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See detailFerdinand Campus (1894-1983). Professeur à l'ULg/Recteur et ingénieur
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Académie Royale des Sciences d'Outre-Mer (Ed.) Dictionnaire Biographique des Belges d'Outre-Mer (2013)

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See detailTrophic Relationships and Habitat Preferences of Delphinids from the Southeastern Brazilian Coast Determined by Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition
Bisi, Tatiana; Dorneles, Paulo; Lailson-Brito, José et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(12),

To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia ... [more ▼]

To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ13C and δ15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ13C values. The highest δ15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ13C values, but similar δ15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Parecoxib on The Prevention of Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions in Rats.
Arung, Willy; Jehaes, Francois; Cheramy, Jean-Paul et al

in Journal of Investigative Surgery : The Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research (2013), 26(6), 340-346

ABSTRACT Background: No systemic preventive therapy has been successful in inhibiting the development of postoperative peritoneal adhesions (PPAs). Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Background: No systemic preventive therapy has been successful in inhibiting the development of postoperative peritoneal adhesions (PPAs). Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of 5 day administration of parecoxib, on PPA prevention and on suture or wound healing in rats. Methods: In a model of PPAs induced by peritoneal electrical burn, 30 rats were randomized into 3 groups according to parecoxib administration route (control; intraperitoneal (IP); intramuscular (IM)). Plasma and peritoneal levels of PAI-1 and tPA were measured at T0, after 90 min of surgery (T90), and on postoperative day 10 (D10). In a cecum resection model, 20 rats were randomized into two groups (control and IP parecoxib), and abdominal wound healing and suture leakage were assessed at D10. In both models, PPAs were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively on D10. Results: Administration of parecoxib significantly decreased the quantity (p < .05) and the severity (p < .01) of PPAs in both models. In addition, parecoxib administration did not cause healing defects or infectious complications in the two models. In the peritoneal burn model, IP or IM parecoxib administration inhibited the increase of postoperative plasma and peritoneum PAI-1 levels, an increase that was observed in the control group (p < .01). No anastomosis leakage could be demonstrated in both groups in the cecum resection model. Conclusion: This study showed that, in these rat models, parecoxib might reduce PPA formation. Confirmation of the safety of parecoxib on intestinal anastomoses is required and should be investigated in further animal models. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the roles of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 ORF134 in the biology of the infection
Ouyang, Ping ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

The common carp is one of the most important freshwater fish species in aquaculture, and its colourful subspecies koi is grown for personal pleasure and competitive exhibitions. Both two subspecies are ... [more ▼]

