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See detailNew data on the recent history of the littoral forests of southern Cameroon: an insight into the role of historical human disturbances on the current forest composition
Biwolé, Achille ULg; Morin-Rivat, Julie ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg et al

in Plant Ecology and Evolution (2015), 148(1), 19-28

Background and aims – Prior to European colonisation of Central Africa, human populations were dispersed through the forests, where they practiced slash-and-burn cultivation. From the 19th century they ... [more ▼]

Background and aims – Prior to European colonisation of Central Africa, human populations were dispersed through the forests, where they practiced slash-and-burn cultivation. From the 19th century they were progressively concentrated in villages along roads, leaving large areas of forest derelict. In south-western Cameroon, and elsewhere in Central Africa, forest canopy is dominated by long-lived lightdemanding tree species, suggesting a possible role of human disturbance. The aim of this study was to bring new insights into the possible effect of historical human disturbances in terms of timing and spatial extent on the current forest composition. Location – Wet evergreen littoral forest in south-western Cameroon. Methods and key results – A combined vegetation sampling and archaeobotanical survey were conducted. Potsherds, oil-palm endocarps, and charcoal were found throughout the study area, suggesting generalised human occupation and anthropogenic fire. Human occupancy occurred in two periods: between 2200 and 1500 BP, and, more recently, beginning three centuries ago. High frequency of fire and the presence of Elaeis guineensis both dated recently (between 260 and 145 BP) suggest slash-and-burn shifting cultivation practices. These human-induced disturbances may coincide with the age of the current emergent lightdemanding species, the age of which can be estimated around 200 years, or with the phases of drying climate recorded in the Central African forest in the early 18th century. Conclusions – These results support the idea that historical human disturbances are one of the major factors that shaped the current forest composition in Central Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailSequential testing of k-out-of-n systems with imperfect tests
Wenchao, Wei; Coolen, Kris ULg; Talla Nobibon, Fabrice et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

A k-out-of-n system configuration requires that, for the overall system to be functional, at least k out of the total of n components be working. We consider the problem of sequentially testing the ... [more ▼]

A k-out-of-n system configuration requires that, for the overall system to be functional, at least k out of the total of n components be working. We consider the problem of sequentially testing the components of a k-out-of-n system in order to learn the state of the system, when the tests are costly and when the individual component tests are imperfect, which means that a test can identify a component as working when in reality it is down, and vice versa. Each component is tested at most once. Since tests are imperfect, even when all components are tested the state of the system is not necessarily known with certainty, and so reaching a lower bound on the probability of correctness of the system state is used as a stopping criterion for the inspection. We define different classes of inspection policies and we examine global optimality of each of the classes. We find that a globally optimal policy for diagnosing k-out-of-n systems with imperfect tests can be found in polynomial time when the predictive error probabilities are the same for all the components. Of the three policy classes studied, the dominant policies always contain a global optimum, while elementary policies are compact in representation. The newly introduced class of so-called `interrupted block-walking' policies combines these merits of global optimality and of compactness. [less ▲]

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See detailAlgebrability and nowhere Gevrey differentiability
Bastin, Françoise ULg; Conejero, J. Alberto; Esser, Céline ULg et al

in Israel Journal of Mathematics (2015), 205

We show that there exist c-generated algebras (and dense in C^infty([0,1])) every nonzero element of which is a nowhere Gevrey diff erentiable function. This leads to results of dense algebrability (and ... [more ▼]

We show that there exist c-generated algebras (and dense in C^infty([0,1])) every nonzero element of which is a nowhere Gevrey diff erentiable function. This leads to results of dense algebrability (and, therefore, lineability) of functions enjoying this property. In the process of proving these results we also provide a new construction of nowhere Gevrey di fferentiable functions. [less ▲]

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See detailVII.15 Cahier de texte et reliure [manuscrit arabe MRAH I.S. 5007]
Franssen, Elise ULg

in van Raemdonck, Mieke (Ed.) En Harmonie. Art du monde islamique aux Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire de Bruxelles (2015)

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See detailBehavior of various types of seeds of two species of yams tuber (Dioscorea cayenensis Lam. and Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) in Gabon
Ondo Ovono, Paul; Kevers, Claire ULg; Dommes, Jacques ULg

in International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science (2015), 5

