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See detailScreening Ethiopia: A preliminary study of Ethiopian film production’s history and contemporary developments
Jedlowski, Alessandro ULg

in Journal of African Cinemas (in press)

Since the early 2000s, Ethiopia has witnessed the rapid growth of a local digital film industry whose economic model is similar to the one adopted by other industries of this kind emerged in African ... [more ▼]

Since the early 2000s, Ethiopia has witnessed the rapid growth of a local digital film industry whose economic model is similar to the one adopted by other industries of this kind emerged in African countries such as Nigeria, Ghana and Tanzania. Films are shot in digital format, are independently funded and commercially-driven, use Amharic as main language and target local and diasporic audiences. Unlike other productions of this kind around the continent, however, Ethiopian video films are firstly released in the large cinema theatres that characterize Addis Ababa’s urban landscape, and later circulate via VCDs, in Ethiopia, and in internet, throughout the diaspora. As this essay will argue, this aspect gives to the Ethiopian video film phenomenon a number of important specificities which make the study of Ethiopian film production and distribution particularly interesting. Furthermore, within a context defined by a relatively tight governmental control on media production and circulation, the emergence of this phenomenon is introducing important transformations, and modifying the way locally-produced media are perceived and consumed within the Ethiopian public sphere. While being commercially oriented, in fact, videos do produce a social and moral commentary which portrays, and in some cases criticizes, the way the society has transformed over the past few years. This article presents the preliminary results of an ongoing research on the raising Ethiopian digital film industry, conducted as part of a post-doctoral research project which analyses and compares the economy of digital filmmaking in a few sub-Saharan African countries. The data presented here have been collected through interviews, archival research and participant observation on film sets and distribution venues during a three months research stay in Addis Ababa between the end of 2013 and the beginning of 2014. The paper is divided into four main sections: the first two trace the history of filmmaking in Ethiopia and the emergence of the video phenomenon within this context, the third focuses on the analysis of the video industry’s economy and describes its main specificities, and the fourth presents an overview of the main narrative and aesthetic trends emerged within the context of the Ethiopian film production until today. [less ▲]

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See detailAmulettes ou exercices scolaires : sur les difficultés de la catégorisation des papyrus chrétiens
de Haro Sanchez, Magali ULg; Carlig, Nathan ULg

in de Haro Sanchez, Magali (Ed.) Écrire la magie dans l’Antiquité – Scrivere la magia nell’Antichità. Actes du colloque international (Liège, 13-15 octobre 2011) (in press)

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See detailRegulating mobility, reshaping accessibility: Nollywood and the piracy scapegoat
Jedlowski, Alessandro ULg

in Röschenthaler, Ute (Ed.) Staging the Immaterial: Rights, Style and Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa (in press)

The video industry in Nigeria has developed within a widely informal economic environment in which the illicit reproduction and circulation of goods were the rule rather than the exception. The ... [more ▼]

The video industry in Nigeria has developed within a widely informal economic environment in which the illicit reproduction and circulation of goods were the rule rather than the exception. The informality of circulation has played a particularly influential role in both the history of the video industry and the genesis of the present crisis. While, on the one hand, it has made videos available all over the African continent and within the diaspora, creating the basis for Nollywood’s international success, it has, on the other hand, weakened the industry’s economy, exposing it to consecutive cycles of saturation and collapse. For this reason, the production crisis that emerged over the past few years has catalyzed numerous controversies concerning the structure of the video economy and the rules that regulate it. The informality on which the video economy has been based since its inception is today often considered a threat to the survival of the industry itself. While the industry has achieved global recognition, the economic fragility of its success has provoked growing anxiety. This anxiety has been progressively concentrated, by both media and video entrepreneurs, on issues of piracy and copyright protection. The aim of this chapter is to investigate the causes of this anxiety and the role that piracy and transformations in copyright legislation have had in catalysing it, while shaping the economy of the industry. Throughout this chapter I will argue that when the uncontrolled circulation of goods begins to undermine the economic basis of the industry that produces them, the rhetoric of piracy is mobilized to ensure the accessibility to the economy of both the production and the distribution of the goods themselves. This allows some of the entrepreneurs involved in the production process to gain exclusive control over it and the capital it generates. Within the Nigerian context, the rhetorical construction of piracy and the legal and economic consequences of this construction are the result of specific conflicts among different segments of the Nigerian video industry and, more precisely, different models of economic entrepreneurship. As the history of the Nigerian video phenomenon shows, a loose copyright regime seems to have positive consequences for the emergence and early development of a creative industry, although, once the industry seeks to attain higher levels of profitability, it tends to become problematic, and the rhetoric of piracy can become a tool to orient processes of restructuration of the cultural industry’s economy. In relation to this dynamic, I analyse the way in which the normative orders that regulate the reproduction and circulation of images and contents developed within the Nigerian context, and I discuss how their introduction and implementation progressively shaped people’s perception of legal and illegal practices in the field of local cultural production. [less ▲]

