Last 7 days
Bookmark and Share    
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa critique génétique dans la collection "Poétique"
Lorent, Fanny ULg

Conference (2016, April 29)

La critique génétique est, comme le dit bien Jean-Louis Jeannelle, une « théorie en quête d’elle-même » , tiraillée entre la tradition philologique et les avancées structuralistes. Elle doit sans cesse, à ... [more ▼]

La critique génétique est, comme le dit bien Jean-Louis Jeannelle, une « théorie en quête d’elle-même » , tiraillée entre la tradition philologique et les avancées structuralistes. Elle doit sans cesse, à la fois, se défaire des suspicions positivistes qui pèsent sur elle et justifier son appartenance possible à la (une ?) poétique . Nous voudrions étudier, dans cette communication, les mécanismes de légitimation de cette discipline aux contours épistémologiques complexes au sein même de la collection « Poétique », qui accueillit, en 1998, Les brouillons de soi de Philippe Lejeune et, en 2011, Logiques du brouillon de Daniel Ferrer. Comment les auteurs vont-ils, dans leur ouvrage, justifier leur parution au sein d’une collection dont les présupposés théoriques semblent, a priori, contraires à ceux présidant à leur travail ? Quelles en sont alors les implications méthodologiques, pour chacune des deux disciplines ? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe droit du travail (re)visité par la Cour constitutionnelle
Kéfer, Fabienne ULg

in Boufflette, Sophie (Ed.) La cour constitutionnelle. De l'art de modeler de droit pour préserver l'égalité (2016, April 29)

L'étude porte sur le rôle de la Cour constitutionnelle dans l’édification du droit du travail. Arrêt après arrêt, elle consolide la norme attaquée ou au contraire redessine – ou presse le législateur de ... [more ▼]

L'étude porte sur le rôle de la Cour constitutionnelle dans l’édification du droit du travail. Arrêt après arrêt, elle consolide la norme attaquée ou au contraire redessine – ou presse le législateur de redessiner – les contours de cette branche du droit fortement marquée par son histoire. Elle se penche sur un peu plus de trente arrêts prononcés par la Cour constitutionnelle, principalement depuis 2008, dans les domaines suivants : le travail à temps partiel (chapitre 1), le droit de la non-discrimination (chapitre 2), certaines questions intéressant le licenciement, à savoir la durée du préavis, les mesures destinées à stimuler l’employabilité, la motivation, la notion de rémunération en cours en cas de réduction temporaire des prestations de travail, et l’indemnité d’éviction du représentant de commerce (chapitres 3 à 7), les distinctions entre employés et ouvriers autres que les conditions de licenciement (chapitre 8), la procédure de réorganisation judiciaire (chapitre 9) et la prescription (chapitre 10). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCognition et imagination. Réflexions à partir de Mach, Musil et Wittgenstein
Zincq, Aurélien ULg

Conference (2016, April 29)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCrop residue management in arable cropping systems under temperate climate. Part 1: Soil biological and chemical (phosphorus and nitrogen) properties. A review
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULg; Degrune, Florine ULg; Barbieux, Sophie ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016)

Interacting soil organisms support biological processes that participate in soil functions, organic matter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. Earthworms and microorganisms play a range of beneficial ... [more ▼]

Interacting soil organisms support biological processes that participate in soil functions, organic matter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. Earthworms and microorganisms play a range of beneficial roles in agricultural systems, including increased organic matter mineralization, nutrient cycling, and soil structure stabilization. The following aspects of crop residue management effects are examined in this paper: (i) earthworm composition and structure; (ii) soil microbial communities; and (iii) phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) element availability and distribution in the soil profile. Conventional tillage (ploughing) is often reported to generate decreased soil organism abundance and diversity, primarily earthworms and microorganisms, as well as a uniform distribution of the nutrients P and N within the ploughed soil horizon. Soil residue incorporation of mineral particles can maintain P and N levels, however returning soil also increases aeration and the activation of microbial activity. Hence, comparisons of tillage effects on soil biological functioning and nutrient cycling remain unclear. This review highlights the challenges in establishing definitive evidence regarding the effects of crop residue management on soil organisms and nutrient dynamics. The studies examined reported variability in soil and climate, and the complexity of soil processes contributed to the absence of clear findings. Further research is required under temperate climate conditions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (6 ULg)
See detailThe origin of eukaryotes is linked to the rooting of the Tree of Life... but the phylogenetic jury is still out!
Gouy, Richard ULg

Scientific conference (2016, April 28)

