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See detailPolyphosphate-based amphiphilic copolymers: synthesis and application to drug nanocarriers
Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Thanks to their biocompatibility and degradability properties, polyphosphates are appealing polymers for biomedical applications, especially for drug delivery systems. In contrast to aliphatic polyesters ... [more ▼]

Thanks to their biocompatibility and degradability properties, polyphosphates are appealing polymers for biomedical applications, especially for drug delivery systems. In contrast to aliphatic polyesters, such as poly(?-caprolactone) and poly(lactide), the pentavalency of phosphorus atom allows the easy modification of the polyphosphate properties by simply adjusting the nature, the length and the functionality of the polyphosphate pendants groups. The goal of this thesis focused on the design of drug nanocarriers based on amphiphilic block copolymer micelles well-suited for the encapsulation of poorly soluble drugs. For that purpose, novel diblock copolymers composed of a water-soluble poly(ethylene oxide) block and a polyphosphate block bearing a variety of alkyl side-groups were synthesized. Firstly, n- butyl, i-butyl and n-heptyl cyclic phosphate monomers were synthesized and used for the organo-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization providing a range of PEO-b-polyphosphate amphiphilic copolymers varying by the architecture and length of the polyphosphate pendant group. Then, post-polymerization thiol-ene click reactions on preformed PEO-b- polybutenylphosphate copolymer was used to graft dodecyl or tocopherol side-chains on the polyphosphate block.The micellization of these amphiphilic block copolymers in aqueous medium was then investigated and a comparative study of the encapsulation and release of a poorly soluble model drug, i.e. ketoconazole, was carried out. Ultimately, the synthesis of a triblock copolymer was investigated to prepare shell- crosslinked core-shell-corona micelles to improve the nanoparticles stability. [less ▲]

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See detailThermodynamik und Reaktions-Technik am Beispiel PA12
Pfennig, Andreas ULg; Haas, Thomas

Conference (2015, April 18)

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See detailBrazil’s South South Cooperation with Africa : a win win Relationship ? The case of biofuel production in Mozambique
Cusson, Gabrielle ULg

Conference (2015, April 18)

Since Lula’s presidency, South-South development cooperation (SSDC) has been at the heart of Brazil foreign policy priorities. Brazil is now recognized as an emerging actor in international development ... [more ▼]

Since Lula’s presidency, South-South development cooperation (SSDC) has been at the heart of Brazil foreign policy priorities. Brazil is now recognized as an emerging actor in international development cooperation considering its financial investments and the deployment of its many technical cooperation projects. Despite its cooperation in its own region, Brazil mobilizes a considerable amount of resources towards SSDC in Africa, and especially in Portuguese speaking countries, where it develops a “solidarity diplomacy”. Among the many technical cooperation partnerships, two fields of SSDS are considered as priorities for Brazil in Africa; agriculture and biofuels production. Being one of the world most important agricultural producer and exporter and due to the fast growing of its agribusiness industry, Brazil possess a specific expertise he wishes to share with Africa to support its agricultural revolution and to insure its food and energy security. Therefore, Mozambique has been identified as a privileged partner to develop agricultural projects, including biofuels production. Among others, ProSAVANA, a trilateral cooperation project developed in collaboration with Japan, is a very important, but controversial project. Being an emerging country, Brazil has its own strategic, political and commercial interests. Therefore, it is relevant to ask ourselves if an emerging country can deploy a selfless SSDC policy and establish a win win relationship? Is Brazil’s SSDC policy motivated by principles of solidarity or is more of a tool to consolidate its status as a global power? This papers wishes to analyses the real motivations behind Brazil’s SSDC towards Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailLire les textes informatifs au début du secondaire : d’un dispositif didactique à l’étude de l’activité des élèves et à l’accompagnement du travail d’appropriation/transformation des enseignants
De Croix, Séverine ULg; Wyns, Marielle

Conference (2015, April 17)

Notre intervention s’appuie sur les premières données issues d’une recherche de type quasi expérimental , subventionnée par la Fondation Louvain (UCL – Louvain-la-Neuve), qui porte sur l’enseignement ... [more ▼]

