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See detailIdentification of bovine and porcine colistin-resistant mcr1-positive Escherichia coli.
Mainil, Jacques ULg; Muylaert, Adeline ULg; Saulmont, Marc et al

Conference (2016, September)

OBJECTIVE Polymyxins, especially colistin, have been used for years in veterinary medicine and were rediscovered a few years ago as last resort antibiotics in human medicine against multi-resistant Gram ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE Polymyxins, especially colistin, have been used for years in veterinary medicine and were rediscovered a few years ago as last resort antibiotics in human medicine against multi-resistant Gram negative bacterial pathogens. For years, only chromosome-mediated resistance to colistin was identified as a consequence of mutation(s) in lipid A-encoding genes. Recently, however, a plasmid-located gene (mcr1) was identified in Gram-negative enterobacteria and has since been found by PCR in several, but not all, bovine, human, porcine and poultry colistin-resistant Escherichia coli (Liu YY et al. Lancet Infect Dis, 2016, 16(2), 161-168; Nordmann P and Poirel L. Clin Microbiol Infect, 2016, 22, 398-400 ; Schwarz S and Johnson AP. J Antimicrob Chemother, 2016, in press, doi: 10.1093/jac/dkw274). The purpose of this study was to compare phenotypic and genetic for the detection of resistance to colistin and of the mcr1 gene in a collection of Escherichia coli isolated from different animal species and from humans. METHODS More than 3000 E. coli isolates from cattle, pigs, dogs, cats, horses, rabbits, chickens ducks and humans were tested for resistance to colistin by growing them on agar plates with 1g/ml of colistin. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of and the presence of the mcr1 gene in all growing isolates were determined using the E test® and colony hybridization assay with a mcr1 specific gene probe, respectively. The probe-positive isolates were further tested with the mcr1 gene specific PCR. RESULTS A total of 410 E. coli isolated grew on 1g/ml colistin-containing agar plates. The majority of isolates grew well, but several grew sparsely with only few isolated colonies. As determined by the E test®, MIC of 273 isolates (67%) was 1g/ml of colistin and higher; conversely, MIC of 137 isolates (33%) was lower than 1g/ml of colistin. Of those 410 E. coli isolates, 34 from pigs and bovines (9% of isolates growing on colistin-containing agar plates; 25% of isolates with MIC higher than 1g/ml) hybridized with the mcr1 gene-derived probe: 5 from pigs and 11 from bovines gave black spots (including five from the same calf), while 18 from pigs and one from bovine gave grey spots. All but one pig isolate had a MIC between 1.5 and 16 g/ml of colistin. Fifteen “black spot” probe-positive isolates tested positive with the mcr1 gene specific PCR as did 3 porcine “grey spot” probe-positive isolates, while the remaining 16 isolates repeatedly tested negative even after lowering the annealing temperature. CONCLUSION This study confirms that (i) the results of phenotypic assays for the detection of colistin resistance can not be always trusted; (ii) the mcr1 gene is not the only one mechanism of resistance to colistin; (iii) mcr1 variants may exist that can not be detected by the classical PCR. Phenotypic assays like growth on colistin-containing agar plates can still represent a first base screening assay, although the MIC determination using the E test® confirms a >1g/ml MIC for only 2 out of 3 growing isolates. Presence of mcr1 gene and putative variants (like the most recently described mcr2 gene; Xavier BB et al., Eurosurveillance, 21, 7 July 2016) in all probe-positive isolates will be confirmed after Whole Genome Sequencing that will also allow comparing the mcr1-positive plasmids and isolates from pigs and cattle to similar human E. coli isolates. Further studies should also be performed to identify the colistin resistance mechanism in mec-negative isolates. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelles perspectives d'avenir pour le Cifen ?
Simons, Germain ULg

Article for general public (2016)

Dans le cadre de la table ronde portant sur les 20 ans du Cifen (28 août 2015), le président actuel du Centre, G. Simons, a évoqué quelques perspectives pour le centre.

