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See detailMetabolites from media supplemented with 3’-sialyllactose and fermented by bifidobacteria have an antivirulent effect against intestinal pathogens
Bondue, Pauline ULg; Daube, Georges ULg; Delcenserie, Véronique ULg

Poster (2016, October 21)

Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO) promote growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum. Oligosaccharides from cow milk (BMO), similar to HMO, are mainly represented in colostrum by 3’-sialyllactose ... [more ▼]

Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO) promote growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum. Oligosaccharides from cow milk (BMO), similar to HMO, are mainly represented in colostrum by 3’-sialyllactose (3’SL). Bifidobacterium crudilactis, a species from bovine origin and encoding for β galactosidases and α-glucosidases, could be able to metabolise them. Also, fermentation products could have antivirulent activity against intestinal pathogens. This study focused on capacity of bifidobacteria to metabolise 3’SL and on potential antivirulent effect of cell-free spent media (CFSM) against pathogenic bacteria. B. bifidum BBA1 and B. crudilactis FR/62/B/3 isolated respectively from breastfed children feces and cow raw milk cheese were grown on media supplemented with 3’SL as sole source of carbon. Next, CFSM effects were tested against virulence gene expression using ler and hilA promoter activity of luminescent constructs of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 ATCC 43888 and Salmonella Typhimurium SA 941256, respectively. The effect was confirmed on wild type strains of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890 and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 using RT-qPCR. Both strains were able to grow in presence of 3’SL. CFSM resulted in under-expression of hilA and ler genes for the luminescent constructs and in under-expression of ler (ratios of -15.4 and -8.1) and qseA (ratios of -2.1 and -3.1) genes for the wild type strain of E. coli O157:H7. No effect was observed with S. Typhimurium. Little is known about CFSM metabolites and they have to be isolated and identified. The potential synbiotic effect between 3’SL and bifidobacteria will be tested using the Shime®, a human gastrointestinal model. [less ▲]

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See detailPrise en charge de l'hyperuricémie, facteur de risque cardio-vasculaire?
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Scientific conference (2016, October 21)

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See detailLa pubalgie du sportif - Actualités thérapeutiques conservatrices
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2016, October 21)

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See detailHighly productive, yet heterotrophic, and still pumping CO2 from the atmosphere: A land fast ice paradigm?
Delille, Bruno ULg; Van der Linden, Fanny ULg; Conte, L et al

Conference (2016, October 21)

The YROSIAE (Year Round survey of Ocean-Sea Ice-Air Exchanges) survey aimed to carry out a year-round survey of land-fast sea ice focusing on the study of sea ice physics and biogeochemistry. Ice cores ... [more ▼]

The YROSIAE (Year Round survey of Ocean-Sea Ice-Air Exchanges) survey aimed to carry out a year-round survey of land-fast sea ice focusing on the study of sea ice physics and biogeochemistry. Ice cores, sea water, brines material were collected at regular intervals about 1 km off cape Evans in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, from November 2011 to December 2011 and from September 2012 to December 2012. Samples were processed to characterize both the vertical distribution and temporal changes of climate gases (CO2, DMS, CH4, N2O), CO2-related parameters (ice-air CO2 fluxes, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity and CaCO3 amount), physical parameters (salinity, temperature, and ice texture), biogeochemical parameters (macro-nutrients, particulate and dissolved organic carbon, δ13C, δ30Si and δ15N) and biological parameters (chlorophyll a, primary production within sea ice derived from O2:Ar and O2:N ratios…). Very high chlorophyll a abundance was observed at the bottom of the ice, a common feature of land fast ice in McMurdo Sound. During spring, chlorophyll a exhibited a significant increase suggesting high primary production. . However, at the same time, nutrients at the bottom of the ice increased significantly suggesting high remineralization and heterotrophy. In the middle of the ice column, evolution of dissolved inorganic carbon shown a succession of autotrophic and heterotrophic phases. However, the overall increase of DIC suggests that the ice interior was rather heterotroph. This was consistent with the increase in nutrients observed at the bottom of the ice. Such sea ice system should expel CO2. Yet, strong under saturation in CO2 in surface ice, and negative air-ice CO2 fluxes suggested that sea ice was taking up CO2 from the atmosphere. Meanwhile, measurements of N2O within the sea ice suggest that the ice was releasing N2O to the atmosphere as a result of high nitrification. On the whole land fast sea ice in McMurdo Sound appears as a puzzling ecosystem. It is able to support elevated growth of autotrophic organisms, but appears to be heterotrophic, yet pumping CO2 to the atmosphere but releasing other greenhouse gases. [less ▲]

