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See detailChapter VIII "Equations and languages" in J.-É. Pin, Mathematical Foundations of Automata Theory
Stipulanti, Manon ULg

Conference (2016, December 16)

We present the chapter VIII titled "Equations and Langages" in Jean-Éric Pin, Mathematical Foundations of Automata Theory.

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See detailThe role of AIP mutations in pituitary adenomas: 10 years on
Daly, Adrian ULg; BECKERS, Albert ULg

in Endocrine (2016)

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See detailDe niet-toepassing van de mainplévie in Maastricht
Lagasse, Benoît ULg

Conference (2016, December 16)

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See detailRelationship between jaw morphology, bite performance and diet in Serrasalmidae (Characiformes, Teleostei)
Huby, Alessia ULg; Lowie, Aurélien; Herrel, Anthony et al

Conference (2016, December 16)

Serrasalmidae are mainly known for “piranhas” and their negative reputation of ferocious predatory fishes. A recent study demonstrated that the piranha $Serrasalmus rhombeus£ had an extreme bite force ... [more ▼]

Serrasalmidae are mainly known for “piranhas” and their negative reputation of ferocious predatory fishes. A recent study demonstrated that the piranha $Serrasalmus rhombeus£ had an extreme bite force that is even proportionally greater than that of the white shark. However, these sharp teeth fishes represent only a minority of Serrasalmidae. Other serrasalmid species (pacus and myleus) feed on plants, fruits or seeds and their bite force and feeding capacities are still uninvestigated. In the present research, in vivo bite forces were measured and compared according to jaw morphology in ten species of Serrasalmidae including six herbivorous and four carnivorous species. The Bite Force Quotient (BFQ) was calculated for each individual to compare the jaw strength across species. The results of the analysis showed that species feeding on fins and fish flesh have a significant greater bite force than species feeding on plants, fruits or seeds. This difference can be explained by the larger adductor mandibulae muscle in carnivorous species which have comparatively longer and higher skull than herbivorous species. In addition, there is a significant difference in the lower jaw morphology between piranhas and pacus and relatives. The piranha species have longer lower jaws than pacus and myleus species which have shorter and higher lower jaws. This study shows that the Serrasalmidae family regroups remarkable biters whose bite performance is mostly related to diet. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring a Mediterranean mesozooplankton 13 year time-series.
Fullgrabe, Lovina; Richir, Jonathan ULg; Batigny, Antoine et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

Zooplankton plays diverse crucial roles within the marine ecosystem and can also be used as bio- indicator of climate changes since it is very sensitive to environmental changes. Therefore it is essential ... [more ▼]

Zooplankton plays diverse crucial roles within the marine ecosystem and can also be used as bio- indicator of climate changes since it is very sensitive to environmental changes. Therefore it is essential to consider long-term plankton series. Given the analysis of plankton samples is time- consuming, it requires an effective and rapid analytical method. We have used in this work a supervised learning approach adapted for the semi-automatic classification of digital images of the mesozooplankton of the Bay of Calvi (Corsica, France) by using the Zoo/PhytoImage software. Together with a 11-years long zooplankton time-series, a set of nine environmental variables were monitored in order to identify controlling factors and determine whether the communities were sensitive to global environmental changes. The main components of the mesozooplankton community were characterized by both seasonal and inter-annual variability. Additionally, variation of holoplankton and meroplankton differentiated one from each other. The holoplanktonic community could be split into two subgroups according to its variation in function of the environment: cladocerans and appendicularians, and to a lesser extent, copepods on one hand, and cnidarians, chaetognathes and thaliaceans, on the other hand. Regarding inter-annual variation, one year (2007) showed particularly low production of total zooplankton which was also the case for all the different holoplanktonic taxa. Accounting for that phenomenon were identified some potentially underlying environmental factors. Finally, although water temperature increased significantly over the last years along with the frequency of marine heat wave events, no evident change in the global zooplankton composition was observed yet. [less ▲]

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See detailFeeding ecology of metamorphic and paedomorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) in Larzac
Didaskalou, Emilie; Lejeune, Benjamin ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

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See detailHead shape disparity of the cod icefishes Trematominae (Notothenioidei, Teleostei)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Heindler, Franz M.; Dettai, Agnès et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

The suborder Notothenioidei (Teleostei) has undergone a remarkable adaptive radiation in the Southern Ocean. Within this suborder, the subfamily Trematominae is endemic to Antarctic waters and represents ... [more ▼]

