corpus of 33 semi-structured interviews with principal investigators of two University biotech research centers, with members of two University research management boards, and with representatives of two regional science policy advisory boards. In order to analyze this particular set of discourses, I build on various sensitizing concepts (van den Hoonard 1997) such as policy narratives (Radaelli, 2000), while following the tenets of Grounded Theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). However, it is, I believe, necessary to connect the specific discourses I am studying to a broader context made of institutions, of actors engaged in power relationships, of policies and policy reforms, of a specific history, of other discourses, etc. The way one build ties between a particular set of data and broader contextual aspects is key to a fruitful sociological analysis. My proposal is to explore the potentialities offered by Cultural Political Economy (Sum & Jessop, 2013), an approach concerned with “the relation between semiosis and structuration in political economy” (Sum & Jessop, 2013: X), when trying to link discourses on R&I to the context they are part of. Acknowledging the “interdependence and co-evolution of the semiotic and extra-semiotic” (ibid., 23), CPE offers heuristic tools to study the articulation of specific discourses “with technologies and agency” (ibid., 20). My communication will disclose the iterative process of discourse analysis relying on CPE, as well as its results. [less ▲]

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See detailSuccessions internationales sous l'empire du Règlement 650/2012: Principes & planification
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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