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See detailDo teachers speak too much?
Remacle, Angélique ULg

Scientific conference (2016, October 21)

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See detailLa quête d’Isis ou la confirmation de Dieu : l’interpretatio Kircheriana
Winand, Jean ULg

Conference (2016, October 21)

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See detailThe genesis of a negative agentive nominalizer. The journey of jwtj between Old Egyptian and Coptic
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2016, October 21)

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See detailLa mise en scène du télétravail : le contrôle managérial au cœur d’un paradoxe entre hypervisibilité et invisibilité
Fox, Fanny ULg; Pichault, François ULg

Conference (2016, October 21)

Le présent article s’intéresse à la reconfiguration du contrôle managérial face à une des évolutions actuelles des formes de travail, à savoir le travail à distance. Après avoir circonscrit ce concept et ... [more ▼]

Le présent article s’intéresse à la reconfiguration du contrôle managérial face à une des évolutions actuelles des formes de travail, à savoir le travail à distance. Après avoir circonscrit ce concept et à partir d’une étude empirique menée au sein d’un groupe international du secteur des télécommunications, cette thématique particulière est abordée à l’aune de la sociologie de Goffman. Cette dernière s’avère singulièrement riche pour appréhender les changements, y compris digitaux, qui prennent place à l’heure actuelle dans les organisations. L’apport goffmanien est double : le propos de l’auteur constitue, d’une part, les bases de la méthodologie ethnographique de recueil des données élaborée et, d’autre part, l’éclairage théorique choisi pour discuter les résultats empiriques. Il apparaît ainsi que le contrôle managérial du travail à distance donne naissance à des situations paradoxales au sein desquelles s’opposent l’invisibilité engendrée par l’absence intra muros et l’hypervisibilité mise en place lorsque les personnes sont présentes dans les établissements physiques de l’entreprise, d’une part, et à travers les outils technologiques, d’autre part. La recommandation classique de la littérature prônant le passage à une direction par objectifs s’avère insuffisante pour répondre à l’enjeu du contrôle managérial. Les conclusions de cette recherche suggèrent davantage une hybridation réfléchie des modes de contrôle articulés autour d’une relation de confiance. [less ▲]

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See detailInbreeding and genomic runs of homozygosity in Vietnamese local chickens
Moyse, Evelyne ULg; Nguyen Van, Duy; Vu Dinh, Ton et al

Poster (2016, October 21)

Most researches on genetic variety evaluation in Vietnamese local chicken breeds have been based up to now on microsatellite markers (Cuc et al., 2011; Pham et al., 2013). Thanks to the genotyping of ~580 ... [more ▼]

Most researches on genetic variety evaluation in Vietnamese local chicken breeds have been based up to now on microsatellite markers (Cuc et al., 2011; Pham et al., 2013). Thanks to the genotyping of ~580,000 SNPs on 95 chickens, this study aimed to assess the genetic diversity in four Vietnamese local breeds (Mia, Mong, Ho and Dong Tao). Inbreeding was examined through the detection of runs of homozygosity (ROH; Curik et al., 2014). The ROHs are long stretches of homozygous genome that are likely to reflect autozygosity. Given that Ho chickens have a small effective population size, more inbreeding and consequently longer ROHs are expected. Conversely, Mia chickens, with a larger effective population size should show less consanguinity and shorter ROHs. As expected, Mia chickens led to less observed homozygosity and less ROHs than the three other breeds. Moreover, when ROHs were subdivided in different lengths, the proportion of individuals having at least one R OH longer than 5Mb was significantly higher in Ho (63%) than in Mia chickens (33%). Given that very long ROHs are particularly associated with recent inbreeding, it seems that many Ho chickens have consanguineous parents. However, no significant difference was observed between the four breed concerning the total length of long ROHs (> 5Mb). In conclusion, the analysis of ROHs reported less consanguinity in Mia than in Ho chickens. In each breed, some individuals are found more consanguineous than expected. This study also confirms that ROHs are a useful tool in inbreeding research. [less ▲]