The suborder Notothenioidei (Teleostei) has undergone a remarkable adaptive radiation in the Southern Ocean. Within this suborder, the subfamily Trematominae is endemic to Antarctic waters and represents a dominant component of the shelf fish fauna. After recent advances in molecular phylogenetics, 14 species of Trematomus are currently recognized (including Pagothenia and Cryothenia spp.) comprising both considerable morphological and ecological diversity. Here, we aim to illustrate the main axes of shape variation in Trematomus and explore the evolution of their morphology. A dataset of 96 specimens representing 10 species of Trematomus from the collection of the Natural History Museum of Paris was assembled, and landmark-based geometric morphometrics was applied to quantify head shape disparity. Regular regression analysis revealed significant interspecific allometry while a low percentage of shape variation was explained by size (R2 = 0.11; P < 0.001). Main shape variation across species was explored using a principal component (PC) analysis on shape variables. Two groups diverged along PC1: (1) T. bernacchii, T. hansoni, T. pennellii and T. tokarevi have short cephalic profiles with larger cheeks (lowest values along PC1); and (2) T. lepidorhinus, T. eulepidotus and T. newnesi show lengthened cephalic profiles with larger eyes (highest values along PC1). Trematomus scotti differed from all other species mainly along PC3 indicating more elongated cheeks. Phenogram based on Procrustes shape distances will be compared to molecular phylogenetic trees and morphometric data will be mapped onto phylogenetic trees in order to illustrate the mode of phenotypic diversification of Trematomus during evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper toxicity on coral holobiont photosynthetic processes
Georges, Nadège; Richir, Jonathan ULg; Batigny, Antoine et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

Copper (Cu), an essential micronutrient to organisms, may become toxic when present at too high environmental concentrations. This metal remains an aquatic contaminant of concern, notably because of its ... [more ▼]

Copper (Cu), an essential micronutrient to organisms, may become toxic when present at too high environmental concentrations. This metal remains an aquatic contaminant of concern, notably because of its recent re-use as biocide in metal-based antifouling paints. The aim of this study was to monitor the physiological alterations in a zooxanthellate coral species and its endosymbionts (i.e. the coral holobiont) exposed to increasing Cu concentrations. Nubbins of Seriatopora hystrix were exposed for 8 days in 1 L intermittent respirometers to 5 nominal Cu concentrations: 0-2-5-15-50 ppb. Respirometers were maintained at 25.0±0.2°C with successive open/close cycles of 30 min. A 12/12 hours day-night light regime was applied with constant daylight intensity of 200 μmol photons m-2 s-1. Water renewal rate during the 30 min open cycles was 15 mL.min-1. The photosynthetic performances of coral endosymbionts were assessed daily with a fluorescence imaging system (imaging-PAM). At the end of the 8-days experiment, the maximal photochemical quantum yield (FV/FM) of coral nubbins had decreased by 12% and 38%, respectively, in the 15 ppb and 50 ppb treatments. This decrease was even greater for the effective photochemical quantum yield (ɸPSII) with values dropping by 41% and 54%, respectively. Cu exposure also affected the symbiosis between the coral host and its endosymbionts. Nubbins of the 15 ppb treatment slightly lightened from day 6, whilst nubbins exposed to the 50 ppb treatment lightened from day 3, and started to bleach from day 6. The analysis of nubbins’ primary productivity did not coincide with the above observations, the oxygen production within each respirometer remaining relatively constant during the overall experiment for all treatments. This unexpected observation may be the sign of a compensation mechanism. In conclusion, Cu affected the photosynthetic processes of S. histrix within 8 days from relevant environmental concentrations of 15 ppb. The exposure of corals to toxic chemicals thus has to be considered as an additional stressor to, e.g., ocean acidification or elevated temperature, which may disturb their ecophysiology and lead to bleaching. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychopathologie, postmodernité et psychothérapie : borderline et nouveaux territoires
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Scientific conference (2016, December 16)

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See detail"'Unreadable' Texts: From the Metaphysical Detective Story to the Metacognitive Mystery Tale"
Dechene, Antoine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

This dissertation aims at establishing the genealogy of a literary genre called the metacognitive mystery tale. Its main goal is to delineate a corpus of texts presenting "unreadable" mysteries which ... [more ▼]

