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See detail1-D shallow water model for industrial practice: Application to the River Romanche
Goffin, Louis ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

Scientific conference (2016, October 25)

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See detailPlace de l'élevage bovin dans l'économie rurale des Peuls du Nord Bénin
Chabi Toko, Roukayath ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Fulani belong to a socio-cultural group mainly encountered in West Africa and usually raises cattle. In Benin, Fulani are predominantly met in the two eastern departments of the North where they lead an ... [more ▼]

Fulani belong to a socio-cultural group mainly encountered in West Africa and usually raises cattle. In Benin, Fulani are predominantly met in the two eastern departments of the North where they lead an agro-pastoral way of life. In addition to livestock farming, they cultivate food and cash crops such as cotton. However, they hold majority of the country’s cattle population. The present study was initiated to understand to what extend cattle contributes to their rural economy. A stratified random sample of 150 heads of Fulani households, cattle farmers have been identified in Malanville, Banikoara and Kalalé districts in Borgou and Alibori departments. The criteria considered were: the agro-ecological zone, cattle population and the importance of Fulani population. The first series of surveys enable to characterize Fulani’s cattle farming system and their family farms. Among the 50 heads of households of Kalalé district (which has the more important Fulani community), 16 were selected and it is within their households that the study continued. The households selected were that with a better milk production. Surveys were then carried out during two years, both in dry season and rainy season to describe the Fulani’s household’s economy. The cattle stock composition showed a gender imbalance, with a preponderance of female stock (76%). Cattle herds which average size were 66 animals are made of 86% of Borgou breed. The herds have low breeding performance characterized by a high rate of calf mortality (10%) and low reproductive parameters: calving and fertility rates were 64%. The purchase of fodder in dry season, which concerns 17% of farmers, is a practice encountered in agroecological zones that register light rainfall. Fulani’s large households enable them to have enough family labor to carry out both livestock and agriculture activities. The land is mostly inherited and the average size for a household is about 10.5 ha. All Fulani households are crops producers of which majority (80%) is consumed. A significant part (45%) of them grow an average of 3.3 ha of cotton. In Fulani family farms, cattle represent 52% of the household livestock size; there is also small ruminants and poultry. This cattle permit to majority (76%) of Fulani households to have milk for sale. But milk is managed to favor household consumption and ensure the herd's reproduction. The organization around milk involves male and female. The profits from milk and cheese are distributed among the women of the household at various levels. Although the low (7%) cattle market rate, it contributes significantly (68%) to the household’s monetary income in rainy season and represents the second source (27%) of revenue in dry season. The 20% of food products are mainly sold in dry season and thus contribute to the majority (64%) of income sources. However, when rains started late and the delayed payment of cotton fees, the majority of Fulani households’ cash income in the rainy season, came from cotton (64%) and food products (23%). The growing involvement of Fulani cattle herders of northern Benin on the foodstuffs market and in cotton will lead to two types of farms with opposed production targets (those that will favor livestock and others agriculture). Fulani are a target population that should receive a little more support from authorities because enable them to value their resources would ensure availability and accessibility of food and pastoral products and contribute to the improvement of country’s agricultural production. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecific interests in Autism with versus without speech onset delay : the importance of perceptually versus thematically organized interests
Chiodo, Liliane ULg; Eusèbe, Sandrine; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

Poster (2016, October 25)

To explore whether autistic adults with versus without speech delay also differ in the perceptual vs thematic nature of their specific interests.

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See detailLes impacts socio-économiques des indications géographiques
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Aucuit, Natacha; Parmentier, Isabelle et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Monter un dossier en vue d’obtenir un label européen AOP ou IGP peut s’avérer fastidieux et long : cela implique un consensus entre producteurs, le cahier des charges comprend un volet technique mais ... [more ▼]

Monter un dossier en vue d’obtenir un label européen AOP ou IGP peut s’avérer fastidieux et long : cela implique un consensus entre producteurs, le cahier des charges comprend un volet technique mais aussi un volet socio-historique, et les étapes de la procédure s’étendent sur de nombreux mois. Les producteurs sont donc en droit de se demander quelles pourront être les retombées de cette labélisation. Cette présentation illustre les impacts socio-économiques des indications géographiques et démontre l’intérêt de ces labels pour les producteurs. [less ▲]

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See detailDes expériences vécues aux savoirs d'expérience : (in)former la santé et la maladie dans des associations de patients en Belgique francophone
Duysens, Fanny ULg

Conference (2016, October 25)

Le diagnostic médical d'une pathologie est un événement significatif dans les parcours de vie des patients et de leurs proches. Il vient catégoriser des symptômes, participer aux processus de (re ... [more ▼]