The common carp is one of the most important freshwater fish species in aquaculture, and its colourful subspecies koi is grown for personal pleasure and competitive exhibitions. Both two subspecies are economically important. In the late 1990s, a highly contagious and lethal pathogen called koi herpesvirus (KHV) or cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) began to cause severe financial losses in these two carp industries worldwide. In 2005, CyHV-3 has been classified in the Alloherpesviridae family of the order Herpesvirales. Because of its economic importance and its numerous original biological properties, CyHV 3 became rapidly an attractive subject for applied and fundamental research. However, to date, there is a little information on the roles of individual CyHV-3 genes in the biology of CyHV-3 infection or its pathogenesis. Moreover, there is a lack of safe and efficacious vaccine for the control of CyHV-3 disease. The goal of this thesis was to study the roles of CyHV-3 ORF134 encoding an IL-10 homologue in the biology of the infection. CyHV-3 ORF134 has been predicted to contain an 84 bp intron flanked by 2 exons encoding together a 179 amino acid product. Transcriptomic analyses reveal that ORF134 is expressed as a spliced early-late gene. The identification of the CyHV-3 secretome was achieved using 2D-LC MS/MS proteomic approach. This method led to the identification of 5 viral and 46 cellular proteins in concentrated infected cell culture supernatant. CyHV-3 ORF12 and ORF134 were amongst the most abundant proteins detected. To investigate the roles of ORF134 in the biological of the infection, a strain deleted for ORF134 and a derived revertant strain were produced by using BAC cloning and prokaryotic recombination technologies. Comparison of these strains demonstrated that CyHV-3 ORF134 does not contribute significantly to viral growth in vitro or to virulence in vivo in the present laboratory setting. The present study addressed for the first time the in vivo role of a vIL-10 encoded by a member of the family Alloherpesviridae. This study has been published in Veterinary Research. During the course of the first study, we obtained an unexpected recombination event while we were reconstituting infectious virus from mutated BAC plasmids. To generate a revertant ORF134 Del galK strain, CCB cells were co-transfected with the FL BAC ORF134 Del galK plasmid and the pGEMT-TK vector to remove the BAC cassette inserted in the ORF55 locus (encoding thymidine kinase). One of the clones obtained had an unexpected recombination leading to the deletion of ORF56 and ORF57 in addition to the expected deletion of ORF134. Unexpectedly, this triple deleted strain replicated efficiently in vitro, exhibited an attenuated phenotype in vivo and was proved to confer in a dose dependent manner an immune protection against a lethal challenge. The goal of the second experimental chapter was to investigate the role of the ORF56-57 and ORF134 deletions in the observed safety/efficacy profile of the triple deleted recombinant. To reach this goal, a collection of recombinant strains were produced using BAC cloning technologies, characterized and tested in vivo for their safety/efficacy profile. The results obtained demonstrated that the ORF56-57 deletion is responsible for the phenotype observed and that ORF134 deletion does not contribute to this phenotype significantly. Finally, the immune protection conferred by ORF56-57 deleted recombinant was investigated by challenging immunized fish with a wild type strain expressing luciferase as a reporter gene. In vivo imaging system (IVIS) analyses of immunized and challenged fish demonstrated that the immune response induced by the ORF56-57 deleted strain was able to prevent subclinical infection of the challenge strain. In conclusion, the present thesis addressed both fundamental and applied aspects of CyHV-3. For the first time, it investigated in vivo the roles of a viral IL-10 homologue encoded by a member of the family Alloherpesviridae. Importantly, it identified the ORF56-57 loci as target for production of safe and efficacious attenuated recombinant vaccines. [less ▲]

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See detailPierre Legendres »dogmatische Anthropologie«. Subjektkonstitution im Medium des Blicks
Hackbarth, Sabine ULg

Book published by Turia + Kant (2013)

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See detailCe cavernome cérébral est-il la cause d'un syndrome parkinsonien ?
Benmouna, Karim; DIVE, Dominique ULg; WANG, François-Charles ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2013), 68(12), 613-616

We report the case of a patient presenting with an akineto-rigid syndrome of the left hemibody whose etiological exploration by magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of a cavernoma located in the ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a patient presenting with an akineto-rigid syndrome of the left hemibody whose etiological exploration by magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of a cavernoma located in the right lenticular region. The interest of this situation lies in establishing whether pathophysiological link may exist between such symptoms and the lesion. [less ▲]

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See detailEdible insects acceptance by belgian consumers: promising attitude for entomophagy development
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Sablon, Ludovic; Geuens, Mélodie et al

in Journal of Sensory Studies (2013)

Entomophagy is not well accepted in Western European populations but it is common in the world. In the future, populations from developed countries should adapt to other sources of animal proteins because ... [more ▼]

Entomophagy is not well accepted in Western European populations but it is common in the world. In the future, populations from developed countries should adapt to other sources of animal proteins because traditional breeding of beef, poultry or pork will become unsustainable. This study was performed to assess the perception of entomophagy in the Belgian population. A slight neophobia was detected but people agreed to evaluate insect preparations. Various insect formulations (mealworms and house crickets) were prepared, and insects associated with known flavors and crispy textures were preferred. After a hedonic test, people seemed to be willing to eat and cook insects in the near future. The opportunity to introduce entomophagy in food habits of Western Euro- pean populations was positively concluded. Integration of edible insects in human food is a potential solution to replace other animal protein sources in a much more sustainable development and will deserve more attention in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformances of Volume Phase Holographic grating for space applications: study of the radiation effect
Loicq, Jerôme ULg; Georges, Marc ULg; Stockman, Yvan ULg et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (2013), 52(34),

The special properties of volume phase holographic gratings make them promising candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low levels of straylight, and low polarization ... [more ▼]