This dissertation aims at establishing the genealogy of a literary genre called the metacognitive mystery tale. Its main goal is to delineate a corpus of texts presenting "unreadable" mysteries which, under the deceptively monolithic appearance of subverting "traditional" detective story conventions, offer a multiplicity of motifs – the overwhelming presence of chance, the unfulfilled quest for knowledge, the urban stroller lost in a labyrinthine text – that generate a vast array of epistemological and ontological uncertainties explored by the genre. The selected corpus, composed of some of the genre's most emblematic avatars as well as of less usual suspects, accounts for the specificity and heterogeneity of authors who, in different but related ways, have addressed a certain number of issues underlying the acquisition of knowledge. Following three major intertextual matrices based on the concepts of the "unreadable" city, the "dark" grotesque and the sublime, respectively, this project brings together texts by writers as diverse as Percy Bysshe Shelley, Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry James, Horacio Quiroga, Jorge Luis Borges, Franz Kafka, Samuel Beckett, Paul Auster, Iain Sinclair and Roberto Bolaño under the banner of the metacognitive mystery tale. This approach represents an opportunity to gather canonical and barely academically studied works and provide new perspectives on stories dealing with the darker, more anxious aspects of investigations led by defective sleuths. [less ▲]

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See detailWho would want to live in there? A history of Posidonia oceanica detritus accumulations, the associated invertebrate community, and its food web…
Remy, François ULg; Michel, Loïc ULg; Darchambeau, François ULg et al

Conference (2016, December 16)

Most seagrasses are rarely consumed directly by herbivore organisms. The "detrital pathway" thus represents a potentially important way of transfer of the seagrasses production to the coastal food webs ... [more ▼]

Most seagrasses are rarely consumed directly by herbivore organisms. The "detrital pathway" thus represents a potentially important way of transfer of the seagrasses production to the coastal food webs. The case of Posidonia oceanica is particularly interesting since up to 90% of its foliar primary production may constitute extensive and highly dynamic exported litter accumulations. Preliminary studies concerning these detritus accumulations suggest that an abundant community of vagile macro invertebrates (size > 500μm) lives inside them. We characterized for the first time this community in an exhaustive way (multi-site, seasonal and multi-year study), we linked the observed density and diversity variations to environmental parameters, but also described the trophic web these invertebrates compose. We sampled an abundant (up to 5000 organisms/m²) community composed of 115 species. We showed that crustaceans were massively dominant, followed by annelids and mollusks, and that one single amphipod species Gammarella fucicola represented from 20 to 85% of the whole sampled community. Observed variations appeared to be mostly linked to litter oxygen water concentration in a very species specific way. Most species were linked to no measured environmental parameter at all, but several dominant species were demonstrated (observation and in situ experimentation) to be linked positively or negatively to litter oxygen concentration. The described food web was composed of more than 3 trophic levels, indicating the presence of a trophic web composed of primary consumers/detritivore species, of omnivore species, but also of first and second order predators, each level occupying a distinct isotopic niche. From a specific point of view, we highlighted several different feeding preferences, with SIAR mixing model runs indicating that some species feed mostly on detrital material, other species feed on a mixture of detrital and algal material, other species feed on both animal and vegetal material and finally predator species feed exclusively on animal material. The fact that P. oceanica detritus constituted a non-negligible food source for some dominant species confirmed the importance of this macrofauna community as a key transfer link of seagrass organic matter from P. oceanica to the coastal food webs. [less ▲]

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See detailStream-aquifer interactions: a combined field - methodological approach in fractured carbonate catchments
Brouyère, Serge ULg; Briers, Pierre ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2016, December 16)

Stream-aquifer studies remain a challenge due to numerous factors impacting these interactions. They play a fundamental role in terms of quantity and quality of water, in particular on the ecological ... [more ▼]

Stream-aquifer studies remain a challenge due to numerous factors impacting these interactions. They play a fundamental role in terms of quantity and quality of water, in particular on the ecological status of rivers. Field quantification of such interactions is a first step but it has to be in relation with the whole budgets of water and transported substances across the catchment in order to represent their importance on overall fluxes. Numerous complementary investigations have to be undertaken to achieve such understanding of catchment behavior, in particular to estimate specific indicators and to achieve representative data for modeling stream-aquifer interactions. From that situation, our study aims to characterize and quantify stream-aquifer interactions to assess reliability of diverse field experiments methodologies. A catchment has been studied for 3 years in quantitative and qualitative ways via a dense instrumentation and monitoring. Numerous complementary investigations (discharge measurements, hydrogeochemistry, distributed temperature sensing, base flow separation…) have been applied to reach the objectives. We achieved a large and diversified measurement dataset of groundwater-surface water interactions and whole water budget. This allowed reaching an improved understanding of the catchment behavior to quantify importance of the groundwater component on the dynamics and chemistry of the stream and on the consequences on river ecological status. The investigations on several subcatchments allows also to propose a general typology of stream catchment in terms of groundwater dependence based on the combination of various groundwater contexts and groundwater-stream interaction indicators. Methodologies applied in this study allow to emphasize strength and weakness of numerous investigations in a stream aquifer project and conclusions can be reproduced and generalized to other contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailBioaccumulation of trace metals in Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Algerian west coast
Rouabhi, Leila; Rouanne, Hassen Omar; Benkrama, Hadjer et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