Notre intervention s’appuie sur les premières données issues d’une recherche de type quasi expérimental , subventionnée par la Fondation Louvain (UCL – Louvain-la-Neuve), qui porte sur l’enseignement, dans l’ordinaire de la classe, des pratiques de lecture et d’écriture des textes informatifs requises pour réussir à l’école (Bautier et Rayou, 2009 ; Crinon, 2011). « Lirécrire pour apprendre » a pour objectifs (1) d’expérimenter, durant deux années scolaires consécutives, un programme didactique conçu comme une réponse à la prise en charge de difficultés langagières que rencontrent de nombreux élèves face aux usages proprement scolaires des écrits documentaires ; (2) de tester la validité de cet outil auprès d’un échantillon constitué de 90 classes de français du premier degré ( Cèbe & Goigoux, 2007) et (3) d’évaluer les conditions d’implémentation et de mise en œuvre du programme (en termes de formation et d’accompagnement des enseignants) les plus à même de favoriser et de maintenir le changement pédagogique (Rowan & Miller, 2007 ; Dumay, 2009). Dans le cadre de cette communication, nous nous proposons de déplier succinctement les difficultés de lecture et d’écriture identifiées en amont de la conception des cinq modules du programme et de présenter les leviers d’action mobilisés au sein de ceux-ci. Le cœur de la contribution portera ensuite sur l’examen de verbalisations et de traces écrites de l’activité des élèves à l’occasion des deux premiers modules du programme mis en œuvre, intitulés « Se familiariser avec les usages des écrits à visée informative, explicative et justificative » et « Sélectionner des informations dans un ou plusieurs texte(s) et les lier entre elles ». Notre analyse des diverses verbalisations générées par ces modules vise la description qualitative de l’activité des élèves en réaction à l’outil pédagogique que nous introduisons et aux supports et documents qu’ils sont amenés à exploiter. Sera également abordée la question de l’appropriation de l’outil par les enseignants. L’examen des verbalisations produites par ces derniers au cours des séances d’accompagnement (dont bénéficient six équipes partenaires) permettra d’observer les écarts et les lieux de convergence entre, d’une part, les pratiques habituelles des enseignants et, d’autre part, les supports et activités proposés par le programme. Nous verrons dans quelle mesure l’implémentation de l’outil didactique dans les classes amène les enseignants à questionner leurs propres postures, à identifier et à mettre en œuvre des gestes professionnels susceptibles de développer chez l’élève des démarches adaptées à la lecture/écriture de textes informatifs. [less ▲]

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See detailLiposomes entrapping apigenin for the treatment of glioblastoma
Karim, Reatul ULg; Palazzo, Claudio ULg; Dubois, Nadège ULg et al

Poster (2015, April 17)

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See detailFictions du groupe littéraire
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Scientific conference (2015, April 17)

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See detailNarrazioni fluttuanti tra distanziamento e recupero del Paesaggio della Mosa
Occhiuto, Rita ULg

Scientific conference (2015, April 17)

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See detailPinpointing the origin of plastids using phylogenomics
Baurain, Denis ULg

Scientific conference (2015, April 17)

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See detailGlobal, diffuse and direct irradiances modelling over northwestern Europe using regional climate model MAR : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology
Beaumet, Julien ULg; Doutreloup, Sébastien ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

Poster (2015, April 17)

Incoming solar global irradiances are modelled using MAR regional climate model forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis. Global irradiances are decomposed into direct and diffuse using sigmoid model from Ruiz ... [more ▼]

Incoming solar global irradiances are modelled using MAR regional climate model forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis. Global irradiances are decomposed into direct and diffuse using sigmoid model from Ruiz-Arias et al. (2010). Results are validated using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas for Uccle and Braunschweig weather stations. A 30-year climatology has been built and trends and variability have been analyzed. [less ▲]

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See detailTSP model for electric vehicle deliveries, considering speed, loading and path slope.
Bay, Maud ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg

Conference (2015, April 17)

In the current Transport White Paper, the European Union presents a roadmap for a more competitive and sustainable European transport system. Concerning Urban Freight Transport, responsible for about a ... [more ▼]

