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See detailLOTUS: a low-cost, ultraviolet spectrograph
Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 460

We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all ... [more ▼]

We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5 × 95 arcsec) and wide (5 × 25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration, respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Å with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependent spectral resolution of R = 225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg, we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is <2 Å rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 19 Feb. 2016 Outburst of Comet 67P/CG: An ESA Rosetta Multi-Instrument Study
Grün, E.; Agarwal, J.; Altobelli, N. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016)

On 19 Feb. 2016 nine Rosetta instruments serendipitously observed an outburst of gas and dust from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Among these instruments were cameras and spectrometers ... [more ▼]

On 19 Feb. 2016 nine Rosetta instruments serendipitously observed an outburst of gas and dust from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Among these instruments were cameras and spectrometers ranging from UV over visible to microwave wavelengths, in-situ gas, dust and plasma instruments, and one dust collector. At 9:40 a dust cloud developed at the edge of an image in the shadowed region of the nucleus. Over the next two hours the instruments recorded a signature of the outburst that significantly exceeded the background. The enhancement ranged from 50% of the neutral gas density at Rosetta to factors >100 of the brightness of the coma near the nucleus. Dust related phenomena (dust counts or brightness due to illuminated dust) showed the strongest enhancements (factors >10). However, even the electron density at Rosetta increased by a factor 3 and consequently the spacecraft potential changed from ˜-16 V to -20 V during the outburst. A clear sequence of events was observed at the distance of Rosetta (34 km from the nucleus): within 15 minutes the Star Tracker camera detected fast particles (˜25 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP]) while 100 μm radius particles were detected by the GIADA dust instrument ˜1 hour later at a speed of ~6 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. The slowest were individual mm to cm sized grains observed by the OSIRIS cameras. Although the outburst originated just outside the FOV of the instruments, the source region and the magnitude of the outburst could be determined. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-92b, WASP-93b and WASP-118b: Three new transiting close-in giant planets
Hay, K. L.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P. et al

E-print/Working paper (2016)

We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric lightcurves. WASP-92 is an F7 star, with a moderately inflated planet orbiting with a period of 2.17 days, which has R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.461 ± 0.077R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 0.805 ± 0.068M[SUB]J[/SUB]. WASP-93b orbits its F4 host star every 2.73 days and has R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.597 ± 0.077R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.47 ± 0.029M[SUB]J[/SUB]. WASP-118b also has a hot host star (F6) and is moderately inflated, where R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.440 ± 0.036R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 0.514 ± 0.020M[SUB]J[/SUB] and the planet has an orbital period of 4.05 days. They are bright targets (V = 13.18, 10.97 and 11.07 respectively) ideal for further characterisation work, particularly WASP-118b, which is being observed by K2 as part of campaign 8. The WASP-93 system has sufficient angular momentum to be tidally migrating outwards if the system is near spin-orbit alignment, which is divergent from the tidal behaviour of the majority of hot Jupiters discovered. [less ▲]

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See detail2D-photochemical model for forbidden oxygen line emission for comet 1P/Halley
Cessateur, G.; De Keyser, J.; Maggiolo, R. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016)

We present here a 2D-model of photochemistry for computing the production and loss mechanisms of the O([SUP]1[/SUP]S) and O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) states, which are responsible for the emission lines at 577.7 nm ... [more ▼]

We present here a 2D-model of photochemistry for computing the production and loss mechanisms of the O([SUP]1[/SUP]S) and O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) states, which are responsible for the emission lines at 577.7 nm, 630 nm, and 636.4 nm, in case of the comet 1P/Halley. The presence of O[SUB]2[/SUB] within cometary atmospheres, measured by the in-situ ROSETTA and GIOTTO missions, necessitates a revision of the usual photochemical models. Indeed, the photodissociation of molecular oxygen also leads to a significant production of oxygen in excited electronic states. In order to correctly model the solar UV flux absorption, we consider here a 2D configuration. While the green to red-doublet ratio is not affected by the solar UV flux absorption, estimates of the red-doublet and green lines emissions are, however, overestimated by a factor of two in the 1D model compared to the 2D model. Considering a spherical symmetry, emission maps can be deduced from the 2D model in order to be directly compared to ground and/or in-situ observations. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of nitrogen stress on winter wheat by multispectral machine vision
Marlier, Guillaume ULg; Gritten, Fanny; Leemans, Vincent ULg et al

Conference (2016, August 01)