See detailOverview of challenges of residential nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) in Southern Europe
Attia, Shady ULg; Eleftheriou, P; Xeni et al

Report (2016)

In times of great transition of the European construction sector to energy efficient and nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs), a market observation containing qualitative and quantitative indications ... [more ▼]

In times of great transition of the European construction sector to energy efficient and nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs), a market observation containing qualitative and quantitative indications should help to fill out the enormous information gaps concerning the EU 2020 carbon targets. Next to the economic challenges, there are equally important factors that hinder renovating the existing residential building stock and adding newly constructed high performance buildings. Under these circumstances this paper summarizes the findings of a cross-comparative study of the societal and technical barriers of nZEBs implementation in 7 Southern European countries. The aim of the study was to enhance the understanding and provide and overview on future challenges of residential nZEBs in Southern Europe. The result presents an overview of challenges and provides recommendations based on available empirical evidence to further lower those barriers in the European construction sector. The paper finds that the most Southern European countries are poorly prepared for nZEBs implementation and especially for existing buildings. It is essential creating a common approach to further develop nZEBs concepts and definitions in adaptation with the climatic, societal and technical state of progress in Southern Europe. The paper provides suggestions for minimum energy efficiency and renewable energy thresholds to shift the identified gaps into opportunities for future development in deep renovation of buildings. [less ▲]

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See detailDu portait pris au smartphone. Quelle(s) identité(s) pour quelle photographie ?
Hamers, Jérémy ULg; Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Depuis l’émergence des réseaux sociaux et la généralisation des smartphones, le portrait photographique - plus singulièrement l’autoportrait rebaptisé « selfie » - est l’un des registres photographiques ... [more ▼]

Depuis l’émergence des réseaux sociaux et la généralisation des smartphones, le portrait photographique - plus singulièrement l’autoportrait rebaptisé « selfie » - est l’un des registres photographiques non professionnels les plus pratiqués en Occident. Dans le domaine de l’éducation aux médias ce succès engendre de vives critiques qui visent, tantôt le narcissisme d’une génération dont le portrait serait le symptôme absolu, tantôt les usages et détournements (harcèlement, bashing, etc.) auxquels ces images exposeraient le sujet photographié. A bien y regarder, ces critiques qui prétendent s’attaquer à un phénomène spécifique et récent, n’accordent pourtant qu’une place congrue à ce qui est propre à ces images : métadonnées, légendes formatées, fonction conversationnelle, dispositifs photographique nouveaux, temporalité de la mise en ligne, généralisati on du second degré et de la réflexivité, etc. Plutôt que de se joindre à la critique trop rapide de ces photographies, cette conférence tentera dès lors de dégager les fondements d’une autre approche du portrait numérique autoproduit, afin de réfléchir à ce que, aujourd’hui, ce type d’images peut nous dire de la photographie. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomasse et stocks de carbone des forêts tropicales africaines (synthèse bibliographique)
Loubota Panzou, Grâce Jopaul ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Loumeto, Jean-Joël et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 20(4), 508-522

Introduction. Quantifying the biomass and carbon stocks contained in tropical forests has become an international priority for the implementation of the REDD+ mechanism. Forest biomass is estimated at ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Quantifying the biomass and carbon stocks contained in tropical forests has become an international priority for the implementation of the REDD+ mechanism. Forest biomass is estimated at three successive levels: the tree, the stand and the region level. This paper reviews the state of the art regarding the estimation of biomass and carbon stocks in tropical African forests. Literature. This review highlights the fact that very few allometric equations, equations used for estimating the biomass of the tree using non-destructive measurements (diameter, height), have been established for tropical African forests. At the stand level, the review highlights the spatial and temporal variations in biomass between forest types in Central and Eastern Africa. While biomass recovery after a disturbance (logging, for instance) is rather quick, a great deal of uncertainty still remains regarding the spatial variation in biomass, and there is no consensus on a regional biomass map. The quality of biomass mapping in tropical Africa strongly depends on the type of remotely-sensed data being used (optical, RADAR or LIDAR), and the allometric equation used to convert forest inventory data into biomass. Conclusions. Based on the lack of precision of the available allometric equations and forest inventory data and the large spatial scale involved, many uncertainties persist in relation to the estimation of the biomass and carbon stocks contained in African tropical forests. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of flight style on the aerodynamic properties of avian wings as fixed lifting surfaces
Lees, John J.; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg; Nudds, Robert L.

