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See detailEffets du froid sur les stades précoces de développement du maïs (Zea mays)
Riva-Roveda, Laetitia ULg; Périlleux, Claire ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(1), 42-52

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See detailFacile deposition of ZnO:Cu films: Structural and optical characterization
Ivanova, T.; Harizanova, A.; Koutzarova, T. et al

in Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing (2015), 30

Sol-gel technology has been applied for preparation of ZnO:Cu films. The proposed facile approach allows obtaining a wide variety of copper doped zinc oxide systems, revealing different structural and ... [more ▼]

Sol-gel technology has been applied for preparation of ZnO:Cu films. The proposed facile approach allows obtaining a wide variety of copper doped zinc oxide systems, revealing different structural and optical behaviors. The work presents structural and optical studies depending on Cu concentration and thermal treatments in the range of 500-800°C. The structural analysis is performed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). It reveals that small Cu addition enhances the film crystallization. Increasing copper concentration results in deterioration of ZnO:Cu crystallization. XRD study manifests no Cu oxide phases in ZnO:Cu film structure for lower Cu additions. For a specific higher copper concentration, an appearance of a small fraction of copper oxide is detected. Vibrational properties have been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The effect of the copper introduction into ZnO reveals a slight change of optical properties compared to ZnO films for certain Cu ratios. ZnO:Cu films with higher copper contents manifest different optical behaviors with very high transparency in spectral visible range. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining mesoporosity and Ti-doping in hematite films for water splitting
Toussaint, Caroline ULg; Tran, Hoang Son ULg; Colson, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2015), 119(4), 1642-1650

(Graph Presented). In this study, we report the synthesis of Ti-doped mesoporous hematite films by soft-templating for application as photoanodes in the photoelectrolysis of water (water splitting ... [more ▼]

(Graph Presented). In this study, we report the synthesis of Ti-doped mesoporous hematite films by soft-templating for application as photoanodes in the photoelectrolysis of water (water splitting). Because the activation of the dopant requires a heat treatment at high temperature (≥800°C), it usually results in the collapse of the mesostructure. We have overcome this obstacle by using a temporary SiO2 scaffold to hinder crystallite growth and thereby maintain the mesoporosity. The beneficial effect of the activated dopant has been confirmed by comparing the photocurrent of doped and undoped films treated at different temperatures. The role of the mesostructure was investigated by comparing dense, collapsed, and mesoporous films heated at different temperatures and characterized under front and back illumination. It turns out that the preservation of the mesotructure enables a better penetration of the electrolyte into the film and therefore reduces the distance that the photogenerated holes have to travel to reach the electrolyte. As a result, we found that mesoporous films with dopant activation at 850°C perform better than comparable dense and collapsed films. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia's rural communities
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

Book published by The Learning Institute (2015)

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See detailConceptual metaphors in political discourse : evidence from citizen discourse
Perrez, Julien ULg; Reuchamps, Min

Conference (2015)

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See detailA note on weighted likelihood and Jeffreys modal estimation of proficiency levels in polytomous item response models
Magis, David ULg

in Psychometrika (2015), 80

Warm (1989) established the equivalence between the so-called Jeffreys modal and the weighted likelihood estimators of proficiency level with some dichotomous item response models. The purpose of this ... [more ▼]

Warm (1989) established the equivalence between the so-called Jeffreys modal and the weighted likelihood estimators of proficiency level with some dichotomous item response models. The purpose of this note is to extend this result to polytomous item response models. First, a general condition is derived to ensure the perfect equivalence between these two estimators. Second, it is shown that this condition is fulfilled by two broad classes of polytomous models including, among others, the partial credit, rating scale, graded response and nominal response models. [less ▲]

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See detailCalcium-dependent potassium channels.
Drion, Guillaume ULg; Philippart, Fabian ULg; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Jaeger, Dieter; Jung, Ranu (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience (2015)

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See detailEndocrine disruption: it starts in the brain.
Parent, Anne-Simone ULg

Conference (2015)

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See detailBurden of frailty in the elderly population: perspectives for a public health challenge.
Buckinx, Fanny ULg; Rolland, Yves; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Archives of public health = Archives belges de sante publique (2015), 73(1), 19-25

Frailty is a major health condition associated with ageing. Although the concept is almost universally accepted, its operational definition remains controversial. Anyway, this geriatric condition ... [more ▼]