Hand-held sensors (SPAD meter, N-Tester, …) used for detecting the leaves nitrogen concentration (Nc) present several drawbacks. The nitrogen concentration is gained by an indirect way through the ... [more ▼]

Hand-held sensors (SPAD meter, N-Tester, …) used for detecting the leaves nitrogen concentration (Nc) present several drawbacks. The nitrogen concentration is gained by an indirect way through the chlorophyll concentration and the leaves have to be fixed in a defined position for the measurements. These drawbacks could be overcome by an imaging device that measures the canopy reflectance. Hence, the objective of the paper is to analyse the potential of multispectral imaging for detecting nitrogen concentration. The tests were carried out on parcels submitted to nitrogen inputs varying from 0 to 180 kg N.ha-1. Reference Nc measurements were obtained by the Kjeldahl method and a Hydro N-Tester (Yara). The developed imaging system comprised a CMOS camera and a set of 22 interference filters ranging from 450 to 950 nm mounted on a wheel steered by a stepper motor. The image acquisition and the motor rotation were controlled by a program written in C++. The crop was imaged vertically at one meter height. The raw images presented 1280×1024 pixels covering an area of approximately 0.25 m² and were recorded with a 12-bit luminance resolution. To deal with the natural irradiance variability of the scene, a white reference was used and the integration time was automatically adjusted for each image. The image treatment included the segmentation of Photosynthetically Active Leaves (PAL) by using Bayes theorem and the computation of the mean PAL reflectance after correction of background and illumination fluctuations. Nc was estimated on the basis of the 22 filters by the Partial Least Square (PLS) method and by four filters selected by the Best Subset Selection (BSS) method. In comparison with the Kjeldahl method, the estimation of Nc by means of the Hydro N-Tester, the PLS method and the BSS method (filters 600-80, 950-100, 650-40 and 450-80 nm) gave determination coefficients equal to 0.53, 0.63, and 0.62, respectively. This indicated that the full multi-spectral approach gave significantly better Nc estimation than a portable device and suggested that a camera equipped with four filters would give similar results. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Cover Song Identification with Hierarchical Rank Aggregation
Osmalsky, Julien ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Proceedings of the 17th International for Music Information Retrieval Conference (2016, August)

Abstract Cover song identification involves calculating pairwise similarities between a query audio track and a database of reference tracks. While most authors make exclusively use of chroma features ... [more ▼]

Abstract Cover song identification involves calculating pairwise similarities between a query audio track and a database of reference tracks. While most authors make exclusively use of chroma features, recent work tends to demonstrate that combining similarity estimators based on multiple audio features increases the performance. We improve this approach by using a hierarchical rank aggregation method for combining estimators based on different features. More precisely, we first aggregate estimators based on global features such as the tempo, the duration, the loudness, the beats, and the average chroma vectors. Then, we aggregate the resulting composite estimator with four popular state-of-the-art methods based on chromas as well as timbre sequences. We further introduce a refinement step for the rank aggregation called “local Kemenization” and quantify its benefit for cover song identification. The performance of our method is evaluated on the Second Hand Song dataset. Our experiments show an significant improvement of the performance, up to an increase of more than 200 % of the number of queries identified in the Top-1, compared to previous results. [less ▲]

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See detailCalcium-Iron Oxide as Energy Storage Medium in Rechargeable Oxide Batteries
Berger, Cornelius M.; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ULg; Hermann, Raphaël ULg et al

in Journal of the American Ceramic Society (2016)

Rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprise a regenerative solid oxide cell (rSOC) and a storage medium for oxygen ions. A sealed ROB avoids pumping loss, heat loss, and gas purity expenses in comparison ... [more ▼]

Rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprise a regenerative solid oxide cell (rSOC) and a storage medium for oxygen ions. A sealed ROB avoids pumping loss, heat loss, and gas purity expenses in comparison with conventional rSOC. However, the iron oxide base storage medium degrades during charging– discharging cycles. In comparison, CaFe3O5 has improved cyclability and a high reversible oxygen storage capacity of 22.3 mol%. In this study, we analyzed the redox mechanism of this compound. After a solid-state synthesis of CaFe3O5, we verified the phase composition and studied the redox reaction by means of X-ray diffraction, Mossbauer spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Results show a great potential to operate the battery with this storage material during multiple charging–discharging cycles. [less ▲]