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See detailNonlinear vibration analysis of the SmallSat spacecraft: From identification to design
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Masset, Luc ULg et al

Conference (2016, September)

The objective of the present contribution is to introduce nonlinear experimental and numerical tools and methods applicable to real-life structures. The study is illustrated using the SmallSat spacecraft ... [more ▼]

The objective of the present contribution is to introduce nonlinear experimental and numerical tools and methods applicable to real-life structures. The study is illustrated using the SmallSat spacecraft developed by Airbus Defence and Space, which possesses several localized nonlinearities. The computation of nonlinear normal modes and bifurcations reveals that the satellite possesses complex dynamics including modal interactions, quasiperiodic oscillations and isolated resonances. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation of bacteriophages against Klebsiella pneumoniae and in vivo activity
Thiry, Damien ULg; Passet, Virginie; Dufour, Nicolas et al

Poster (2016, September)

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen able to induce severe healthcare-associated or community-acquired infections in humans and animals. The constant emergence of antibiotic resistant strains ... [more ▼]

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen able to induce severe healthcare-associated or community-acquired infections in humans and animals. The constant emergence of antibiotic resistant strains reinforces the need to find alternatives to antibiotic treatments. The use of bacteriophages is a promising approach. The aim of this study was to isolate bacteriophages directed against K. pneumoniae strains and to test their efficacy in a murine model. Bacteriophages against five different K. pneumoniae (2 of capsular type K1 and K2 and 1 undetermined) were isolated and purified from waste water collected in Paris area. The morphology of plaques (zones of bacterial killing) was recorded and several of them were purified three times by successive replating. Phage titers were determined by serial dilutions on their respective hosts as well as on 18 other Klebsiella strains to identify their host range. Kinetics of bacterial lysis were monitored during 15h at 3 multiplicities of infection, in triplicates. For in vivo experiment, a total of 10 mice were inoculated with 200 µl of K. pneumoniae (4.6E+07 CFU) by oral gavage and the level of K. pneumoniae in fecal samples was monitored for 10 days. Five mice did not receive any treatment and 5 other mice received a cocktail of three bacteriophages (8E+07 PFU) at day 4 post-inoculation. A total of 54 bacteriophages were isolated and purified with titers ranging from 2E+5 to 3.6E+10 PFU/ml. The host range study showed that bacteriophages against K. pneumoniae have a specificity related to the capsular type of their bacterial host. Lysis kinetics of bacteria suggested that different phages were isolated. Despite difficulties with the murine intestinal model, evidence was obtained that bacteriophages are able to reduce intestinal carriage. Our results show that bacteriophages isolated against K. pneumoniae are specific for a given capsular type, although further studies are necessary to provide more details on this capsular specificity and its molecular determinants. To fully address the in vivo potential of phages, a reliable mouse model of intestinal carriage of K. pneumoniae strains needs to be established. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of virulotypes and serotypes of enteropathogenic (EPEC) and Shigatoxigenic (STEC) Escherichia coli from healthy cattle at slaughterhouses in Wallonia.
Takaki, Shino; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULg; Fakih, Ibrahim et al

Poster (2016, September)

Escherichia coli producing the attachment-effacement (AE) lesion (EPEC) and/or Shiga toxins (STEC) cause enteritis and (bloody) diarrhoea in young calves and in humans, and are also present in the ... [more ▼]