The special properties of volume phase holographic gratings make them promising candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low levels of straylight, and low polarization sensitivity are required. Therefore it is of interest to assess the maturity and suitability of volume phase holographic gratings as enabling technologies for future space missions, with demanding requirements for spectrometry. One of the main areas of research is related to grating ageing under space radiation. In the present paper, two volume grating technologies are analyzed and compared under gamma irradiation. The performances of both technologies, the photo–thermo–refractive glass and the Dichromated Gelatin, are tested on samples and assessed in the and near-infrared bands. The diffraction efficiency degradation under gamma irradiation is assessed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of different kinds of anoxia/reoxygenation on the mitochondrial function and the free radicals production of cultured primary equine skeletal myoblasts.
Ceusters, Justine ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2013), 95

Horses are outstanding athletes, performing in many different disciplines involving different kinds of efforts and metabolic responses. Depending on exercise intensity, their skeletal muscle oxygenation ... [more ▼]

Horses are outstanding athletes, performing in many different disciplines involving different kinds of efforts and metabolic responses. Depending on exercise intensity, their skeletal muscle oxygenation decreases, and the reperfusion at cessation of the exercise can cause excessive production of free radicals. This study on cultured primary equine myoblasts investigated the effect of different kinds of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) on routine respiration, mitochondrial complex I specific activity and free radicals production. Our data revealed that short cycles of A/R caused a decrease of all the parameters, opposite to what a single long period of anoxia did. A preconditioning-like effect could explain our first pattern of results whereas mild uncoupling could be more appropriate for the second one. Anyway, it seems that mitochondrial complex I could play a major role in the regulation of the balance between metabolic and antioxidant protection of the muscular function of athletic horses. [less ▲]

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See detailFROM SECRET AGENTS TO INTERAGENCY
Despret, Vinciane ULg

in History and theory (2013), 52

Some scientists who study animals have emphasized the need to focus on the “point of view” of the animals they are studying. This methodological shift has led to animals being credited with much more ... [more ▼]

Some scientists who study animals have emphasized the need to focus on the “point of view” of the animals they are studying. This methodological shift has led to animals being credited with much more agency than is warranted. However, as critics suggest, on the one hand, the “perspective” of another being rests mostly upon “sympathetic projection,” and may be difficult to apply to unfamiliar beings, such as bees or even flowers. On the other hand, the very notion of agency still conveys its classic understanding as intentional, rational, and premeditated, and is still embedded in humanist and Christian conceptions of human exceptionalism. This paper seeks, in the first part, to investigate the practical link between these two notions and the problems they raise. In the second part, following the work of two historians of science who have revisited Darwin’s studies of orchids and their pollinators, it will observe a shift in the meaning of the concept of agency. Indeed, creatures may appear as “secret agents” as long as we adopt a conventional definition of agency based on subjective experience and autonomous intention. However, when reframed in the terms of “agencement”—an assemblage that produces “agentivity”— agency seems to be much more extensively shared in the living world. We will then explore some of the concrete situations in which these agencements are manifested, and through which creatures of different species become, one for another and one with another, companion-agents. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal head-loss coefficient at the rectangular transition from a free-surface channel to a conduit
Van Nam, Nguyen; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (2013), 139(12), 1318-1323

Experimental tests have been performed to observe and determine, in stationary flow conditions, the local head loss at the transition from a free surface channel to a conduit. These investigations ... [more ▼]

Experimental tests have been performed to observe and determine, in stationary flow conditions, the local head loss at the transition from a free surface channel to a conduit. These investigations considered a wide range of discharge and varied dimensions and positions of a rectangular cross section conduit connected to the downstream extremity of a rectangular free surface channel. From the head loss evaluation results, simple analytical expressions to predict the local head loss coefficient value at the rectangular transition from a channel to a conduit are proposed and validated. [less ▲]

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See detail"La perte des avantages matrimoniaux pour cause d'indignité"
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Revue du Notariat Belge (2013), (3080), 810-832