Le diagnostic médical d'une pathologie est un événement significatif dans les parcours de vie des patients et de leurs proches. Il vient catégoriser des symptômes, participer aux processus de (re)construction de soi, et induire des attitudes et comportements en vue d'intervenir activement sur les événements. Notamment, il correspond pour certains au moment de leur engagement au sein d'une association concernée par la pathologie ou le syndrome diagnostiqué en question. De telles associations de patients s'impliquent souvent dans diverses activités de production, de mobilisation et de circulation de connaissances sur les conditions et leurs causes. Ces modes d'activisme dits "basés sur la connaissance" (evidence-based activism) se caractérisent par une articulation étroite entre des connaissances issues d'expertise biomédicale et des connaissances expérientielles, issues des expériences vécues au quotidien par les patients et leurs proches, dont ils revendiquent la légitimité. S'inscrivant à la croisée des Science and Technology Studies et de l'anthropologie de la santé et de la maladie, la présente communication vise à explorer les dynamiques de cette articulation à partir d'une ethnographie multi-site menée auprès d'associations belges francophones concernées par des pathologies ou syndromes génétiques. Plus particulièrement, la communication s'intéresse à un projet d'information et de sensibilisation autour du trouble du spectre autistique (TSA) qui est développé par un groupe de parents concernés. Le TSA y est défini comme une condition complexe et multidimensionnelle, aux causes incertaines et controversées mais dont ils revendiquent la part déterminante de la génétique. Comment des "connaissances expérientielles" sont-elles produites, validées et mises en circulation dans le cadre de telles activités ? Au-delà de la simple information, les observations montrent qu'elles comportent des enjeux identitaires importants. [less ▲]

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See detailORBi : user friendly interface & services
Chalono, Dominique ULg; Dohogne, Cécile ULg

Scientific conference (2016, October 25)

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See detailInventory routing for perishable products
Rezaei Sadrabadi, Mahmood ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

We explore three problems in this thesis and develop solution methods for each problem. First, an inventory routing problem for a perishable product with stochastic demands is considered and different ... [more ▼]

We explore three problems in this thesis and develop solution methods for each problem. First, an inventory routing problem for a perishable product with stochastic demands is considered and different approximate solution methods are developed to solve. Based on computational experiments, the solution methods are compared in terms of average profit, service level, and actual freshness. The impact of relevant parameters on the performance of the solution methods is investigated. Managerial insights are drawn by analyzing the impact of shelf life and store capacity on the profit. The value of considering uncertainty and the value of accessing full information are measured. The computational results highlight that a simple ordering policy can often replace a more sophisticated solution method, while preserving the same efficacy. Second, we introduce a vehicle routing problem (VRP) where a set of stores places deterministic orders to a logistics service provider (LSP) for two successive periods. Deliveries requested in each period can be shifted by the LSP to the other period, possibly with modified quantities. The LSP incurs a penalty for any diversion from the initial delivery period. The data regarding shifted delivery quantities and penalties are provided by the stores. From the perspective of the LSP, diversions could be beneficial if savings in the routing costs outweigh the penalties. In this work, we introduce a new two-period VRP model where the LSP seeks to improve its total cost, compared to solving two independent VRPs with fixed delivery periods, by allowing deliveries to be shifted. We solve this model to optimality by an efficient branch-and-price algorithm implementing several cutting-edge techniques. We draw algorithmic and managerial insights based on our test instances. Third, a two-period VRP is considered where the orders placed by stores for each period can be partially shifted to the other period, given that the sum of the delivery quantities in two periods to each customer is fixed. A linear penalization of delivery shifts is assumed based on the quantity shifted. We represent two mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulations for the problem. A column-row generation algorithm to solve the LP-relaxation of the first formulation is developed. To solve the LP-relaxation of the second formulation, we develop a column generation algorithm. Details of two label-setting algorithms to solve the pricing problems of the column-row generation and column generation algorithms are discussed. Numerical results can be compared with a similar model in which only full delivery shifts are allowed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa importación literaria a finales del siglo XIX en Colombia: el caso de José Asunción Silva
Mogollon Zapata, Juan Manuel ULg

Conference (2016, October 25)

The analysis of the of Silva’s collection of works places us in quite a disconcerting, yet no less encouraging, position, when re-assessing the different forms of importing literary movements. On one hand ... [more ▼]