in PeerJ (2016), 4:e2495

The diversity of wing morphologies in birds reflects their variety of flight styles and the associated aerodynamic and inertial requirements. Although the aerodynamics underlying wing morphology can be ... [more ▼]

The diversity of wing morphologies in birds reflects their variety of flight styles and the associated aerodynamic and inertial requirements. Although the aerodynamics underlying wing morphology can be informed by aeronautical research, important differences exist between planes and birds. In particular, birds operate at lower, transitional Reynolds numbers than do most aircraft. To date, few quantitative studies have investigated the aerodynamic performance of avian wings as fixed lifting surfaces and none have focused upon the differences between wings from different flight style groups. Dried wings from 10 bird species representing 3 distinct flight style groups were mounted on a force/torque sensor within a wind tunnel in order to test the hypothesis that wing morphologies associated with different flight styles exhibit different aerodynamic properties. Morphological differences manifested primarily as differences in drag rather than lift. Maximum lift coefficients did not differ between groups, whereas minimum drag coefficients were lowest in undulating flyers (Corvids). The lift to drag ratios were lower than in conventional aerofoils and data from free-flying soaring species; particularly in high frequency, flapping flyers (Anseriformes), which do not rely heavily on glide performance. The results illustrate important aerodynamic differences between the wings of different flight style groups that cannot be explained solely by simple wing-shape measures. Taken at face value, the results also suggest that wing-shape is linked principally to changes in aerodynamic drag, but, of course, it is aerodynamics during flapping and not gliding that is likely to be the primary driver. [less ▲]

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See detailExistera-t-il encore un CPAS dans dix ans ?
Behrendt, Christian ULg

Conference (2016, October 20)

Exposé donné dans le cadre du 8e congrès de la Fédération Wallonne des Assistants Sociaux des CPAS (FéWASC), Campus universitaire de Liège (Sart Tilman), Faculté de Droit, 20 octobre 2016.

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See detailEntangled Kinship Spaces: Ethnographic approaches of contemporary public and intimate (re)configurations
Razy, Elodie ULg; Sarcinelli, Alice ULg; Duysens, Fanny ULg

Scientific conference (2016, October 20)

The multiplicity of systems, forms, categories, and practices of kinship has drawn the attention of anthropologists as central for the ways individuals and human groups think and experience their ... [more ▼]

The multiplicity of systems, forms, categories, and practices of kinship has drawn the attention of anthropologists as central for the ways individuals and human groups think and experience their relationships with themselves, others, their society and the world they live in. Transformations – demographic, political, socio-cultural, economic, juridical, scientific, medical, or those related to age or gender – have contributed to constantly (re)define kinship. In particular, recent innovations regarding, among others, Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) and surrogacy, and the debates around same-sex couple marriage and adoption, have been understood as deep breaking points in relation to more "traditional" conceptions of kinship, appearing as yet unprecedented and controversial. From an anthropological point of view, such (re)configurations of kinship testify to a variety of articulation between the social, the cultural and the biological, society and nature, the constructed and the innate – categories central for definitions of kinship. This suggests a need to rethink kinship in all its dimensions, from public to intimate ones. Drawing from anthropology and intending to widen the field of empirical, theoretical and epistemological reflections, this conference invites a crossing of perspectives on contemporary (re)configurations of kinship within the human and social sciences with a focus on ethnographic approaches. It is organized around two main, yet non-exclusive lines of research. The first one wishes to interrogate the ways contemporary (re)configurations of kinship take place in different public and intimate entangled spaces. The second one opens up a debate on epistemology when it comes to crossed and comparative perspectives between contexts, themes or disciplines in order to analyse issues, contributions and limits of such field of research. [less ▲]

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See detailParentalité et précarité : Le lien au cœur des pratiques et des recherches
Halin, Stéphanie; Fohn, Bruno; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

Conference (2016, October 20)