Low multiplication ratio of yam and scarcity of planting materials are major constraints militating against sustainable yam production. In order to evaluate the behavior of the four various types of seeds ... [more ▼]

Low multiplication ratio of yam and scarcity of planting materials are major constraints militating against sustainable yam production. In order to evaluate the behavior of the four various types of seeds of two species of yams Dioscorea cayenensis and Dioscorea rotundata, cultivated on the experimental ground of the Higher National Institute of Agronomy and Biotechnology (INSAB), a test was realized in a randomized complete block design with six replications. The samples were cut and three levels of each tuber were used :proximal, medial and distal parts of the tuber. The fragments of tuber and the whole tuber represent the various types of seed used in this work. The results showed significant (P<0.05) differences in number of plants emerged and time of emergence in a mixture of 40% soil and 60% sand three months and half after planting. For all species, the proximal parts sprouted earlier than the medium parts and then the distal parts. The fragmentation of tubers in 3 parts can show the existence of a gradient alone the tuber in its potential for sprouting and growth. There was a highly significant (P<0.05) difference between yield performances after 9 months of culture. This technique improves the production of tubers in both species. [less ▲]

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See detailSome considerations concerning the artificially colored aquarium fish trade
Eşanu, Valentin O.; Gavriloaie, Claudiu; Oroian, Ioan G. et al

in Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation (2015), 8(1), 116-121

Humans kept ornamental fish in their homes from ancient times. During time, the ornamental fish industry became a profitable enterprise. Color, size and shape are important traits when we describe a fish ... [more ▼]

Humans kept ornamental fish in their homes from ancient times. During time, the ornamental fish industry became a profitable enterprise. Color, size and shape are important traits when we describe a fish as a phenotypically uniform line, strain or breed; a standardized color, shape and size describe better a fish population and thus it is promoted better on the market. Several varieties of fish are being artificially colored to improve marketability. Painted, dyed or tattooed fish are terms for a new variety of pet fish whose scales have been transformed from monochrome silver into vivid pigmentations using artificial colors or lasers. These practices produce many health problems for fish. We should not to put money above the life and welfare of any living thing. Education of the customers is a very important thing, because artificially colored fish continue to exist because of demand. [less ▲]

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See detailA Stereocontrolled Synthesis of the Hydrophobic Moiety of Rhamnolipids
Menhour, Boudjema; Mayon, Patrick; Plé, Karen et al

in Tetrahedron Letters (2015), 56

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See detailFramework for the integration of genomics, epigenomics, and transcriptomics in complex diseases
Pineda San Juan, Silvia ULg; Gómez-Rubio, Paulina; Antoni, Picornell et al

in Human Heredity (2015)

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See detailProcédure pénale
Michiels, Olivier ULg; Falque, Géraldine ULg

Learning material (2015)

Syllabus du cours de procédure pénale pour l'année académique 2014-2015

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See detailReverse current transient behavior of pGeSn/nGe diodes
Baert, Bruno ULg; Gupta, Somya; Gencarelli, Federica et al

Conference (2015)

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See detailVehicle routing problems with loading constraints: State-of-the-art and future directions
Pollaris, Hanne; Braekers, Kris; Caris, An et al

in OR Spectrum (2015), 37(Issue 2), 297-330

Distributors are faced with loading constraints in their route planning, e.g.,multi-dimensional packing constraints, unloading sequence constraints, stability constraints and axle weight limits. Ignoring ... [more ▼]