Escherichia coli producing the attachment-effacement (AE) lesion (EPEC) and/or Shiga toxins (STEC) cause enteritis and (bloody) diarrhoea in young calves and in humans, and are also present in the intestines of healthy cattle. Besides the O157:H7 serotype, which is the main serotype causing STEC outbreaks in the world EPEC and STEC can belong to dozens of O serogroups. Of them, 9 have been frequently identified worldwide: O5, O26, O103, O104, O111, O118, O121, O145 and O165. The aim of this study is to identify the virulotypes and the O serotypes of EPEC and STEC isolated from healthy cattle at slaughterhouses in Wallonia. A total of 245 faeces (216 <1year-old bulls, 25 cows and 4 heifers) were sampled between April and June 2014 in 2 slaughterhouses in Wallonia and grown overnight at 37°C in Lauryl sulfate Enterobacteriaceae selective broth. The enrichment broths were assayed with an stx1, stx2 (Shiga toxin) and eae (AE lesion) triplex PCR and positive broths were inoculated onto 4 agar media: McConkey’s, Chromagar ES, Chromagar ES with tellurite and Chromagar STEC. Up to ten colonies per plate were picked up, sub-cultured and tested by the colony hybridization assay with gene probes targeting the stx1, stx2 and eae genes. The triplex PCR was again performed on all probe-positive isolates. The PCR-positive E. coli were subsequently assayed with two pentaplex PCR targeting the specific genes coding for the ten O serogroups listed above. Of the 2563 sub-cultured isolates, 744 isolates (29%) from 62 animals (25%) tested positive with the colony hybridization assay. Of them, 687 isolates (92%) from 59 animals were positive with the triplex PCR and the results of both tests were in agreement for 617 isolates (83%). One to 29 isolates per animal were probe- and PCR-positive. The positive isolates grew on Chromagar STEC (379; 55%), on Chromagar ES with tellurite (189; 28%), on Chromagar ES (62; 9%) or on McConkey’s agar (57; 8%). The most frequent virulotypes were eae+ (EPEC: 372 isolates; 54%), eae+stx1+ (AE_STEC: 119 isolates; 17%) and stx2+ (STEC: 118 isolates; 17%). In some animals different virulotypes were identified. The serogrouping with the two pentaplex PCR is in progress. AE-STEC, EPEC and STEC are excreted by 25% of the healthy cattle at slaughterhouses in Wallonia and different virulotypes can be excreted by the same animal. Conversely the methodology followed gives no precise idea of the actual level of excretion since the hybridization and PCR were performed after enrichment in selective broth. Therefore multiple isolates belonging to the same virulotype might represent the same clone. Identification of the serogroups and comparison by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis should help to clarify that point. Quantitative (q)PCR is today the best method to quantify bacterial excretion, but is more expensive. The results of the hybridization and PCR correspond to between 80 and 90%. Though the colony hybridization is still useful for large-scale surveillance it needs radioactive probes for highest sensitivity and is more time-consuming than PCR. Therefore the PCR should be the first routine choice if it can be automatized at large scale. Further steps are the confirmation of the PCR results of the 70 isolates with different hybridization and PCR results and the identification of the serogroups with the two pentaplex PCR and later with PCR for the other serogroups, to compare them with isolates from young diarrhoeic calves and from humans. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of bovine methicillin resistant staphylococci from Europe, Africa and North America by colony hybridization, PCR and antibiotic sensitivity.
Ngassam Tchamba, Cyrille ULg; Thiry, Damien ULg; Bardiau, Marjorie et al

Conference (2016, September)

Mastitis is the costliest pathology in dairy cattle and staphylococci are the most prevalent bacterial mastitis pathogens worldwide. Antimicrobial treatment of mastitis has led to the selection of ... [more ▼]