The analysis of the of Silva’s collection of works places us in quite a disconcerting, yet no less encouraging, position, when re-assessing the different forms of importing literary movements. On one hand, the image attributed to Silva both by his contemporaries and his successors is that of the leading figure in the assimilation and absorption of the literary European movements that would give rise to modernism. On the other hand, the absence of public visibility for Silva’s works, be it through texts or paratexts, let us in a difficult situation to prove the poet’s will to position himself as the one who introduced the new literary movement to Colombia. If we accept from the outset, as we will in this article, that the Colombian poet possessed an obstinate determination to appropriate and assimilate the European literary movements that give rise to modernism, then we must entertain the possibility that Silva’s literary transfer took place through media other than books, journals or magazines. Our hypothesis is that by focusing on the acts of reading and poise, the literary coterie became the ideal platform for the Colombian writer to adopt and propagate the image of the decadent writer, which would become the embodiment of the aesthetic ideals of modern literature. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit international : un fleuron de la Belgique
Genin, Vincent ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 ULg)
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See detailA benchmark for urban flood modelling
Arrault, Anaïs; Finaud-Guyot, Pascal; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2016, October 25)

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See detailVelocimetry of superconducting vortices based on stroboscopic resonances
Jelic, Zeljko ULg; Milosevic, Milorad; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

An experimental determination of the mean vortex velocity in superconductors mostly relies on the measurement of flux-flow resistance with magnetic field, temperature, or driving current. In the present ... [more ▼]

An experimental determination of the mean vortex velocity in superconductors mostly relies on the measurement of flux-flow resistance with magnetic field, temperature, or driving current. In the present work we introduce a method combining conventional transport measurements and a frequency-tuned flashing pinning potential to obtain reliable estimates of the vortex velocity. The proposed device is characterized using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism, where the velocimetry method exploits the resonances in mean vortex dissipation when temporal commensuration occurs between the vortex crossings and the flashing potential. We discuss the sensitivity of the proposed technique on applied current, temperature and heat diffusion, as well as the vortex core deformations during fast motion. [less ▲]

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See detailUn cadrage général pour l'éducation aux médias?
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2016, October 24)

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See detailTopos de Grothendieck et fonctions holomorphes tempérées
Dubussy, Christophe ULg

Conference (2016, October 24)

Dans les années 60, Grothendieck révolutionna la géométrie algébrique en introduisant le concept de topos. Faisant face à des situations où la notion d'ouvert était trop restrictive pour comprendre les ... [more ▼]

Dans les années 60, Grothendieck révolutionna la géométrie algébrique en introduisant le concept de topos. Faisant face à des situations où la notion d'ouvert était trop restrictive pour comprendre les phénomènes géométriques sous-jacents, il définit une nouvelle notion de topologie dans le langage de la théorie des catégories. Très utilisée pour résoudre des problèmes de géométrie et d'analyse contemporains, cette notion a aussi de nombreuses applications surprenantes en logique (théorie intuitionniste, équivalence de Morita, etc ...). Dans ce séminaire je proposerai une application de la théorie des topos de Grothendieck pour étudier les fonctions et les distributions tempérées. En effet, ces objets ne forment un faisceau que sur une topologie de Grothendieck particulière (la topologie sous-analytique), qui n'est pas une topologie au sens usuel du terme. Je montrerai alors, de manière abstraite, comment définir un faisceau de fonctions holomorphes tempérées qui a joué un rôle crucial dans la démonstration de la correspondance de Riemann-Hilbert (généralisation du 21ème problème d'Hilbert). En particulier, ce nouveau faisceau fournira une nouvelle définition, presque purement algébrique, des distributions de Schwartz. [less ▲]

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See detailThe recent increase of methane from 10 years of NDACC ground-based FTIR observations
Bader, Whitney ULg

Conference (2016, October 24)

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See detailAlgunas consideraciones metodológicas sobre la teoría de las transferencias
Mogollon Zapata, Juan Manuel ULg

Conference (2016, October 24)

Las siguientes consideraciones metodológicas surgen esencialmente de la confrontación de la teoría de las transferencias con mi corpus actual de trabajo, esto es, con las modalidades de importación ... [more ▼]

Las siguientes consideraciones metodológicas surgen esencialmente de la confrontación de la teoría de las transferencias con mi corpus actual de trabajo, esto es, con las modalidades de importación literaria durante el modernismo, época que, como todos sabemos, constituyó un momento de apertura privilegiado para la apropiación y asimilación de las producciones culturales extranjeras. Los escollos metodológicos encontrados a medida que avanzábamos en la problematización de nuestro corpus sirvieron pues de estímulo para integrar y transponer algunos conceptos y herramientas teóricas tomados principalmente de la teoría de los campos de Pierre Bourdieu, del análisis del discurso a la manera de Dominique Maingueneau y de la poética histórica de los soportes tal y como ha sido desarrollada en Francia por Alain Vaillant y Marie-Ève Thérenty. Es a partir de dicho diálogo que podemos hoy afinar ciertos conceptos y herramientas teóricas indispensables para repensar algunos puntos ciegos de la teoría de las transferencias. [less ▲]

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See detailThermochemical conversion of sugar industry by-products to biofuel
Nicodème, Thibault ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Poster (2016, October 24)

Poster concernant la conversion des co-produits de l'industrie sucrière en biocarburants via la voie thermochimique. Description des procédés tels que la gazéification, Fischer-Trospch, la pyrolyse.