In the current Transport White Paper, the European Union presents a roadmap for a more competitive and sustainable European transport system. Concerning Urban Freight Transport, responsible for about a quarter of CO2 emissions of the transport sector, one of the goals of the EU is to achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban centres by 2030 by developing and deploying new and sustainable fuels and propulsion systems. The gradual phasing out of ‘conventionally-fuelled’ vehicles from the urban environment contributes to reduce oil dependence, greenhouse gas emissions and local air and noise pollution. To meet European air quality standards, authorities of some major European cities have already introduced Low Emissions Zones where access to urban areas is limited to freight vehicles that meet certain emissions standards. Greater use of low-emission urban trucks based on electric, hydrogen and hybrid technologies would reduce air emissions, but also noise, letting to use road infrastructure more efficiently by making night deliveries and avoiding morning and afternoon peak periods. In addition to their role in the reduction of polluting emissions, the development of low-emission vehicles also allows to mitigate the dependence of the transportation sector to high fossil fuel prices. Electric vehicles have the potential to be powered by renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy. However, weaknesses can be found in the limited capacity of the battery and the time needed to recharge, and consequently, the limited driving range of electric vehicle. The main sources for final energy consumption are the vehicle size and the engine characteristics, the load factor, the driving pattern, the gradient which represent the average topology of the country, the speed and the acceleration. To maximize the driving range, a routing model, which aims at minimizing the energy consumption, has to be developed. Our paper focus on the Electric Vehicle Traveling Salesman Problem (EV-TSP): given n cities, find the shortest tour, i.e., the shortest directed cycle containing all cities. The classical objective is to minimize the cost tour scheduling to fulfill delivery requests at each location. In this paper we consider the energy cost and we present an extension of the classical problem to minimize the remaining storage capacity of all electric vehicles at the destination node, knowing that there is no recharge operation on the tour. The objective function accounts not just for the travel distance but also on the load of the vehicle and on its speed while the energy consumption of the engine additionally depends on the path to travel, on the slope of the roads and on the vehicle specifications. Moreover, negative consumption that may happen due to regenerative breaking and kinetic energy capture on downhill paths is taken into consideration. Mathematical model is described and computational experiments are performed. [less ▲]

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See detailLes documents administratifs du recto du P.Vat. Gr. 11
Ricciardetto, Antonio ULg

in Amato, Eugenio; Marganne, Marie-Hélène (Eds.) Le traité "Sur l'exil" de Favorinos d'Arles. Papyrologie, philologie et littérature (2015, April 17)

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See detailDiriger un établissement d'accueil de la petite enfance : une question centrale pour le développement d'une qualité des services
Pirard, Florence ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Le rôle central des responsables des services d’éducation et d’accueil des jeunes enfants (EAJE) pour le développement d’une qualité de services est souligné dans de nombreux rapports internationaux ... [more ▼]

Le rôle central des responsables des services d’éducation et d’accueil des jeunes enfants (EAJE) pour le développement d’une qualité de services est souligné dans de nombreux rapports internationaux. Citons notamment les travaux de l’OCDE (à paraître), plus particulièrement la partie consacrée au « quality workforce » et à son monitoring. Pourtant, selon les contextes, les contours de ce rôle ne sont pas toujours clairement établis ; ils peuvent être source de confusion et d’ambiguïté. La difficulté de gérer les services en conciliant des fonctions sociales, éducatives et économiques est clairement posée. La difficulté également de gérer une équipe dont les membres ont des statuts parfois précaires, des niveaux de formation disparates dans un cadre budgétaire restreint. Dans ce contexte comment relever le défi d’élaborer et de développer une dynamique de projet éducatif concerté dans tous les services qu’ils soient en collectivité ou à domicile, en milieu urbain ou rural ? Ce problème est clairement posé en Belgique francophone où aucune formation spécifique à l’enfance de niveau supérieur n’est organisée, où aucune expérience utile aux fonctions de direction n’est exigée à ce jour. Une recherche en voie de finalisation (juin 2015) visant à mieux définir les compétences nécessaires aux fonctions d’accueil et d’encadrement des services à l’enfance a permis d’associer une série d’acteurs de l’enfance, de l’enseignement, de la formation et de responsables politico-administratifs. Dans une démarche de recherche-action, il s’est agi de se décentrer des réalités de la Belgique francophone pour comprendre comment les questions se posent aussi dans d’autres contextes européens (France, Flandre, Angleterre, Suède) et ensuite, de prendre des décisions relatives à la redéfinition des référentiels métiers et de formation, à la révision des textes réglementaires pour les services. Tout en évitant de donner des directives universelles qui nieraient les spécificités de contexte, notre intervention propose de relever une série de questions clés relatives aux fonctions de direction, de points de vigilances à relever ainsi que des idées retenues comme essentielles pour l’avenir. [less ▲]