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See detailHabitat use of an unstudied Lepilemur in the northwest Madagascar: L. mittermeieri
Wilmet, Leslie ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Beudels-Jamar et al

Conference (2016, August)

Biodiversity and endemism is very high in Madagascar and Genus Lepilemur is part of the endemic mammalian fauna of the island. Sportive lemurs have small distribution ranges, fairly small total ... [more ▼]

Biodiversity and endemism is very high in Madagascar and Genus Lepilemur is part of the endemic mammalian fauna of the island. Sportive lemurs have small distribution ranges, fairly small total populations and are particularly negatively affected by deforestation and habitat fragmentation, serious threats for the biological diversity of the island. Our research focus on one poorly-known taxon, Lepilemur mittermeieri. The distribution range of this endangered species is restricted to the Ampasindava peninsula in the northwest Madagascar and ecological information is essential for its preservation. The main objective of our study is to analyze habitat use and niche characteristics of the species and the impact of habitat degradation and fragmentation on these parameters in order to design robust conservation guidelines for the Ampasindava peninsula. In this talk, we will present the project as a whole and results of two 4-months field missions conducted in 2015 and in 2016. These field missions were designed to specifically 1)compare home range size between two sites 2)complete forest characterization of the home range of several radio-collared individuals. The methodology includes the monitoring of 16animals equipped with radio-collar (VHS telemetry) during 6hours per night for a number of days, GPS locations being recorded every 10 minutes. The home range is derived from the telemetry observation through MCP method. [less ▲]

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See detailLes fortifications celtique et carolingienne du Rocher du Vieux-Château à Pont-de-Bonne (Modave, Belgique)
Delye, Emmanuel ULg

Book published by Cercle archéologique Hesbaye-Condroz (2016)

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See detailLa parentalité dans un contexte de violence conjugale : support de résilience ?
Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

Conference (2016, August)

L’accès à la parentalité, quels que soient le contexte social ou conjugal et l’histoire de la femme, s’avère une étape-clé de transition dans la trajectoire personnelle. Le fonctionnement parental est ... [more ▼]

L’accès à la parentalité, quels que soient le contexte social ou conjugal et l’histoire de la femme, s’avère une étape-clé de transition dans la trajectoire personnelle. Le fonctionnement parental est influencé par trois types de facteurs interagissant entre eux : la personnalité du parent (elle-même influencée par son histoire développementale), les caractéristiques individuelles de l'enfant et les sources de soutien et de stress de l'environnement (Belsky,1984).Les recherches sur la parentalité et la résilience se sont principalement centrées sur la résilience des enfants ayant vécu des traumatismes tels que les abus sexuels, où la résilience est activée par la disponibilité et le soutien parental ( Glowacz et Buzitu, 2014). Nos récentes études portant sur les trajectoires de femmes ayant vécu des traumatismes majeurs (violences conjugales, violences de guerre) nous conduisent à considérer l’accès à la parentalité comme un turning point, déclencheur d’un processus de résilience de ces femmes. Des analyses cliniques seront mises en perspective avec des données de recherches ayant évalué le sentiment de compétence parentale (incluant le sentiment d’efficacité et le sentiment de satisfaction), le stress parental et le soutien social perçu de femmes ayant vécu ces traumatismes. Nos observations et résultats nous amènent à questionner la résilience de la mère et les résonances de cette résilience sur l’enfant en développement. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Trade Sanctions related to Dual-Use Goods and Technologies
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULg

in Athens Journal of Law (2016)

One of the basic rules in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, such rule encounters some limitations when the object of trade is constituted by strategic items, such as dual-use items, which may ... [more ▼]

One of the basic rules in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, such rule encounters some limitations when the object of trade is constituted by strategic items, such as dual-use items, which may have peaceful (civilian/commercial) or non peaceful/military applications. Trade of these categories of goods needs to be controlled, as they can provoke security concerns. Such control is pursued through control lists, licenses, authorizations to stakeholders of the supply chain, information- sharing and cooperation mechanisms, reports, records, declarations, screenings and sanctions as well. The paper aims at focusing on the issue of sanctions, in particular the ones established at the international level: these measures are provided for the violation of trade rules in reference to dual-use items, and/or sanctions have as an object this type of goods. The legal provisions established by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and at the United Nations level are analysed thereafter. Brief observations are offered as regards the EU framework of restrictive measures too. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh gene flow between alternative morphs and the evolutionary persistence of facultative paedomorphosis
Oromi Farrús, Neus ULg; Michaux, Johan ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Paedomorphosis and metamorphosis are two major developmental processes that characterize the evolution of complex life cycles in many lineages. Whereas these processes were fixed in some taxa, they ... [more ▼]