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See detailMyoferlin regulates cellular lipid metabolism and promotes metastases in triple-negative breast cancer
Blomme, Arnaud; Costanza, Brunella ULg; De Tullio, Pascal ULg et al

in Oncogene (2016)

Myoferlin is a multiple C2-domain-containing protein that regulates membrane repair, tyrosine kinase receptor function and endocytosis in myoblasts and endothelial cells. Recently it has been reported as ... [more ▼]

Myoferlin is a multiple C2-domain-containing protein that regulates membrane repair, tyrosine kinase receptor function and endocytosis in myoblasts and endothelial cells. Recently it has been reported as overexpressed in several cancers and shown to contribute to proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells. We have previously demonstrated that myoferlin regulates epidermal growth factor receptor activity in breast cancer. In the current study, we report a consistent overexpression of myoferlin in triple-negative breast cancer cells (TNBC) over cells originating from other breast cancer subtypes. Using a combination of proteomics, metabolomics and electron microscopy, we demonstrate that myoferlin depletion results in marked alteration of endosomal system and metabolism. Mechanistically, myoferlin depletion caused impaired vesicle traffic that led to a misbalance of saturated/unsaturated fatty acids. This provoked mitochondrial dysfunction in TNBC cells. As a consequence of the major metabolic stress, TNBC cells rapidly triggered AMP activated protein kinase-mediated metabolic reprogramming to glycolysis. This reduced their ability to balance between oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, rendering TNBC cells metabolically inflexible, and more sensitive to metabolic drug targeting in vitro. In line with this, our in vivo findings demonstrated a significantly reduced capacity of myoferlin-deficient TNBC cells to metastasise to lungs. The significance of this observation was further supported by clinical data, showing that TNBC patients whose tumors overexpress myoferlin have worst distant metastasis-free and overall survivals. This novel insight into myoferlin function establishes an important link between vesicle traffic, cancer metabolism and progression, offering new diagnostic and therapeutic concepts to develop treatments for TNBC patients. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de l'impact socio-économique en aval des aménagements hydroélectriques : exemple du barrage hydroélectrique de Nam Mang 3 au Laos
Kouangpalath, Phimthong ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Since two decades, hydropower projects are multiplying in Laos. These projects are often criticized in the media and civil society organizations for their negative social and environmental impacts, which ... [more ▼]

Since two decades, hydropower projects are multiplying in Laos. These projects are often criticized in the media and civil society organizations for their negative social and environmental impacts, which can also generate regional geopolitical tensions in Southeast Asia. In this sensitive context, our interest has focused on rural populations downstream of hydropower dams; these populations are often ignored by compensation programs reserved for displaced populations from upstream. The objective of the research is to identify and assess the socio-economic effects in the Nam Nyam Valley (Vientiane Province, Lao PDR), downstream of the Nam Mang 3 hydropower dam. A current diagnostic-analysis of the agrarian system of the valley, together with a characterization of the recent evolution was conducted by household surveys in different villages. The diachronic study of agrarian dynamics and understanding the links of causality enabled us to model a counterfactual scenario to isolate, by difference with the current situation (scenario "with project"), the specific effects of the dam. In parallel, a similar approach was employed downstream of the Nam Lik 1-2 hydropower dam in the Meuang Feuang basin (Vientiane province, Lao PDR) in order to compare with the results of the Nam Nyam Valley, to better characterize the specific effects of hydropower infrastructure developments. As a result, the evolution of agrarian systems in the valleys downstream depends on the combination, variable over time, of several political, economic, demographic, environmental, technical, social, etc. factors. A hydropower dam, like the one of Nam Mang 3 is part of complex and continuous dynamics of transformation; its impact is not only the sole cause of changes affecting the communities. The socio-economic effects influence over time a much larger population downstream than upstream, even if the media attract the attention on punctual displacement of villages (and their compensation) to fill the reservoir. The hydropower dam project effects differ according to phases (construction, reservoir filling, operation) and social categories, depending on the investment capacities, adaptation and networks of each category. The socio-economic impact downstream is not assumed to be correlated with the size of hydropower dam, but its design and mode of water management are the key criteria of the importance of negative externalities. The massive investments in these projects have also positive effects for the local population, such as the development of local infrastructure, which open up villages and provide access to public services and markets. However, these positive externalities mainly concern well-off villagers disposing of capital and networks to benefit of new opportunities, while poor families are more vulnerable to changes in the political, environmental, technical and socio-economic context. Thus, hydropower dams contribute to increased socio-economic differentiation in villages downstream, with the poor left out of the profits from the energy export. [less ▲]

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