Algeria has a 1622 km long coastal strip where a large proportion of the population and the main economic and industrial activities of the country are concentrated. Its coastal fringe therefore suffers ... [more ▼]

Algeria has a 1622 km long coastal strip where a large proportion of the population and the main economic and industrial activities of the country are concentrated. Its coastal fringe therefore suffers from various degradations. In particular, the Bay of Oran is housing industrial, commercial, fishing and recreational activities, where 80 % of domestic and industrial wastewaters are not purified before being discharged into the sea. Thus, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the degree of metallic contamination of coastal waters of western Algeria. Trace metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Fe and Pb) were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the dry soft tissues (gills and gonads) of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 collected during the four seasons of year 2010 in 2 sites: the highly polluted Oran harbor (S1) and Ain Defla (S2), a site distant enough from Oran and presumed little contaminated. Oran harbor was globally more contaminated than Ain Defla, especially for Fe, Zn and Ni. However, Pb levels were higher at Ain Defla with concentrations up to 3.35 ± 0.25 ppm in the gills. Metal concentrations differed between organs. Fe, Zn and Cu were more accumulated in gills (46.91 ± 1.60 ppm, 25.6 ± 1.07 ppm, 2.68 ± 0.50 ppm, respectively) compared to gonads (29.06 ± 1.07 ppm, 21.76 ± 1.46 ppm ppm, 1.44 ± 0.20 ppm, respectively). Each metal followed a seasonal trend, showing concentration peaks during winter and spring for gills and autumn for gonads. This study demonstrated the need to biomonitor the metallic contamination of Algerian coasts. But such monitoring surveys, relying on organisms, will require consensual sampling and analytical protocols to avoid hazardous conclusions due to tissue speciation and accumulation seasonality. [less ▲]

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See detailAging of monolithic zirconia dental prostheses: Protocol for a 5-year prospective clinical study using ex vivo analyses
KOENIG, Vinciane ULg; Wulfman, Claudine; DERBANNE, Mathieu et al

in Contemporary Clinical Trials Communication (2016), 4

Background: Recent introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) monolithic zirconia dental prostheses raises the issue of material low thermal degradation (LTD), a ... [more ▼]

Background: Recent introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) monolithic zirconia dental prostheses raises the issue of material low thermal degradation (LTD), a wellknown problem with zirconia hip prostheses. This phenomenon could be accentuated by masticatory mechanical stress. Until now zirconia LTD process has only been studied in vitro. This work introduces an original protocol to evaluate LTD process of monolithic zirconia prostheses in the oral environment and to study their general clinical behavior, notably in terms of wear. Methods/design: 101 posterior monolithic zirconia tooth elements (molars and premolars) are included in a 5-year prospective clinical trial. On each element, several areas between 1 and 2 mm2 (6 on molars, 4 on premolars) are determined on restoration surface: areas submitted or non-submitted to mastication mechanical stress, glazed or non-glazed. Before prosthesis placement, ex vivo analyses regarding LTD and wear are performed using Raman spectroscopy, SEM imagery and 3D laser profilometry. After placement, restorations are clinically evaluated following criteria of the World Dental Federation (FDI), complemented by the analysis of fracture clinical risk factors. Two independent examiners perform the evaluations. Clinical evaluation and ex vivo analyses are carried out after 6 months and then each year for up to 5 years. Discussion: For clinicians and patients, the results of this trial will justify the use of monolithic zirconia restorations in dental practice. For researchers, the originality of a clinical study including ex vivo analyses of material aging will provide important data regarding zirconia properties. [less ▲]

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See detailEupen-Malmedy und die deutsch-belgischen Beziehungen seit 1945
Brüll, Christoph ULg

Scientific conference (2016, December 15)

Eigentlich liegt der Fall klar: nach der Befreiung im Herbst 1944 wurde das kleine Grenzgebiet von Eupen-Malmedy, das im Mai 1940 vom „Großdeutschen Reich“ annektiert worden war, wieder belgisch. Der ... [more ▼]