Mastitis is the costliest pathology in dairy cattle and staphylococci are the most prevalent bacterial mastitis pathogens worldwide. Antimicrobial treatment of mastitis has led to the selection of resistant staphylococci, of which the Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are the most studied ones. Still, MR has also been described for non-aureus staphylococci (MRS) species. Bovine MRS(A) represent not only a problem in the treatment of mastitis, but also a potential hazard in public health via the inter-Staphylococcus transferability of the mobile “Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome” (SCC) carrying the mec genes encoding MR and the zoonotic potential of some Staphylococcus species. The aim of this study is the comparison of genetic and phenotypic methods for the identification of MRS(A) isolated from bovine mastitis in European, African and North-American countries. A total of 1168 mastitis-associated staphylococci were isolated between 2005 and 2014 in Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Senegal, Niger and Canada, and kept at -80°C until further use. Out of them, 867 isolates were identified to S. aureus while 301 isolates were non aureus staphylococci. All 1168 staphylococci were tested genetically by the dot blot hybridization assay on positively charged nylon membranes (Roche) after DNA extraction with 32P-radioactively labelled probes derived from the mecA and mecC genes and phenotypically by growth on “Chrom MRSA ID®” agar plates. Isolates positive at both or either tests were further studied by PCR targeting the same two genes and by the disk diffusion assay to oxacillin and cefoxitin. A total of 265 isolates (23%) were positive at both or either tests. Out of them, 27 S. aureus (10%) but no non-aureus (0%) tested positive both for DNA hybridization with the mecA probe and for growth on “Chrom MRSA ID®” plates. No isolate tested positive with the mecC probe. In addition, 32 S. aureus (12%) and 15 non aureus (6%) were positive with the mecA probe only and 169 S. aureus (64%) and 22 non aureus (8%) grew on “Chrom MRSA ID®” plates only. The S. aureus originate from Belgium (105), Italy (6), Canada (31), Senegal (38) and Niger (48) whereas the non-aureus originate from Belgium (25), Italy (1) and Niger (11). All of them are being tested with the PCR targeting the mecA gene and by the disk diffusion assay to oxacillin and cefoxitin. Most isolates (72%) grew on “Chrom MRSA ID®” plates only while few (18%) were positive to the hybridization with the mecA probe only. This high difference between the results of both tests could be explained by the weak specificity of phenotypic tests comparing to genetic tests. The others 10% of the isolates (S. aureus) which are positive with the two methods (dot blot hybridization and “Chrom MRSA ID®”) can be considered as MRSA mediated by the mecA gene. However, results of PCR and disk diffusion assay will confirm respectively the presence of mec genes and which of the two methods is the most suitable for identifying MRS from mastitis cases in cattle. Comparison of the results of phenotypic and genetic assays will indicate whether other variant(s) than mecA and mecC may be present in MRS. Further genetic and phenotypic studies are needed to (i) identify the non-aureus isolates to the species level; (ii) compare the MRS(A) isolated in the different countries by their biotypes, serotypes, lysotypes, and virulotypes, without forgetting their SCCmec and their clonal complex; and (iii) identify the mec gene variant present in hybridization-positive PCR-negative isolates, if any. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring topography of laboratory fluvial dike models subjected to breaching based on a laser profilometry technique
Rifai, Ismail ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in International Symposium on River Sedimentation: Stuttgart 19th-22d september 2016 (2016, September)

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See detailUNESCO, Cultural Industries and the International Development Agenda: Between Modest Recognition and Reluctance
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in Stupples, Polly; Teaiwa, Katerina (Eds.) Contemporary perspectives on Art and International Development (2016)

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See detailUn monde sans frontières ?
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

Article for general public (2016)

En s'appuyant sur la conception de la communauté politique chez Michael Walzer, le texte tente, très brièvement, de décrire la nature de la citoyenneté dans un monde d'Etats-Nations, les droits et les ... [more ▼]

En s'appuyant sur la conception de la communauté politique chez Michael Walzer, le texte tente, très brièvement, de décrire la nature de la citoyenneté dans un monde d'Etats-Nations, les droits et les exigences qu'elle comporte ainsi que le domaine des relations de l'Etat avec les non-citoyens [less ▲]

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See detailDu stilus à la plume ... du chapeau. Quelques réflexions sur la notion de style
Houbart, Claudine ULg

in Bruxelles Patrimoines (2016), (18),

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See detailVoir en art, voir en sciences
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Nouvelle Revue d'Esthétique (2016), 17

This article is about visual devices that in history of art and in semiotics are generally called "metavisual" and that are used to study some phenomena of framing in artistic images (see the works of ... [more ▼]