The origin of the eukaryotes remains one of the most contentious puzzles in evolution. In the late 1970s, C. Woese discovered Archaea and put an end to the dichotomous view of Life (eukaryote vs ... [more ▼]

The origin of the eukaryotes remains one of the most contentious puzzles in evolution. In the late 1970s, C. Woese discovered Archaea and put an end to the dichotomous view of Life (eukaryote vs prokaryote). Since Woese’s revolution, the Tree of Life (ToL) has been divided into three domains (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota), yet with unclear relationships. Rooting the ToL then became a problem. Indeed, the question of the origin of eukaryotes is directly related to the location of this root, which also affects the nature of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). Several scenarios might explain the origin of the eukaryotic cell: (a) the three domains have an independent origin and directly stemmed from the primordial soup; (b) the three domains stemmed from a simple LUCA, and their evolution proceeded by increasing complexity in eukaryotes; (c) the three domains stemmed from a complex LUCA, and their evolution proceeded by simplification in prokaryotes; (d) eukaryotes originated from a fusion event between an archaeon and a bacterium, the latter being the mitochondrion and their other properties evolving after this event; (e) eukaryotes originated from a fusion event between an archaeon and a bacterium, the result being a proto-eukaryote not yet equipped with a mitochondrion. During the last 15 years, technical advances in phylogenetic methods have relocated many simple organisms higher in the ToL, which means that they are actually secondary simplified. However, even the best evolutionary models are not yet able to address difficult phylogenetic issues, whether at shallow depth or at deep evolutionary times. This raises a fundamental question: does simple always mean ancestral? For the time being, the commonly accepted bacterial root for the ToL (in scenario (b)) is still unproven, so that the current consensus can be traced back to the prejudice of Aristotle’s Great Chain of Beings, in which simple organisms are ancestors of more complex life forms. Indeed, during early evolution, there might have been many independently arising lineages, both before and along LUCA, none of them having left extant descendants. The major bottlenecks that occurred as a result of catastrophic events in Earth’s history (e.g., meteorite impacts or snowball Earth periods) might explain why we only have three domains of Life nowadays. Furthermore, extant lineages coalesce to a LUCA that was not necessarily simple and located at the base of the ToL. Instead, it probably lived much later and was more complex than generally acknowledged. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (3 ULg)
See detailLe Non Bis In Idem en droit de la concurrence: un monde de différence avec le pénal?
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg

Scientific conference (2016, April 28)

At this colloquium, I analysed the specific interpretation given to the non bis in idem principle in EU competition law. I compared the Court's case law in this domain with the case law of the European ... [more ▼]

At this colloquium, I analysed the specific interpretation given to the non bis in idem principle in EU competition law. I compared the Court's case law in this domain with the case law of the European Court of Human Rights and the Court itself in other domains and questioned to what extent a competition law exceptionalism could still be tolerated. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 1 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailWhat do selectorates seek? A comparative analysis of Belgian federal and regional candidate selection processes in 2014
Vandeleene, Audrey; Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg; De Winter, Lieven

in American Behavioral Scientist (2016), 60(7), 889-908

The 2014 “mother of all elections” in Belgium offers a unique opportunity to test whether candidate selection for regional and federal elections work alike or differently. The fact that Belgian ... [more ▼]

The 2014 “mother of all elections” in Belgium offers a unique opportunity to test whether candidate selection for regional and federal elections work alike or differently. The fact that Belgian “statewide” parties do not exist anymore and that Belgium is a quasi-closed list system, giving parties almost unlimited control over candidate selection enhances the uniqueness of the Belgian case. This article verifies whether these “regional” parties select candidates according to different methods for both elections and whether candidates for both elections display different attributes. Our exploratory analysis draws on in-depth interviews with party actors, on the 2014 Belgian Candidate Survey and on an extensive database of regional and federal parliamentary/executive careers since 1991. Our results show that selection procedures strongly differ across parties but hardly within parties regarding regional and federal elections. Besides, regarding candidates’ attributes, only few differences were found between levels. Hence, both levels seem to work alike. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailCOP21 and Electrical Systems
Ernst, Damien ULg

Speech/Talk (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 595 (57 ULg)
Full Text
See detailSexual attraction in lady beetles: fundamentals and applications
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Sustainable agriculture relies on the development of environmentally friendly methods of crop production. Therefore, alternative solutions are required to decrease insecticide use and to promote the ... [more ▼]