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See detailLa voix professionnelle
Garnier, Maëva; Remacle, Angélique ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailImpact of Aphasia on Consciousness Assessment: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Schnakers, C; Bessou, H; Rubi-Fessen, I et al

in Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair (2015), 29

BACKGROUND: . Previous findings suggest that language disorders may occur in severely brain-injured patients and could interfere with behavioral assessments of consciousness. However, no study ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: . Previous findings suggest that language disorders may occur in severely brain-injured patients and could interfere with behavioral assessments of consciousness. However, no study investigated to what extent language impairment could affect patients' behavioral responses. OBJECTIVE: . To estimate the impact of receptive and/or productive language impairments on consciousness assessment. METHODS: . Twenty-four acute and subacute stroke patients with different types of aphasia (global, n = 11; Broca, n = 4; Wernicke, n = 3; anomic, n = 4; mixed, n = 2) were recruited in neurology and neurosurgery units as well as in rehabilitation centers. The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) was administered. RESULTS: . We observed that 25% (6 out of 24) of stroke patients with a diagnosis of aphasia and 54% (6 out of 11) of patients with a diagnosis of global aphasia did not reach the maximal CRS-R total score of 23. An underestimation of the consciousness level was observed in 3 patients with global aphasia who could have been misdiagnosed as being in a minimally conscious state, even in the absence of any documented period of coma. More precisely, lower subscores were observed on the communication, motor, oromotor, and arousal subscales. CONCLUSION: . Consciousness assessment may be complicated by the co-occurrence of severe language deficits. This stresses the importance of developing new tools or identifying items in existing scales, which may allow the detection of language impairment in severely brain-injured patients. [less ▲]

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See detailSnow cover evolution during the last fifty years in the Hautes Fagnes (Belgium) using the regional climate MAR model
Wyard, Coraline ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg

Conference (2015, April 16)

The MAR model is a regional climate model originally developped for the polar regions to study the surface mass balance. In this study, the MAR model has been adapted to Belgium in order to study the snow ... [more ▼]

The MAR model is a regional climate model originally developped for the polar regions to study the surface mass balance. In this study, the MAR model has been adapted to Belgium in order to study the snow cover evolution of the Hautes Fagnes (south-east of Belgium), a region covered by snow one to two months per year. As validation, we have sucessfully compared MAR based daily snow heights with snowcam-based observations. Then, the model has been forced by ERA-Interim since 1958 to study the snow cover evolution during the last fifty years at the summit of Belgium. The results show non-significant trend. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une "dématérialisation" des droits fondamentaux? Convergence des droits fondamentaux dans une protection fragmentée, à la lumière du raisonnement du juge constitutionnel belge
Rosoux, Géraldine ULg

in Revue des droits et libertés fondamentaux (2015)

Cet article contient un résumé de thèse (RDLF 2015, thèse n° 10), disponible sur http://www.revuedlf.com/theses/vers-une-dematerialisation-des-droits-fondamentaux-convergence-des-droits-fondamentaux-dans ... [more ▼]

Cet article contient un résumé de thèse (RDLF 2015, thèse n° 10), disponible sur http://www.revuedlf.com/theses/vers-une-dematerialisation-des-droits-fondamentaux-convergence-des-droits-fondamentaux-dans-une-protection-fragmentee-a-la-lumiere-du-raisonnement-du-juge-constitutionnel-belge/ [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of soil structural changes through macroscopic and microscopic measurement
Parvin, Nargish ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg; Chelin, Marie ULg et al

Poster (2015, April 16)

The heterogeneity of soil structure and pore size distribution are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other agricultural management practices. However, changes in soil ... [more ▼]

The heterogeneity of soil structure and pore size distribution are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other agricultural management practices. However, changes in soil hydrodynamic behavior are not fully understood and are still under research. Also, researchers have explained the impact of tillage practices on soil hydraulic properties related to pore size distribution, connectivity and orientation are involved but the characterization of these modifications and consequences remains a challenge. Furthermore, the relation between macroscopic measurements and microscopic investigation of the soil structure remains scarce. Recently, X-ray tomography (X- μCT) has been used in order to characterize changes in soil pore size distribution in various contexts and the method is able to link microtomography information to hydrodynamic measurement. In our study, X-μCT has been used in order to characterize changes in soil pore system. Since, tomography does not count most of the micropores, Richards’ pressure plate and evaporation method was also combined to get complete range of pore size distribution. We found good match between evaporation data with X-μCT at the macropore scale and evaporation data with pressure plate method at micropore scale. X-μCT data refines retention and hydraulic curves near saturation where Richards’ data alone can lead to numerous sets of fitted parameters. On the otherhand, evaporation data (Hyprop apparatus ©) provide comparable datasets with X-μCT. Combining micro and macroscopic measurements allows us to validate X-μCT information, which is otherwise not so obvious. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of Zinc, Cadmium and Lead Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils at the Single-Cell Level by a Combination of Whole-Cell Biosensors and Flow Cytometry
Hurdebise, Quentin ULg; Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg et al

in Sensors (2015)