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See detailParadoxon ! Perception de la puissance divine et du pouvoir royal dans l’Alexandrie des Ptolémées.
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Mythos. Rivista di Storia delle Religioni (in press), 8

The paper first distinguishes ritual action for sovereigns, which integrates the honoured rulers at a practical level within the religious life of a community, from other, more discrete configurations of ... [more ▼]

The paper first distinguishes ritual action for sovereigns, which integrates the honoured rulers at a practical level within the religious life of a community, from other, more discrete configurations of the relation between royal and divine power. Among these trends, focus is on the rhetorical and spectacular dimension of wonder. The strategies of wonder-making are first studied in theory through paradoxography, then the categories of grandeur, exoticism and technical excellence are identified in action in Alexandrian religious life and festivals. Master of an empire with universal claims and collector of everything that is beautiful, rare and precious in the world, the king distances himself from his subjects in order to make his superior status explicit. Distance is, however, only the premise for the king to manifest himself to the great public through epiphanies that can be compared with those of divine power. The paper also discusses the way the conformism of court elites not only satisfied their own need to claim for distinguished social status, but also helped royal message spread and caused loyalty to it. [less ▲]

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See detailThe persea tree from Alexander to Late Antiquity: A contribution to the cultural and social history of Greco-Roman Egypt
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Ancient Society (in press), 45

Although a great number of studies has already been devoted to the topic of sacred trees in Greco-Roman Egypt, this paper aims at offering a new contribution to this debate by shifting the focus of ... [more ▼]

Although a great number of studies has already been devoted to the topic of sacred trees in Greco-Roman Egypt, this paper aims at offering a new contribution to this debate by shifting the focus of research from the hitherto dominant interest in ancient and modern botanical classifications to the study of the socio-cultural contexts (and their diachronic changes) in which sacred trees were used in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. The analysis focuses on the case study of the tree called περσ(ε)ία / persea in Greek and Latin sources. After drawing attention to the non-complete overlap between the denomination adopted by Greek and Latin authors for this Egyptian sacred plant and its “emic” Hieroglyphic / Demotic correspondents, ἰšd and šw3b, the focus will be on patterns of continuity, innovation and re-contextualization of Egyptian religious traditions in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt and on the social actors and contexts that were involved in the use and protection of sacred plants. When approached from this perspective, the evidence on persea provides a fruitful dossier to investigate some aspects of the dialectic between continuity and transformation in cultural traditions, with particular regard to cases where traditions were adapted beyond cultural and ethnic limits. Moreover, the persea dossier enables us to discuss ancient contexts in which, for religious reasons, nature was seen as worth of being protected and preserved against the risk of extinction. This will allow us to raise some preliminary questions concerning the limits of applicability of modern environmental thinking to ancient cultures, in contexts in which the preservation of vegetal species was seen as an important value for the identity of a community, thus requiring individual and institutional commitment. [less ▲]

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See detailLa sécurité affective chez l'enfant en milieu résidentiel : Des soins du corps au bien être émotionnel
Aprile, Pauline ULg; Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

in Evolution Psychiatrique (in press)

Objectives - This review studies the concept of affective security in children living outside of their family environment by a brief exposition of its practical illustration in institution. We want to ... [more ▼]

Objectives - This review studies the concept of affective security in children living outside of their family environment by a brief exposition of its practical illustration in institution. We want to show that sufficient affective security can be achieved even in children institutionalized with major attachment difficulties. Method - We will first examine the original meaning of the concept by a theoretical review of its evolution over the years in the literature. Then, we will consider various questions concerning the legitimacy of institutionalization in link with affective security through a case analysis illustrating the issue. We will finally end by mentioning the main practical implications about the optimization of affective security in children institutionalized. Results - It is foremost by the predictable and expected daily acts posed by the professional caregivers in institution that the child may find sufficient affective security, generating emotional well-being and ultimately, an overall adequate development. Discussion – Children early separated from their family home to be placed in residential institution most often suffer from serious difficulties in terms of attachment to others. In this context, the institution has to deal with a specifically challenge: that is, to help the child to (re-)find sufficient internal security to allow him to grow on solid foundations. The institutional life which replaces family life primarily consists of an organizational structure that seeks to make child life as predictable as possible so that it has the necessary daily benchmarks to evolve adequately. Conclusion – In the everyday life in institution, the professionals struggling with children’s attachment disorders constantly try to achieve a right emotional-body balance through their psycho-educational practices with the child deprived of secure attachment strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailModulating effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on interference resolution during a working memory task
Jaspar, Mathieu ULg; DIDEBERG, Vinciane ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg et al

in Brain & Cognition (in press)

Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has received increasing attention in the last 15 years, in particular as a potential modulator of the neural substrates ... [more ▼]

Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has received increasing attention in the last 15 years, in particular as a potential modulator of the neural substrates underlying inhibitory processes and updating in working memory (WM). In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we administered a modified version of the Sternberg probe recency task (Sternberg, 1966) to 43 young healthy volunteers, varying the level of interference across successive items. The task was divided into two parts (high vs. low interference) to induce either proactive or reactive control processes. The participants were separated into three groups according to their COMT Val158Met genotype [Val/Val (VV); Val/Met (VM); Met/Met (MM)]. The general aim of the study was to determine whether COMT polymorphism has a modulating effect on the neural substrates of interference resolution during WM processing. Results indicate that interfering trials were associated with greater involvement of frontal cortices (bilateral medial frontal gyrus, left precentral and superior frontal gyri, right inferior frontal gyrus) in VV homozygous subjects (by comparison to Met allele carriers) only in the proactive condition of the task. In addition, analysis of peristimulus haemodynamic responses (PSTH) revealed that the genotype-related difference observed in the left SFG was specifically driven by a larger increase in activity from the storage to the recognition phase of the interfering trials in VV homozygous subjects. These results confirm the impact of COMT genotype on inhibitory processes during a WM task, with an advantage for Met allele carriers. Interestingly, this impact on frontal areas is present only when the level of interference is high, and especially during the transition from storage to recognition in the left superior frontal gyrus. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet facilite-t-il chez les étudiants du supérieur un apprentissage de plus en plus autorégulé ?
Poumay, Marianne ULg

in Revue Internationale des Technologies en Pédagogie Universitaire (in press)

The article specifies the meaning of “self-regulated learning”, then illustrates, first in course then in a program, a few practices using Internet as a support for learning. It underlines in those ... [more ▼]

The article specifies the meaning of “self-regulated learning”, then illustrates, first in course then in a program, a few practices using Internet as a support for learning. It underlines in those practices the growing importance of self-regulated learning. It advocates for supporting, mentoring the students in their development of that self-regulation, often implicit and considered granted in the Internet based course environments. [less ▲]

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See detailLevallois et Gravettien
Otte, Marcel ULg; Noiret, Pierre ULg

in Praehistoria (in press)

Par opposition à ceux de l’Aurignacien, les ensembles lithiques gravettiens procèdent selon une méthode rappelant le Levallois quant à la préparation des supports. Mais les variations observables au sein ... [more ▼]

Par opposition à ceux de l’Aurignacien, les ensembles lithiques gravettiens procèdent selon une méthode rappelant le Levallois quant à la préparation des supports. Mais les variations observables au sein du Gravettien touchent autant les processus de symbolisation dans l’art et les sépultures. Elles affectent différents substrats eurasiatiques, plutôt septentrionaux, comme mis en réserve dès les Néandertaliens. [less ▲]

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See detailCultural Marxism in the Anglo-Saxon radical right literature
Jamin, Jérôme ULg

in Jackson, Paul (Ed.) The Postwar Anglo-American Far Right: A Special Relationship of Hate (in press)

This chapter will analyze the place of the threat alleged of Cultural Marxism in the discourse of the radical and extreme right, in the United States as well as in continental Europe and the United ... [more ▼]