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See detailHow could the Io footprint disappear?
Hess, Sébastien; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Delamere, Peter

in Planetary and Space Science (2013), 89

The interaction of Io with the Jovian magnetosphere is the best known – and the most intense – case of satellite-magnetosphere interaction. The interaction involves a power of more than a TeraWatt, a few ... [more ▼]

The interaction of Io with the Jovian magnetosphere is the best known – and the most intense – case of satellite-magnetosphere interaction. The interaction involves a power of more than a TeraWatt, a few percent of which are transferred to electrons. These electrons precipitate in the Jovian ionosphere where they light-up bright auroral emissions (several 100's kR to a few 1000's kR). The brightness of the Io-controlled UV auroras is known to vary, due to the Jovian magnetic field tilt, which induces longitudinal variations, and due to the Io torus ever changing parameters (possibly due to Io's volcanic activity), which induce a temporal variation. As Io-controlled UV auroras have been monitored for a long time, the variation of their brightness is well-documented, and the typical amplitude of these variations has been established. However, on June, 7th 2012 an unusual event occurred in the plasma torus surrounding Io, which triggered its own UV emissions on Jupiter in a region mapping to Io's orbit. When Io reached that region, Io's auroral footprint disappeared, its brightness dimming by at least a factor of three to be below the background aurora brightness. Both the auroral event at such a low latitude and the Io footprint disappearance are events that have never been observed before and should be quite rare. However, the question of how the bright Io footprint becomes that weak remains. From a theoretical point-of-view, the Io-Jupiter interaction has been widely studied. In the 80's, it was shown that Alfvén waves are radiated from Io, carrying currents to Jupiter. In the late-2000's, studies showed that dispersive Alfvén waves were likely to cause the acceleration of the electrons powering the auroral emissions, although Io-scale Alfvén waves should be non-dispersive. More recently, a model was built which permits one to compute the ratio between dispersive and non-dispersive waves in the auroral region for satellite-magnetosphere interactions, and thus the brightness of the related aurorae. We use this model to investigate which variation of the interaction parameters could lead to the Io footprint disappearance. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous design of structural layout and discrete fiber orientation using bi-value coding parameterization and volume constraint
TONG, Gao; ZHANG, Weihong; Duysinx, Pierre ULg

in Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (2013), 48(6), 1075-1088

The so-called bi-value coding parameterization (BCP) method is developed for the simultaneous optimization of layout design and discrete fiber orientations of laminated structures related to the ... [more ▼]

The so-called bi-value coding parameterization (BCP) method is developed for the simultaneous optimization of layout design and discrete fiber orientations of laminated structures related to the compliance minimization and natural frequency maximization. Both kinds of problems are transformed into a discrete material selection problem that is then solved as a continuous topology optimization problem with multiphase materials. A new form of the volume constraint is introduced in accordance with the BCP to control the material usage and material removal in the corresponding problem formulation. The BCP scheme assigning the integer value of +1 or -1 to each design variable for the unique “coding” is efficiently used to interpolate discrete fiber orientations and to identify the presence and removal of materials. Meanwhile, a general set-up strategy is proposed by assigning “uniform” weight values in BCP to ensure the feasibility of the initial starting point. Numerical tests illustrate that the BCP is efficient in dealing with both kinds of design problems including the volume constraint. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscussion on the optimization problem formulation of flexible components in multibody systems
Tromme, Emmanuel ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg; Emonds-Alt, Jonathan et al

in Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (2013), 48(6), 1189-1206

This paper is dedicated to the structural optimization of flexible components in mechanical systems modeled as multibody systems. While most of the structural optimization developments have been conducted ... [more ▼]

This paper is dedicated to the structural optimization of flexible components in mechanical systems modeled as multibody systems. While most of the structural optimization developments have been conducted under (quasi-)static loadings or vibration design criteria, the proposed approach aims at considering as precisely as possible the effects of dynamic loading under service conditions. Solving this problem is quite challenging and naive implementations may lead to inaccurate and unstable results. To elaborate a robust and reliable approach, the optimization problem formulation is investigated because it turns out that it is a critical point. Different optimization algorithms are also tested. To explain the efficiency of the various solution approaches, the complex nature of the design space is analyzed. Numerical applications considering the optimization of a two-arm robot subject to a trajectory tracking constraint and the optimization of a slider-crank mechanism with a cyclic dynamic loading are presented to illustrate the different concepts. [less ▲]