Sustainable agriculture relies on the development of environmentally friendly methods of crop production. Therefore, alternative solutions are required to decrease insecticide use and to promote the efficacy of natural enemies against insect pests. Investigating the sexual behavior of lady beetles is of practical relevance, because these insects could be used to reduce plant-feeding insect populations in crop fields by taking advantage of their predatory behavior. In this context, the objective of this PhD thesis was twofold: (1) a fundamental research that focuses on the identification of the sex pheromone of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and (2) an applied approach aimed at elaborating semiochemicals slow-release dispensers with these compounds, in order to attract individuals in cultivated fields. We have demonstrated that virgin females of H. axyridis display a typical male-calling behavior in presence of prey, which is associated with the release of a pheromonal blend that is highly attractive for conspecific males. Dynamic headspace sampling and subsequent chemical analyses allowed the characterization of this sex pheromone. Finally, we focused on the development of a formulation releasing a combination of semiochemicals that attract aphid predators. The formulation, composed of alginate beads, was optimized under laboratory conditions. The release rate of the formulation was assessed by dynamic headspace sampling coupled with adsorbent trapping. The formulation was efficient at attracting two natural enemies of aphids. All these results are discussed in the context of sustainable agriculture, with the use of semiochemicals, and especially pheromones, as potential tools to enhance current cropping systems. In near future, the application of such molecules, based on strong knowledge of insect olfaction, is expected to increase considerably with the development of new methods aimed at attracting predators and/or parasitoids. In addition, improvements of experimental devices, such as the elaboration of slow release dispensers, are suggested in the last chapter of this PhD thesis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (33 ULg)
See detailTerrorisme, flux médiatique et petits chatons. De quelques narrations de l'invisible.
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Scientific conference (2016, April 28)

Partant de quelques événements terroristes récents (Paris 2015, Verviers 2015, Bruxelles 2016), cette conférence une analyse critique des multiples réactions médiatiques que ces événements ont suscité en ... [more ▼]

Partant de quelques événements terroristes récents (Paris 2015, Verviers 2015, Bruxelles 2016), cette conférence une analyse critique des multiples réactions médiatiques que ces événements ont suscité en télévision comme sur internet. Editions spéciales de journaux télévisés, enquêtes d'amateurs sur des sites dédiés aux théories du complot, détournements d'images sur les réseaux sociaux seront abordés ici comme autant de narrations qui, malgré leur hétérogénéité, répondent toutes à l'invisibilité partielle et momentanée de l'acte terroriste au moment où il surgit dans le paysage médiatique. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (1 ULg)
See detailLa Paix de Fexhe. Qui ? Quoi ? Comment ? Pourquoi ?
Masson, Christophe ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailAdministration of Third-Party Mesenchymal Stromal Cells at the Time of Kidney Transplantation: Interim Safety Analysis at One-Year Follow-Up
Erpicum, Pauline ULg; WEEKERS, Laurent ULg; DETRY, Olivier ULg et al

Conference (2016, April 28)

Objective. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) therapy has been suggested in kidney transplantation (KTx). We report on the 1-year follow-up of an open-label phase I trial using MSC at the time of KTx ... [more ▼]

Objective. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) therapy has been suggested in kidney transplantation (KTx). We report on the 1-year follow-up of an open-label phase I trial using MSC at the time of KTx. Methods. On postoperative day 3 (D3), third-party MSC (~2.0x106/kg) were administered to 7 non-immunized first-transplant recipients from deceased donors, under standard immunosuppression (Basiliximab, Tacrolimus, MMF and steroids). No HLA matching was required for MSC donors. In parallel, 7 comparable KTx recipients were included as controls. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Results. No hemodynamic or immune-allergic side-effect was noted at the time of MSC injection. Still, 1 patient with a history of ischemic heart disease had a NSTEMI ~3h after MSC infusion. Four MSC patients presented with CMV reactivation within 165 ± 96 days post KTx, whereas 3 controls had positive polyoma-BK viremia within 92 ± 4d post KTx. Three MSC patients were affected by pneumonia within 269 ± 98d post KTx, whereas 3 controls had urinary infection within 48 ± 43d post KTx. No MSC engraftment syndrome was observed. At D14, eGFR in MSC and control groups was 47.1 ± 6.8 and 39.7 ± 5.9 ml/min, respectively (p, 0.05). At 1 year, eGFR in MSC and control groups was 43.1 ± 17.8 and 53.9 ± 13.4 ml/min, respectively (p, 0.25). At 3-month protocol biopsy, no rejection was evidenced in MSC or control patients. Later on, 1 acute rejection was diagnosed at D330 in 1 MSC patient. No biopsy-proven AR was noted in controls. Three patients developed anti-HLA antibodies against MSC (n=1) or shared kidney/MSC (n=2) mismatches. Conclusions. MSC infusion was safe in all patients except one. Incidence of opportunist and non-opportunist infections was similar in both MSC and control groups. No MSC engraftment syndrome was documented. No difference in eGFR was found at 1 year post KTx. Putative immunization against MSC was observed in 3 patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (4 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa ligne et la boucle. Michel Strogoff ou l'involution
Durand, Pascal ULg