La parentalité est un concept difficile à définir car il s’inscrit à la fois "dans le champ social, juridique et psychologique" [1]. De nos jours, le « devenir parent » est décrit comme un processus ... [more ▼]

La parentalité est un concept difficile à définir car il s’inscrit à la fois "dans le champ social, juridique et psychologique" [1]. De nos jours, le « devenir parent » est décrit comme un processus dynamique, qui débute dès le désir d’enfant, et qui s’accompagne de remaniements psychiques importants chez les deux parents. Depuis plusieurs années, des études se sont intéressées à l’impact de la précarité sur la sphère familiale. Il est aujourd’hui reconnu que la précarité psychosociale impacte toutes les dimensions du développement de l’enfant et plusieurs dimensions de la parentalité (sensibilité parentale, disponibilité émotionnelle, pratiques éducatives, …). La précarité est définie comme « l’absence d’une ou plusieurs des sécurités, notamment celle de l’emploi, permettant aux personnes et aux familles d’assumer leurs obligations professionnelles, familiales et sociales, et de jouir de leurs droits fondamentaux » [2]. Selon Furtos, à la précarité économique s’ajoute la précarité psychosociale et, parfois, un syndrome d’auto exclusion sociale. Selon lui, « d’un côté, l’environnement est excluant, tandis que de l’autre côté le mot « auto » renvoie à la part du sujet : tout en subissant une situation d’exclusion, le sujet a la capacité d’exercer sur lui-même une activité pour s’exclure de la situation, pour ne pas la souffrir, transformant ainsi le subir en agir » [3]. Ce public est caractérisé par une problématique du lien. Entrer en relation, s’investir dans un suivi, maintenir une continuité du lien sont autant de défis pour les parents en syndrome d’autoexclusion sociale. Parvenir à les rejoindre nécessite donc de développer des structures flexibles et créatives, tant en ce qui concerne le suivi psychosocial que la recherche. Au travers de différentes recherches-action auprès de ces familles, nous avons été confrontés à la nécessité de développer un processus de recherche basée sur le lien pour accéder tant à l’évaluation de pratiques d’intervention et à l’évaluation du vécu de ces parents. Nos travaux ont montré combien le lien occupe une place centrale dans la prise en charge et dans la recherche avec des bénéficiaires en grande précarité psychosociale. Références [1] Doumont, D., & Renard, F. (2004). Parentalité: nouveau concept, nouveaux enjeux? Document publié en ligne, Université Catholique de Louvain, pp. 1-18, https://www.uclouvain.be/cps/ucl/doc/reso/documents/Dos31.pdf [2] Kettani, M., & Zaouche-Gaudron, C. (2012). Sentiment de compétence paternelle et adaptation socioaffective des enfants de deux à six ans en contexte de précarité socioéconomique. Pratiques psychologiques, 18, pp. 75–88. Doi:10.1016/j.prps.2011.02.001 [3] Furtos, J. (2011). La précarité et ses effets sur la santé mentale. Le Carnet PSY, 156 (7), pp.29-34. Doi :10.3917/lcp.156.0029 [less ▲]

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See detailEcological approach in regenerative design: Landscape Urbanism as an opportunity to recover industrial abandoned sites in Liège
Baldin, Elisa ULg

Scientific conference (2016, October 20)

From the second half of the last century ecology has been recognized as one of the most important value in landscape design, together with aesthetics and social involvement (Ian H. Thompson). After a ... [more ▼]