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See detailEgg and meat production performances of two varieties of the local Ardennaise poultry breed: silver black and golden black
Moula, Nassim ULg; Michaux, Charles ULg; Philippe, François-Xavier ULg et al

in Animal Genetic Resources = Resources Génétiques Animales = Recursos Genéticos Animales (2013), 53(2), 57-67

The Ardennaise breed is emblematic of the Belgian poultry diversity. We compared two varieties of the breed, the golden black and the silver black. The comparison encompassed: (i) the morphology of adult ... [more ▼]

The Ardennaise breed is emblematic of the Belgian poultry diversity. We compared two varieties of the breed, the golden black and the silver black. The comparison encompassed: (i) the morphology of adult birds, (ii) the growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broilers 22 weeks old, (iii) the laying rate during 52 weeks and the egg quality. Significant differences were observed in the size of mature males and females: body weight, diameter and length of the tarsus, size of the comb and wattles. The two varieties did not differ concerning the carcass and meat quality traits. The golden black has a higher laying rate and a higher yolk / albumen ratio, but lays lighter eggs. It could be interesting to complete this study by molecular markers analysis to evaluate the degree of genetic diversity between the two varieties. [less ▲]

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See detailVingt minutes en Utopie: l'ALWi
Baiwir, Esther ULg; Renders, Pascale ULg

in Baiwir, Esther; Renders, Pascale (Eds.) Actes de la 5e Journée liégeoise de Traitement des Sources Galloromanes (Liège, 16 mai 2013) (2013, December)

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See detailConnection between cardiac vascular permeability, myocardial oedema and inflammation during sepsis: role of the alpha1AMPK isoform
Castanares-Zapatero, Diego; Bouleti, C; Sommereyns, C et al

in Critical Care Medicine (2013), 41(12), 411-22

Objective: Since AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) both controls cytoskeletonorganization in endothelial cells (ECs) and exerts anti-inflammatory effects, we here postulated that it could influence ... [more ▼]

Objective: Since AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) both controls cytoskeletonorganization in endothelial cells (ECs) and exerts anti-inflammatory effects, we here postulated that it could influence vascular permeability and inflammation, thereby counteracting cardiac wall oedema during sepsis. Design: Controlled animal study Settings: University research laboratory Subjects: C57BL/6J, α1AMPK-/- and α1AMPK+/+ mice Intervention: Sepsis was triggered in vivo using a sub-lethal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, O55B5, 10 mg.kg-1), inducing systolic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. LV function, oedema, vascular permeability and inflammation were assessed in vivo in both wild type (WT) mice (α1AMPK+/+) and α1AMPK-deficient mice (α1AMPK-/-). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAr) served to study the impact of AMPK activation on vascular permeability in vivo. The integrity of EC monolayers was also examined in vitro after LPS challenge in the presence of AICAr and/or after α1AMPK silencing. Measurements and main results: α1AMPK-deficiency dramatically impaired tolerance to LPS challenge. Indeed, α1AMPK-/- exhibited heightened cardiac vascular permeability after LPS challenge compared to α1AMPK+/+. Consequently, an increase in LV mass corresponding to exaggerated wall oedema occurred in α1AMPK-/-, without any further decrease in systolic function. Mechanistically, the LPS-induced α1AMPK-/- cardiac phenotype could not be attributed to major changes in the systemic inflammatory response, but was due to an increased disruption of interendothelial tight junctions. Accordingly, AMPK activation by AICAr counteracted LPS-induced hyperpermeability in WT mice in vivo as well as in ECs in vitro. This effect was associated with a potent protection of ZO-1 linear border pattern in ECs. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate, for the first time the involvement of a signalling pathway in the control of LV wall oedema during sepsis. AMPK exerts a protective action through the preservation of interendothelial tight junctions. Interestingly, exaggerated LV wall oedema was not coupled with aggravated systolic dysfunction. However, it could contribute to diastolic dysfunction in septic patients. [less ▲]

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See detail125 ans de logement social
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULg

in Architrave (2013), 178

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