Zinc, lead and cadmium are metallic trace elements (MTEs) that are widespread in the environment and tend to accumulate in soils because of their low mobility and non-degradability. The purpose of this ... [more ▼]

Zinc, lead and cadmium are metallic trace elements (MTEs) that are widespread in the environment and tend to accumulate in soils because of their low mobility and non-degradability. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the applicability of biosensors as tools able to provide data about the bioavailability of such MTEs in contaminated soils. Here, we tested the genetically-engineered strain Escherichia coli pPZntAgfp as a biosensor applicable to the detection of zinc, lead and cadmium by the biosynthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) accumulating inside the cells. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the fluorescence induced by the MTEs. A curvilinear response to zinc between 0 and 25 mg/L and another curvilinear response to cadmium between 0 and 1.5 mg/L were highlighted in liquid media, while lead did not produce exploitable results. The response relating to a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 was further investigated. In these conditions, E. coli pPZntAgfp responded to cadmium only. Several contaminated soils with a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 were analyzed with the biosensor, and the metallic concentrations were also measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that E. coli pPZntAgfp could be used as a monitoring tool for contaminated soils being processed. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic correlations between methane production and milk fatty acid contents of Walloon Holstein cattle throughout the lactation
Vanrobays, Marie-Laure ULg; Vandenplas, Jérémie ULg; Bastin, Catherine ULg et al

Poster (2015, April 16)

Methane (CH4) from ruminal fermentation is the major greenhouse gas produced by dairy cattle which contributes largely to climate change. Production of CH4 also represents losses of gross energy intake ... [more ▼]

Methane (CH4) from ruminal fermentation is the major greenhouse gas produced by dairy cattle which contributes largely to climate change. Production of CH4 also represents losses of gross energy intake. Therefore, there is a growing interest in mitigating these emissions. Acetate and butyrate have common bio-chemical pathways with CH4. Because some milk fatty acids (FA) arise from acetate and butyrate, milk FA are often considered as potential predictors of CH4. However, relationships between these traits remain unclear. Moreover, the evolution of the phenotypic and genetic correlations of CH4 and milk FA across days in milk (DIM) has not been evaluated. The main goal of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between CH4 and milk FA contents throughout the lactation. Calibration equations predicting daily CH4 production (g/d) and milk FA contents (g/100 dL of milk) from milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra were applied on MIR spectra related to Walloon milk recording. Data included 243,260 test-day records (between 5 and 365 DIM) from 33,850 first-parity Holstein cows collected in 630 herds. Pedigree included 109,975 animals. Bivariate (i.e., CH4 production and one of the FA traits) random regression test-day models were used to estimate genetic parameters of CH4 production and 7 groups of FA contents in milk. Saturated (SFA), short-chain (SCFA), and medium-chain FA (MCFA) showed positive averaged daily genetic correlations with CH4 production (from 0.25 to 0.29). Throughout the lactation, genetic correlations between SCFA and CH4 were low in the beginning of the lactation (0.11 at 5 DIM) and higher at the end of the lactation (0.54 at 365 DIM). Regarding SFA and MCFA, genetic correlations between these groups of FA and CH4 were more stable during the lactation with a slight increase (from 0.23 to 0.31 for SFA and from 0.23 to 0.29 for MCFA, at 5 and 365 DIM respectively). Furthermore, averaged daily genetic correlations between CH4 production and monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), unsaturated (UFA), and long-chain FA (LCFA) were low (from 0.00 to 0.15). However, these genetic correlations varied across DIM. Genetic correlations between CH4 and MUFA, PUFA, UFA, and LCFA were negative in early lactation (from -0.24 to -0.34 at 5 DIM) and increased afterward to become positive from 15 weeks till the end of the lactation (from 0.14 to 0.25 at 365 DIM). Finally, these results indicate that genetic and, therefore, phenotypic correlations between CH4 production and milk FA vary following lactation stage of the cow, a fact still often ignored when trying to predict CH4 production from FA composition. [less ▲]

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