From the second half of the last century ecology has been recognized as one of the most important value in landscape design, together with aesthetics and social involvement (Ian H. Thompson). After a period dominated by the prevalence of the aesthetical values in landscape/gardens conception a new perspective arose: the global growth and the effects of exploitation of natural resources have generated an increasing awareness about the impacts of human life on environment and a reflection on new possible way of living balancing the quality of life and the respect for nature in our territories. The ecological approach has developed thanks to some landscape architects contributions, based on their researches on: the displacement from a more anthropocentric to a more ecocentric view in landscape planning (Ian McHarg) and the introduction of the principles of balance, diversity, sustainability in order to learn to perceive and to design healty landscapes. Working with nature, in landscape urbanism, means to activate processes involving plants, animals and people, with the aim of improving the quality of life in urban environment. Therefore ecology is strictly linked to aesthetical and social aspects: landscape design must relate spatial values, by reinterpreting and enhancing the characters of the places, with social values, by introducing activities to strengthen social interactions. In contemporary landscape design, ecology is interpreted as a key approach, concerning mostly regenerative design (J.T Lyle). This innovative concept considers design as the cultural instrument accompanying and orienting ecological processes. In fact landscape design deals with urban development strategies, interventions on urban fringes, reclamation of waste lands: in all cases arise the necessity to rethink the territories starting from the restoration of an interrupted balance between natural resources and anthropic actions. The ecological approach is based on the use of natural elements and dynamics as a means for transformation of the territories. One powerful effect of these interventions is the capacity to recover the relationship between people and the spirit of the places and sometimes, the possibility to build a new identity, especially in rejected areas, and this is a “catalyst act”, involving society in regenerative design programs. New green structures enhancing environmental qualities and protecting biodiversity, agricultural technologies remediating soils and water are only few of the potentials of landscape ecology. Another important consequence of this innovative approach is the rise of a new aesthetics, as “nature is perceived as a process, not as a scenary” (R.Smithson). Recognizing change and uncertainty as the basic dynamics of landscape (M.Antrop), designers methods and sensitivity appear more effective if based on predicting different and open scenarios. But ecology is not a panacea itself: the risks in ecosystem service approach are several. First, specially in public spaces design, there is the risk of confusing the primary values of the action of planting trees and greenery: some aesthetical choices could not represent the ecological efficiency. This happens very often because the client’s will is more oriented to achieve an immediate effect, where vegetation’s use is equated to a decorative device, instead of a new balance generator one. Similarly, choices based on low maintenance perspective are not always synonymous of ecology. Furthermore, in Urban Planning, prescriptions about greenery and trees plantation follow some quantitative parameters instead of qualitative ones. The contribution of landscape design to Urbanism is based on a multidisciplinary approach which tends to detect and enhance those hidden and overwritten features characterizing the “genius loci”. Thus, ecology represents a site specific aspect and its introduction in landscape urbanism supposes a deep knowledge of the process and its effects on environment and on society. [less ▲]

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See detailEtest® versus broth microdilution for ceftaroline MIC determination with Staphylococcus aureus: results from PREMIUM, a European multicentre study.
CANTON, Rafael; LVERMORE, David M; MOROSINI, Maria Isabel et al

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2016)

OBJECTIVES: To compare the concordance of ceftaroline MIC values by reference broth microdilution (BMD) and Etest (bioMérieux, France) for MSSA and MRSA isolates obtained from PREMIUM (D372SL00001), a ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To compare the concordance of ceftaroline MIC values by reference broth microdilution (BMD) and Etest (bioMérieux, France) for MSSA and MRSA isolates obtained from PREMIUM (D372SL00001), a European multicentre study. METHODS: Ceftaroline MICs were determined by reference BMD and by Etest for 1242 MSSA and MRSA isolates collected between February and May 2012 from adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia or complicated skin and soft tissue infections; tests were performed across six European laboratories. Selected isolates with ceftaroline resistance in broth (MIC >1 mg/L) were retested in three central laboratories to confirm their behaviour. RESULTS: Overall concordance between BMD and Etest was good, with >97% essential agreement and >95% categorical agreement. Nevertheless, 12 of the 26 MRSA isolates found resistant by BMD scored as susceptible by Etest, with MICs ≤1 mg/L, thus counting as very major errors, whereas only 5 of 380 MRSA isolates found ceftaroline susceptible in BMD were miscategorized as resistant by Etest. Twenty-one of the 26 isolates with MICs of 2 mg/L by BMD were then retested twice by each of three central laboratories: BMD MICs of 2 mg/L were consistently found for 19 of the 21 isolates. Among 147 Etest results for these 21 isolates (original plus six repeats per isolate) 112 were >1 mg/L. CONCLUSIONS: BMD and Etest have good overall agreement for ceftaroline against Staphylococcus aureus; nevertheless, reliable Etest-based discrimination of the minority of ceftaroline-resistant (MIC 2 mg/L) MRSA is extremely challenging, requiring careful reading of strips, ideally with duplicate testing. [less ▲]

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