Conference (2016, April 28)

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (14 ULg)
Full Text
See detailImpact de l'incertitude sur la gouvernance des institutions de microfinance: cas de coopératives burundaises
Niyungeko, Thadée ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

The microfinance sector has attracted increasing attention particularly in literature and in political circles in recent years. Microfinance is seen as a key means for the poors to access to financial ... [more ▼]

The microfinance sector has attracted increasing attention particularly in literature and in political circles in recent years. Microfinance is seen as a key means for the poors to access to financial services. Nevertheless, one of the challenges of microfinance institutions lies in their governance. To study the governance of microfinance institutions, many authors recommend to consider not only their diversity related to their natures and their missions, but also the context of the country in which they operate. However, existing works have not fully taken into account the contextual factors in the study of the governance of MFIs. This thesis contributes to bridge these gaps. It is in this sense of a specific and suitable approach to microfinance institutions. It analyzes the impact of the uncertainty related to an internal armed conflict in Burundi cooperatives. This research shows that face of uncertainty, policymakers are faced with the decision-making problems in compliance with the rules. Conflicts of interest arise, the paradoxes in the roles of directors or in inter-organizational relationships are observed. The results of this research also show the limits of volunteer principle in cooperative organizations in times of uncertainty. To cope with uncertainty, cooperatives undertaking various coping strategies despite their organizational similarities. They further develop inter-organizational relationships in search of legitimacy and scope of expression. Belonging to the network and the pressures of supervisor push these organizations to adopt isomorphic structures and practices. This thesis is a first milestone in the studies on the governance of cooperatives under uncertainty. It goes beyond the Burundian context by formulating hypotheses to be tested in future studies and in other places. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (10 ULg)
See detailGestion des pyodermites superficielles récidivantes chez le chien
Mignon, Bernard ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUnderground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow
Pujades, Estanislao ULg; Willems, Thibault ULg; Bodeux, Sarah ULg et al

in Hydrogeology Journal (2016)

Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is ... [more ▼]

Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (20 ULg)
Full Text
See detailEvolution de l'enseignement par la simulation
Servotte, Jean-Christophe ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Présentation de l'évolution de la simulation avec un focus sur la pédagogie utilisée ainsi que sur les facteurs humains et l'impact sur la qualité des soins et la sécurité des patients

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season
Bachy, Aurélie ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Schoon, Niels et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2016), 16(8),

Although maize is the second most important crop worldwide, and the most important C4 crop, no study on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) has yet been conducted on this crop at ecosystem scale ... [more ▼]

Although maize is the second most important crop worldwide, and the most important C4 crop, no study on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) has yet been conducted on this crop at ecosystem scale and over a whole growing season. This has led to large uncertainties in cropland BVOC emission estimations. This paper seeks to fill this gap by presenting, for the first time, BVOC fluxes measured in a maize field at ecosystem scale (using the disjunct eddy covariance by mass scanning technique) over a whole growing season in Belgium. The maize field emitted mainly methanol, although exchanges were bi-directional. The second most exchanged compound was acetic acid, which was taken up mainly in the growing season. Bi-directional exchanges of acetaldehyde, acetone and other oxygenated VOCs also occurred, whereas the terpenes, benzene and toluene exchanges were small, albeit significant. Surprisingly, BVOC exchanges were of the same order of magnitude on bare soil and on well developed vegetation, suggesting that soil is a major BVOC reservoir in agricultural ecosystems. Quantitatively, the maize BVOC emissions observed were lower than those reported in other maize, crops and grasses studies. The standard emission factors (SEFs) estimated in this study (231 ± 19 µg m−2 h−1 for methanol, 8 ± 5 µg m−2 h−1 for isoprene and 4 ± 6 µg m−2 h−1 for monoterpenes) were also much lower than those currently used by models for C4 crops, particularly for terpenes. These results suggest that maize fields are small BVOC exchangers in north-western Europe, with a lower BVOC emission impact than that modelled for growing C4 crops in this part of the world. They also reveal the high variability in BVOC exchanges across world regions for maize and suggest that SEFs should be estimated for each region separately. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (5 ULg)