Paedomorphosis and metamorphosis are two major developmental processes that characterize the evolution of complex life cycles in many lineages. Whereas these processes were fixed in some taxa, they remained facultative in others, with alternative phenotypes expressed in the same populations. From a genetic perspective, it is still unknown whether such phenotypes form a single population or whether they show some patterns of isolation in syntopy. This has deep implications for understanding the evolution of the phenotypes, i.e. towards their persistence or their fixation and speciation. Newts and salamanders are excellent models to test this hypothesis because they exhibit both developmental processes in their populations: the aquatic paedomorphs retain gills, whereas the metamorphs are able to colonize land. Using microsatellite data of coexisting paedomorphic and metamorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus), we found that they formed a panmictic population, which evidences sexual compatibility between the two phenotypes. The high gene flow could be understood as an adaptation to unstable habitats in which phenotypic plasticity is favored over the fixation of developmental alternatives. This makes then possible the persistence of a polyphenism: only metamorphosis could be maintained in case of occasional drying whereas paedomorphosis could offer specific advantages in organisms remaining in water. [less ▲]

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See detailNarrowing the science/policy gap for environmental management
Hughes, Kevin A; Liggett, Daniela; Roldan, Gabriela et al

in Antarctic Science (2016), 28(5), 325

Antarctic terrestrial and marine environments are under increasing pressure from national operator activities, tourism and climate change. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty ... [more ▼]

Antarctic terrestrial and marine environments are under increasing pressure from national operator activities, tourism and climate change. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides overarching legislation concerning the environmental management of the Treaty area, with 2016 marking the Protocol’s 25th anniversary. The Protocol also established the Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP) to provide advice to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) on environmental matters. Today, the CEP’s Five-Year Work Plan and Climate Change Response Work Programme lists and prioritises issues that need to be addressed to ensure impacts in Antarctica by human activities are both recognized andminimised.Despite all of this, recent evaluations have suggested that a slow pace of environmental policy development presents a significant threat to effective Antarctic conservation. Progress on many environmental issues, including wildlife disturbance, the conservation status of Antarctic species, area protection and pollution management, is glacial or has stalled completely. Whilst in some cases capacity issues concerning those responsible for Antarctic environmental policy work may be a contributing factor, the level of interaction between researchers and those responsible for environmental management and decision-making is also of importance. Without quality science - and effective interpretation of research results - policymakers have little evidence on which to base their decisions. But researchers need to know policymakers’ needs. Two-way communication is essential: policymakers could ask the research community to answer specific environmental questions, and, in turn, researchers could present evidence-based recommendations and highlight emerging threats. But how is this to be funded? Ultimately, effective communication is needed between national government departments responsible for funding Antarctic research and those dealing with Antarctic environmental protection. Hopefully, this will ensure essential research informing environmental policy decisions is adequately resourced. In reality, the cost is likely to be trivial compared with the resources spent by Parties on Antarctic logistics. [less ▲]

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See detailLes cuvettes oasiennes du Niger oriental: entre pratiques foncières et cadre législatif
Malam Boukar, Awa Krou; Yamba, Boubacar; Andres, Ludovic ULg et al

in Revue Internationale des Sciences de Développement (2016), 4(6), 376-388

Despite the new context of the land-law with the land committee, the property owner depends on the traditional law. This paper shows the land system in the south east of the Niger. Nine basin oasis have ... [more ▼]

Despite the new context of the land-law with the land committee, the property owner depends on the traditional law. This paper shows the land system in the south east of the Niger. Nine basin oasis have selected in function of the food system and the proof of the phreatic table. An investigation with 105 producters has showed the description and the analysis of the land access and the conflicts. The analysis shows the strong influence of traditional authorities and the lack of operationalization of COFOB. Finally, the conflicts are generalized between many actors (farmers, pastoralists and agro-pastoralists) and settlement is done mainly by conciliation. Furthermore, the disparity between the men and the women land access is very important. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between frailty, physical performance and quality of life among nursing home residents: the SENIOR cohort
Buckinx, Fanny ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Petermans, Jean ULg et al

in Aging Clinical and Experimental Research (2016), Epub ahead of print

Background The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between frailty and a large number of indicators related to physical and muscular performance as well as quality of life. Methods This is an ... [more ▼]