This chapter will analyze the place of the threat alleged of Cultural Marxism in the discourse of the radical and extreme right, in the United States as well as in continental Europe and the United Kingdom. The underlying aim of this chapter is to examine the determinant role that this ‘threat’ plays in the Anglo Saxon extreme right, in particular at the intellectual, ideological and doctrinal levels, in comparison to other countries. Certainly if the Netherlands, France or other countries have parties or political groups which borrow the rhetoric of ‘fighting’ against Cultural Marxism, or its more nebulous variant, ‘political correctness’, it certainly finds its origins in the United States, and more broadly the Anglo-Saxon world. To achieve this, the chapter will begin by unpicking the meanings behind the notion of Cultural Marxism, from its origins to its use in Anders Breivik’s manifesto released shortly before the Oslo and UtØya massacres. It will show that the term emerged from the literature of American ultraconservatives following the fall of the Berlin Wall as a consequence of the disappearance of the ‘red menace’ of Communism. Secondly, it will focus on two important moments in the development of the term. It will describe the phrase’s usage from the beginning of the 2000s within the discourse of Pat Buchanan, a political commentator and multiple U.S. presidential candidate. Then it will illustrate the re-emergence of the term some 10 years later, in the manifesto of Anders Breivik and in the subsequent justification of his acts throughout his trial. In both cases, we will see that Buchanan and Breivik emphasize the same basic theme, Cultural Marxism, in their denouncement of what they see as two different threats. Finally, from these explorations of the usage of the term, the discussion will examine other current uses of the notion of ‘Cultural Marxism’ in the British and American radical right. To conclude, it will show how the ‘Cultural Marxism’ threats are used by a variety of activists to argue for the defence of their political standpoints, setting this in a language of preserving freedom and democracy, but ultimately only within a framework designed to defend Judeo-Christian values. [less ▲]

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See detailThe BNP and the FN. Between Islamophobia and the “defence” of democratic values
Jamin, Jérôme ULg

in Jackson, Paul (Ed.) The British Far Right in Transition: 1945 to Today (in press)

In this article Jérôme Jamin examines the ideological development of the British National Party (BNP) and the Front National (FN) since 9/11. He argues that if both parties have evolved towards discourses ... [more ▼]

In this article Jérôme Jamin examines the ideological development of the British National Party (BNP) and the Front National (FN) since 9/11. He argues that if both parties have evolved towards discourses more in line with democracy and liberal values, it can be explained by the opportunity the “threat” of Islam offered. After a reminder of the birth and the electoral evolution of the two parties, Jamin focuses on the perception and the definition of democracy as depicted in their manifestos and main public speeches. The study reveals an ethnic-styled perception of democracy at the BNP in opposition with a more civic perception at the FN, even if the analysis shows an ambiguity behind the use of the concept of “people” in the FN rhetoric mixing frequently “demos” and “ethnos”. The author confronts the combination of this new democratic rhetoric with the birth of Islam as a threat incompatible with “British democracy” in the United Kingdom and “Republican secularism” in France. In both parties, stereotypes of Islam are used to portray the BNP and the FN as defenders of a true and legitimate democracy and to a great extent, Jamin argues, “Islam” provided an unexpected opportunity to replace migrants, foreigners and Arabs with a new stereotype: the Muslim who threatens the separation between state and religion, equality between men and women, freedom of speech, and so on. Jamin concludes by emphasising that both parties required time to identify this new scapegoat. [less ▲]

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See detailArrêt(s) sur image(s) : usages et pratiques du photogramme
Thonon, Jonathan ULg

in MethIS : Méthodes et Interdisciplinarité en Sciences Humaines (in press)

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See detailDUSP3 Phosphatase Deficiency or Inhibition Limit Platelet Activation and Arterial Thrombosis
Musumeci, Lucia ULg; Kuijpers, Marijke; Gilio, Karen et al

in Circulation (in press)

Background A limitation of current antiplatelet therapies is their inability to separate thrombotic events from bleeding occurrences. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to platelet ... [more ▼]

Background A limitation of current antiplatelet therapies is their inability to separate thrombotic events from bleeding occurrences. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to platelet activation is of importance for the development of improved therapies. Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have emerged as critical regulators of platelet function. Methods and Results This is the first report implicating the dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) in platelet signaling and thrombosis. This phosphatase is highly expressed in human and mouse platelets. Platelets from DUSP3-deficient mice displayed a selective impairment of aggregation and granule secretion mediated through the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). DUSP3-deficient mice were more resistant to collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism, compared to wild-type mice, and showed severely impaired thrombus formation upon ferric chloride-induced carotid artery injury. Intriguingly, bleeding times were not altered in DUSP3-deficient mice. At the molecular level, DUSP3 deficiency impaired Syk tyrosine phosphorylation, subsequently reducing phosphorylation of PLCγ2 and calcium fluxes. To investigate DUSP3 function in human platelets, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of DUSP3 was developed. This compound specifically inhibited collagen and CLEC-2-induced human platelet aggregation, thereby phenocopying the effect of DUSP3 deficiency in murine cells. Conclusions DUSP3 plays a selective and essential role in collagen- and CLEC-2-mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo. Inhibition of DUSP3 may prove therapeutic for arterial thrombosis. This is the first time a PTP, implicated in platelet signaling, has been targeted with a small-molecule drug. [less ▲]