Distributors are faced with loading constraints in their route planning, e.g.,multi-dimensional packing constraints, unloading sequence constraints, stability constraints and axle weight limits. Ignoring these constraints impairs planning and induces last-minute changes resulting in additional costs. Developing vehicle routing models incorporating loading constraints is critical to more efficient route planning. The last couple of years has seen a huge increase of contributions to this field of research with almost 60 % of these being published after 2009. Our contribution is twofold. First, we overview the recent developments in the literature on all vehicle types in which loading constraints play a key role (trucks, airplanes, ships, and automated guided vehicles), using a state-of-the-art classification scheme to identify the loading constraints considered in each article. Second, we identify research gaps and opportunities for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailA Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Analyses of Drugs for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Evers, Silvia M.; Ben Sedrine, Wafa et al

in PharmacoEconomics (2015), 33(3), 205-224

BACKGROUND: Given the limited availability of healthcare resources and the recent introduction of new anti-osteoporosis drugs, the interest in the cost effectiveness of drugs in postmenopausal ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Given the limited availability of healthcare resources and the recent introduction of new anti-osteoporosis drugs, the interest in the cost effectiveness of drugs in postmenopausal osteoporosis remains and even increases. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify all recent economic evaluations on drugs for postmenopausal osteoporosis, to critically appraise the reporting quality, and to summarize the results. METHODS: A literature search using Medline, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation database and the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry was undertaken to identify original articles published between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013. Studies that assessed cost effectiveness of drugs in postmenopausal osteoporosis were included. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement was used to assess the quality of reporting of these articles. RESULTS: Of 1,794 articles identified, 39 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They were conducted in 14 different countries and nine active interventions were assessed. When compared with no treatment, active osteoporotic drugs were generally cost effective in postmenopausal women aged over 60-65 years with low bone mass, especially those with prior vertebral fractures. Key drivers of cost effectiveness included individual fracture risk, medication adherence, selected comparators and country-specific analyses. Quality of reporting varied between studies with an average score of 17.9 out of 24 (range 7-21.5). CONCLUSION: This review found a substantial number of published cost-effectiveness analyses of drugs in osteoporosis in the last 6 years. Results and critical appraisal of these articles can help decision makers when prioritizing health interventions and can inform the development of future economic evaluations. [less ▲]

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See detailTest-positive rate at CT colonography is increased by rectal bleeding and/orunexplained weight loss, unlike other common gastrointestinal symptoms
Hock, Danielle; MATERNE, Roland; Ouhadi, Roxanne et al

in European Journal of Radiology (2015), 2

2015AbstractPurpose: We evaluated the rate of significant colonic and extra-colonic abnormalities at computed tomography colonography (CTC), accordingto symptoms and age.Materials and methods: We ... [more ▼]

2015AbstractPurpose: We evaluated the rate of significant colonic and extra-colonic abnormalities at computed tomography colonography (CTC), accordingto symptoms and age.Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated 7361 consecutive average-risk subjects (3073 males, average age: 60.3 ± 13.9; range 18–96years) for colorectal cancer (CRC) who underwent CTC. They were divided into three groups according to clinical symptoms: 1343 asymptomaticindividuals (group A), 899 patients with at least one “alarm” symptom for CRC, including rectal bleeding and unexplained weight loss (groupC), and 5119 subjects with other gastrointestinal symptoms (group B). Diagnostic and test-positive rates of CTC were established using opticalcolonoscopy (OC) and/or surgery as reference standard. In addition, clinically significant extra-colonic findings were noted.Results: 903 out of 7361 (12%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.13) subjects had at least one clinically significant colonic finding at CTC. CTCtrue positive fraction and false positive fraction were respectively 637/642 (99.2%, 95%CI 0.98–0.99) and 55/692 (7.95%, 95%CI 0.05–0.09). Thepooled test-positive rate in group C (138/689, 20.0%, 95%CI 0.17–0.23) was significantly higher than in both groups A (79/1343, 5.9%, 95%CI0.04–0.07) and B (420/5329, 7.5%, 95%CI 0.07–0.08) (p < 0.001). Aging and male gender were associated to a higher test positive rate. The rateof clinically significant extra-colonic findings was significantly higher in group C (44/689, 6.4%, 95%CI 0.04–0.08) versus groups A (26/1343,1.9%, 95%CI 0.01–0.02) and B (64/5329, 1.2%, 95%CI 0.01–0.02) (p < 0.001).Conclusion: Both test-positive and significant extra-colonic finding rates at CTC are significantly increased in the presence of “alarm” gastroin-testinal symptoms especially in older patients. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport annuel doctorat 2014-2015
Dechene, Antoine ULg

Report (2015)

Rapport de thèse de doctorat

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