Background The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between frailty and a large number of indicators related to physical and muscular performance as well as quality of life. Methods This is an analysis of data collected at baseline in the Sample of Elderly Nursing home Individuals: an Observational Research (SENIOR) cohort including nursing home residents. Subjects are volunteer, oriented and able to walk (walking assistance allowed) nursing home residents in Belgium. A large number of demographic and clinical characteristics, including physical and muscular performance, were collected from each patient. The prevalence of frailty in this population was assessed using Fried’s definition. Results In total, 662 subjects are included in this analysis. The mean age of the sample is 83.2 ± 8.99 years, and 484 (73.1 %) are women. In this population of nursing home residents, the prevalence of frailty is 25.1 %, pre-frailty, 59.8 % and robustness, 15.1 %. Compared to non-frail subjects, frail subjects have lower physical and muscular performances and a lower quality of life. Conclusion Frailty, according to Fried’s definition, seems to be associated with several clinical indicators suggesting a higher level of disability and an increased propensity to develop major clinical consequences. Follow-up data of the SENIOR cohort will be helpful in confirming these findings, establishing cause–effect relationships and identifying the most predictive components of physical frailty for adverse outcomes in nursing homes. [less ▲]

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See detailPEGylation of lipoplexes: The right balance between cytotoxicity and siRNA effectiveness
Lechanteur, Anna ULg; Furst, Tania ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2016), 93

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See detailHigh selfing rate, limited pollen dispersal and inbreeding depression in the emblematic African rain forest tree Baillonella toxisperma - Management implications
Duminil, Jérôme; Mendene Abessolo, D. T.; Ndiade Bourobou, D. et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2016), 379

Mating system and gene flow are major influencing factors of species population dynamics and evolution. These factors are often not characterized in tropical tree species, yet they constitute basic ... [more ▼]

Mating system and gene flow are major influencing factors of species population dynamics and evolution. These factors are often not characterized in tropical tree species, yet they constitute basic information that must be considered to implement sustainable management practices. In particular, as logging implies a reduction of the density of congeneric mates, the connectivity through pollination between individuals has to be well characterized (selfing versus outcrossing rates, distances between mates). We conducted a genetic-based analysis (using 10 nuclear microsatellites) to determine the mating system and gene flow characteristics of an emblematic timber tree species from lowland rain forests of the Congo Basin, Baillonella toxisperma (Sapotaceae). The species, which is frequently exploited for its wood and for a number of non-timber forest products, naturally occurs at low densities (ca. 0.01–0.1 individuals/ha). It is supposedly an entomophilous species whose seeds are probably dispersed by mammals. We have shown that the species presents a mixed-mating system (about 20–40% of selfing depending on analysis method). However, the comparison of inbreeding parameters among cohorts suggests that inbred individuals die between seedling and mature tree stages. The mean pollen dispersal distance was relatively low for such a low-density population species (estimated to be 690 or 777 m depending on analysis method) and, together with a low mean number of pollen donors (NEP = 2.76), it suggests a pattern of nearest-neighbour mating where allo-pollen could be a limiting factor. However, B. toxisperma presents a relatively weak genetic structure (Sp statistic = 0.0095) indicative of long gene dispersal distance (rg = 3–5 km according to the assumed effective population density). Overall, this would indicate that gene flow occurs mainly by extensive seed dispersal in this species. These results suggest that mammals and local populations involved in the dispersal of the species play a key role by lowering biparental inbreeding effects. Sustainable population management might require assisted regeneration using unrelated planting material. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistically Bundled Shewhart Control Charts for Monitoring Delivery Chains Systems
Foster, Earnest; Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

in European Journal of Industrial Engineering (2016)

Continuous monitoring of Delivery Time variables by means of control charts in a delivery chain is a very recent application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) to the service sector. The aim of the ... [more ▼]

Continuous monitoring of Delivery Time variables by means of control charts in a delivery chain is a very recent application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) to the service sector. The aim of the proposed method is to provide supply chain decision makers with an easy to be managed tool monitoring the current functioning state of the delivery chain. The implementation of SPC control charts makes it possible to limit over-corrections to false alarm conditions and to maintain at an acceptable level the safety stock, with a consequent reduction of the overall management costs of the delivery chain. An illustrative example shows the proposed control chart implementation in a real delivery chain. [less ▲]

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