This article is about visual devices that in history of art and in semiotics are generally called "metavisual" and that are used to study some phenomena of framing in artistic images (see the works of Victor Stoichita and of Jean-François Bordron). We are going to explore the possibility to use these devices to analyse contemporary scientific images, trying to identify some common actions that go beyond the differences in terms of objects and economy of values between arts and sciences. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Nouveaux Liégeois. Migrations et Transformations Urbaines
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Stangherlin, Gregor

in Dérivations (2016), (3), 194-203

Dans cet article, nous proposons de discuter la migration contemporaine sur le territoire de la Ville de Liège. Cette discussion repose pour l’essentiel sur une analyse des données statistiques ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous proposons de discuter la migration contemporaine sur le territoire de la Ville de Liège. Cette discussion repose pour l’essentiel sur une analyse des données statistiques disponibles et une revue de la littérature scientifique produite sur les migrations à Liège ces dernières années. Nous commençons donc par une description des grandes évolutions démographiques sur le territoire de la ville depuis 1991 pour insister ensuite sur les effets de la migration dans cinq quartiers de la ville. Cette première partie souligne le rôle essentiel que joue la migration dans la croissance démographique observée ces dix dernières années à Liège. Ensuite, nous examinons la présence étrangère sur le territoire de la ville selon les 5 dimensions fréquemment citées dans les débats sur l’intégration des populations étrangères : emploi, logement, éducation, socio-culturelle et politique. [less ▲]

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See detailHousing Quality as Environmental Inequality: The Case of Wallonia, Belgium
Lejeune, Zoé ULg; Xhignesse, Guillaume ULg; Kryvobokov, Marko et al

in Journal of Housing and the Built Environment (2016), 31(3), 495-512

First in the USA and then in many other countries, scholarship on environmental inequality has sought to shed light on the unequal environmental conditions borne by poor people and ethnic minorities, and ... [more ▼]

First in the USA and then in many other countries, scholarship on environmental inequality has sought to shed light on the unequal environmental conditions borne by poor people and ethnic minorities, and to challenge public policies and their unjust impacts on those target groups. Housing quality, especially the indoor characteristics of homes, offers an innovative perspective in this field of research. In previous research on environmental inequality in the Walloon context, housing quality has been proven to be a major determinant of quality of life and environmental well-being. This paper analyses housing quality through a twofold approach: through indoor characteristics on the one hand, and outdoor subjective and objective externalities on the other. It reveals the disparities between the most deprived and the wealthiest segments of the population. The evidence for this study is based on a housing quality survey carried out in 2012 and 2013 on 6,018 households in Wallonia (Belgium). The key findings are that poor people are found to live in housing of lower quality, in densely populated neighbourhoods and those with mixed use, with compensating amenities provided at the local level. Moreover, consistent with environmental inequality scholarship, deprived households are found to bear the burden of environmental degradation outside the home. People live in areas with poorer air quality, but are found to benefit from greater access to green spaces. The results of the survey reveal an interesting point concerning the environmental inequality literature; the interior features of housing are found to differ more widely between deprived and wealthier people than the surrounding environment does. [less ▲]

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See detailRevealed preference tests of collectively rational consumption behavior: formulations and algorithms
Talla Nobibon, Fabrice; Cherchye, Laurens; Crama, Yves ULg et al

in Operations Research (2016), online

This paper focuses on revealed preference tests of the collective model of household consumption. We start by showing that the decision problems corresponding to testing collective rationality are {\sc np ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on revealed preference tests of the collective model of household consumption. We start by showing that the decision problems corresponding to testing collective rationality are {\sc np}-complete. This makes the application of these tests problematic for (increasingly available) large(r) scale data sets. We then present two approaches to overcome this negative result. First, we introduce exact algorithms based on mixed-integer programming ({\sc mip}) formulations of the collective rationality tests, which can be usefully applied to medium sized data sets. Next, we propose simulated annealing heuristics, which allow for efficient testing of the collective model in the case of large data sets. We illustrate our methods by a number of computational experiments based on Dutch labor supply data. [less ▲]

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See detail“Monsieur Pain o cuando el grotesco y lo sublime se invitan en la novela policiaca”
Dechene, Antoine ULg

in Reescrituras del imaginario policiaco en la narrativa hispánica contemporánea (Roberto Bolaño, Eugenio Fuentes et alii) (2016)