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See detailProcédés et enjeux de l'écriture polémique dans le dossier épistolaire anti-adoptianiste du concile de Francfort (794)
Close, Florence ULg; Veyrard-Cosme, Christiane

in Actes du colloque international ""Écriture et genre épistolaires, IVe-XIe s". 5-8 juin 2013 (in press)

Relecture à deux voix – historico-littéraire – des pièces du dossier épistolaire de Francfort attribué à Alcuin visant à dégager les stratégies littéraires et oratoires mises en œuvres par Alcuin au nom ... [more ▼]

Relecture à deux voix – historico-littéraire – des pièces du dossier épistolaire de Francfort attribué à Alcuin visant à dégager les stratégies littéraires et oratoires mises en œuvres par Alcuin au nom des évêques francs, d’une part, et de Charlemagne, de l’autre, pour tenter de ramener l’épiscopat espagnol dans le giron romain. Réflexion sur le rôle, l’importance et la puissance stylistique du genre épistolaire, hérité de l’Antiquité, dans deux foyers importants de haute culture de l’époque – la péninsule ibérique et le monde insulaire. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Río Negro Estuary, Argentina, and their mid-distance movements along the Northeast Patagonian coast
Failla, Mauricio; Seijas, Veronica; Vermeulen, Els ULg

in Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals (in press)

A systematic study on the presence of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Río Negro Estuary (RNE), Patagonia Argentina, was carried out between the months March – July from 2008 to 2011. Data ... [more ▼]

A systematic study on the presence of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Río Negro Estuary (RNE), Patagonia Argentina, was carried out between the months March – July from 2008 to 2011. Data on the dolphin’s activity patterns were gathered via an Ad Libitum focal group sampling mode accompanying dorsal fin images taken for identification and re-identification of individuals. A total effort of 188 h resulted in 58 h of positive observation of 124 dolphin groups (sightings per unit effort (SPUE) = 0.66 groups/h). Data analysis showed two main activity states for the observed groups, travelling (65%) and foraging (26%). The remaining 9% of the groups were involved in other activity states. The photo-identification effort, which started opportunistically in 2006, resulted in a catalogue of 21 individual dolphins, with a total mean re-identification rate of 9 days (max = 24 days). When comparing these pictures to the existing catalogue of Bahía San Antonio (approximately 200 km west from the study area) dorsal fins of 20 individuals could be positively matched and most (n = 17) could be subsequently re-identified in both areas, indicating their long distance movements along the North Patagonian coast during the austral autumn months. This season coincides with the lowest amount of feeding activity observed in Bahía San Antonio. This study suggests that bottlenose dolphins enter RNE, mainly during autumn, to forage. It appears that the search for food resources may be the trigger for their movement patterns along the North Patagonian coast during this season, at least for certain individuals. More research is needed to accurately confirm this hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailCodifying ‘Sacred Laws’ in Ancient Greece
Carbon, Jan-Mathieu ULg; Pirenne-Delforge, Vinciane ULg

in Jaillard, Dominique; Nihan, Christophe (Eds.) Legal Codification in Ancient Greece and Ancient Israel (in press)

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See detailExperimental and numerical study of the flight of geese
Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg; Gardiner, James; Tickle, Peter et al

in Aeronautical Journal (in press)

The flight of barnacle geese at airspeeds representing high-speed migrating flight is investigated using experiments and simulations. The experimental part of the work involved the filming of three ... [more ▼]

The flight of barnacle geese at airspeeds representing high-speed migrating flight is investigated using experiments and simulations. The experimental part of the work involved the filming of three barnacle geese (Branta Leucopsis) flying at different airspeeds in a wind tunnel. The video footage was analysed in order to extract the wing kinematics. Additional information, such as wing geometry and camber was obtained from a 3D scan of a dried wing. An unsteady vortex lattice method was used to simulate the aerodynamics of the measured flapping motion. The simulations were used in order to successfully reproduce the measured body motion and thus obtain estimates of the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. It was found that the mean of the wing pitch angle variation with time has the most significant effect on lift while the difference in the durations of the upstroke and downstroke has the major effect on thrust. The power consumed by the aerodynamic forces was also estimated; it was found that increases in aerodynamic power correspond very closely to climbing motion and vice versa. Root-mean-square values of the power range from 100 W to 240 W. Finally, it was observed that tandem flying can be very expensive for the trailing bird. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory deficits in developmental dyscalculia: the importance of serial order.
Attout, Lucie ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg

in Child Neuropsychology : A Journal on Normal & Abnormal Development in Childhood & Adolescence (in press)

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