Eigentlich liegt der Fall klar: nach der Befreiung im Herbst 1944 wurde das kleine Grenzgebiet von Eupen-Malmedy, das im Mai 1940 vom „Großdeutschen Reich“ annektiert worden war, wieder belgisch. Der deutsch-belgische Ausgleichsvertrag vom September 1956 bekräftigte dies nochmals. Doch wurde diese offizielle Position zwar im Bonner Auswärtigen Amt vertreten, jedoch nicht von allen Ministerien geteilt. Vor allem durch das Bundesministerium für Gesamtdeutsche Fragen erfolgte nach 1949 eine „Betreuung“ für die Minderheit, die Fragen nach den Kontinuitäten zur Vorkriegszeit aufwirft. Wenn auch die belgische Souveränität in den „Ostkantonen“ nicht mehr offen infrage gestellt wurde, fand dort in kleinem Umfang eine geheim gehaltene „Förderung“ kulturpolitischer Tätigkeiten statt – auch weil der belgische Staat nur wenige finanzielle Mittel bereitstellte. Erst mit der sich anbahnenden Schaffung einer „deutschen Kulturgemeinschaft“ im Zuge der ersten Verfassungsrevision in Belgien und nach dem Eintritt der SPD in die Bundesregierung wurde diese finanzielle Hilfe Ende der 1960er Jahre eingestellt. An ihre Stelle traten nunmehr deutsche Stiftungen, was Ende der 1980er Jahre zu einem politischen Skandal in der heutigen Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft führte. Der Vortrag fragt nach der Bedeutung von „Eupen-Malmedy“ für das deutsch-belgische Verhältnis seit 1945 und zeigt die Schwierigkeiten für die westdeutschen Akteure, eine auswärtige Kulturpolitik zu konzipieren und dabei die Fallen der Vergangenheit zu vermeiden. [less ▲]

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See detailInstillation de surfactant chez le prématuré en respiration spontanée : méta-analyse
RIGO, Vincent ULg; LEFEBVRE, Caroline ULg; BROUX, Isabelle ULg

in Baud, Olivier; Saliba, Elie (Eds.) Congrès SFN-JFRN 2016, livre des communications (2016, December 15)

Justification: Lors du traitement par surfactant dit moins invasif (Less invasive surfactant therapy- LIST), le produit est instillé dans la trachée par un cathéter fin alors que l’enfant respire ... [more ▼]

Justification: Lors du traitement par surfactant dit moins invasif (Less invasive surfactant therapy- LIST), le produit est instillé dans la trachée par un cathéter fin alors que l’enfant respire spontanément sous CPAP. Différentes études ont donné des résultats variables mais encourageants. L’objectif de cette méta-analyse est de comparer le devenir respiratoire des prématurés traités par LIST avec celui de ceux traités par administration de surfactant par un tube endotrachéal. Méthodes : les études randomisées contrôlées (ERC) sont recherchées dans les bases de données et dans les références d’articles pertinents. Les devenirs respiratoires (dysplasie broncho-pulmonaire (DBP), décès ou DBP, échec précoce de CPAP, nécessité de ventilation invasive) et les morbidités classiques sont reprises de ces études. Pour chaque morbidité, le risque relatif (RR) des données mutualisées est calculé avec une analyse de Mantel-Haenszel à modèle d’effet aléatoire. Le RR est également calculé pour des sous-groupes établis selon l’intervention contrôle. Résultats : six ERC évaluent le LIST : 4 le comparent à l’INSURE (Intubation-Surfactant-Extubation), et les 2 autres à l’intubation (immédiate ou après maintient en CPAP) avec surfactant. Les méthodes LIST diminuent les risques de DBP (RR= 0,71 (0,52-0,99) ; nombre nécessaire à traiter NNT= 21), et de décès ou DBP (RR= 0,7 (0,58- 0,94) ; NNT= 15). L’échec précoce de CPAP et le recours à la ventilation invasive sont également réduits (RR= 0,67 (0,53-0,84) ; NNT= 8 et RR= 0,69 (0,53- 0,88) ; NNT= 6). Comparé à l’INSURE, le LIST diminue le risque combiné de décès ou DBP (RR= 0,63 (0,44-0,92) ; NNT= 11), et d’échec précoce de CPAP (RR=0,71 (0,53-0,96) ; NNT= 11). Les autres morbidités néonatales classiques sont similaires pour les différents groupes. Conclusions : une stratégie d’administration dite moins invasive de surfactant diminue les risques de morbidité respiratoire à moyen terme (DBP, décès ou DBP) et le recours à la ventilation invasive. Cette approche semble sure mais les données de suivi à long terme sont insuffisantes. [less ▲]

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