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See detailEnonciation et modes d'existence
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques (2016)

Cet article aborde les relations entre sémiotique et philosophie latourienne à partir de la théorie de l’énonciation, cette dernière se situant tant aux fondements du projet disciplinaire de la sémiotique ... [more ▼]

Cet article aborde les relations entre sémiotique et philosophie latourienne à partir de la théorie de l’énonciation, cette dernière se situant tant aux fondements du projet disciplinaire de la sémiotique francophone contemporaine qu’à la base de la réflexion de Bruno Latour, des années 1970 jusqu’à présent . Notre propos se déploie en deux moments : dans un premier temps, nous revenons sur l’article "Petite Philosophie de l’énonciation" (1998), et nous en suivons le développement dans l’Enquête sur les modes d’existence (2012). Dans un second temps, nous réalisons une rapide archéologie de la théorie de l’énonciation dans la sémiotique contemporaine, afin de mettre en lumière les liens entre différentes traditions sémiotiques et la théorie latourienne. Plus précisément, nous nous attachons aux propositions récentes de Jacques Fontanille et de Claudio Paolucci, en prenant également en considération les contributions d’Umberto Eco et Patrizia Violi. Il s’agit de voir comment les sémioticiens peuvent tirer profit de la théorie latourienne des modes d’existence et vice versa. [less ▲]

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See detailLes supports des images : de la photographie à l’image numérique
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg; Reyes, Everardo

in Revue Française des Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication (2016), 9

In this article we deal with questions related to images (painting, photography, digital image) from a semiotic standpoint, more precisely the form and substance of their expression plane. Classical ... [more ▼]

In this article we deal with questions related to images (painting, photography, digital image) from a semiotic standpoint, more precisely the form and substance of their expression plane. Classical greimasian semiotics –mainly through the works of Jean-Marie Floch (1985, 1986) and Félix Thürlemann (1982) – has concentrated on the relation between form of expression and form of content (thus in a semi-symbolic fashion). Then, in the 1990s, Jacques Fontanille started exploring the substance of expression. Later, within the framework of hierarchical levels of analysis, Fontanille (2005, 2008), introduced concepts such as material and formal support in order to distinguish between image as object and image as text. We take into account these works to study the close relationship between the substance of expression of images and the practices of production-reception. [less ▲]

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See detailLes corps des scientifiques et de l’intellectuel dans la revue La Recherche
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Mabrour, Abdel; Bajomée, Danielle (Eds.) La lettre et l’image. Enquêtes interculturelles sur les territoires du visible (2016, September)

Ce travail entend examiner les rapports entre les représentations photographiques des corps des scientifiques dans la revue de vulgarisation savante La Recherche, tels les portraits, les scènes de travail ... [more ▼]

Ce travail entend examiner les rapports entre les représentations photographiques des corps des scientifiques dans la revue de vulgarisation savante La Recherche, tels les portraits, les scènes de travail collectif en laboratoire etc., et les conceptions de la science qui en sont valorisées. L’étude des relations entre les photographies et les textes qui les accompagnent ont ainsi pour objectif de déployer une réflexion non seulement sur les différents types de commensurabilité entre le langage verbal et le langage visuel mais aussi sur le fait que le langage visuel est à même de forger de manière tout à fait autonome des valeurs identitaires et des formes de vie identifiables via l’analyse sémiotique. Notre exploration se développera en deux volets : le premier vise à esquisser la méthodologie de la sémiotique visuelle pour pouvoir introduire les niveaux pertinents de l’analyse sémiotique, le deuxième consiste à analyser un corpus constitué de textes tirés de quelques numéros de la revue La Recherche en en distinguant les différents genres discursifs (entretien, présentation de travaux en cours, etc.) et les différents types de cadrage et de mise en scène photographique afin d’expliquer comment ils se combinent avec les prises de position épistémologiques valorisées. [less ▲]

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