Frailty is a major health condition associated with ageing. Although the concept is almost universally accepted, its operational definition remains controversial. Anyway, this geriatric condition represents a huge potential public health issue at both the patient and the societal levels because of its multiple clinical, societal consequences and its dynamic nature. Here, we review existing definitions and assessment tools for frailty, we highlight consequences of this geriatric condition and we discuss the importance of its screening and prevention to limit its public health burden. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning for social-ecological resilience: conceptual overview and key findings
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

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See detailA multi-scale flood vulnerability assessment of agricultural production in the context of environmental change: The case of the Sangkae River watershed, Battambang province
Doch, Sotheavin; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Heng, Chinda

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Flooding on Cambodian land use systems is not a new phenomenon but its significance has increased in the context of global environmental changes. This study aims to assess the vulnerability of ... [more ▼]

Flooding on Cambodian land use systems is not a new phenomenon but its significance has increased in the context of global environmental changes. This study aims to assess the vulnerability of agricultural production to floods in the Sangkae River watershed in Battambang province, Northwestern Cambodia. The study was conducted in conjunction with the provincial spatial planning team hosted by the Provincial Department of Land Management and can be viewed as a first step toward a flood management decision-making tool for provincial authorities. The assessments rest on specific dimensions of vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity) at different levels in a multi-scale framework: spatial scale (watershed, commune and household); temporal scale (decade, year and season); and institutional scale (national policy, provincial operating rules and communal agencies). The analysis rests on triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data (time-series rainfall data, land use systems, participatory flood mapping, commune workshops (n=31), social-economic statistical databases, in-depth interviews with relevant institutions (n=5) and household surveys (n=162). Intensification of rainfall since the 1920s has increased the risk of flooding in the Sangkae River watershed during the late rainy season, particularly in the upstream area. Using an indicator-based approach, we discovered that the vulnerability of communes is highly dependent on the agro-ecology of land use systems. The household assessment reveals the variability of adaptive capacity between households according to their food security status and income portfolio. Agricultural innovation and structural adaptation to flood are scarce; the households mostly cope with flood through credit, external aid and de-capitalization (sale of household assets). These coping mechanisms adopted by farmers do not reduce vulnerability but reinforce it.The application of this assessment methodology provides nested pictures of vulnerability at different levels and scales and we argue that a dialogue between these levels and scales is necessary to understand the nature of the vulnerability and to act to reduce it. Using these different typologies of vulnerability, this approach enables recommendations to be formulated to reduce vulnerability through better horizontal and vertical integration of institutions and agencies, and effective collective action. [less ▲]

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See detailThe contribution of multi-purpose farming to the food security of small-scale farmers: An agro-economic analysis in the lowland Mekong alluvial plain
Tong, Chantheang; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Agricultural development models are the focus of intense debate in the Cambodian policy-making arenas. A model inspired by the ‘Green Revolution’, which promotes industrialization of rice cropping systems ... [more ▼]

Agricultural development models are the focus of intense debate in the Cambodian policy-making arenas. A model inspired by the ‘Green Revolution’, which promotes industrialization of rice cropping systems and is mainly dependent on external inputs, is usually contrasted with multi-purpose farming (MPF) in which rice cropping is integrated with other production to maximize their interactions and complementarities. The purpose of this research is to present some economic arguments based on the experience in promoting MPF of CEDAC (Centre d’Etude et de Dévelopement Agricole Cambodgien, also known as the Cambodian Center for Study and Development in Agriculture). We develop a comparative analysis between conventional rice cropping systems and MPF to analyze the production economics and the overall patterns of household labor diversification. Focusing primarily on rainy-season rice production, we attribute significant advantage to MPF against non-MPF practices. These differences are perceptible in higher rice yield, lower cash-paid costs, and higher value-added per hectare. However, these differences become less significant when multi-purpose farming is only partially implemented, i.e. if some elements of the system are missing. MPF provides employment opportunities that represent a reliable alternative to job migration. Under MPF, family labor is used more on-farm than is the case with non- MPF farms and is more homogenously distributed throughout the year. However, we identify barriers that curb the scaling-up of this innovation, which include limited access to information, anticipated lack of labor, lack of capacity or technical skills, lack of up-front capital to make the initial investment in land conversion to MPF, and land plot sizes that are too small to be converted to this model. We also discuss the opportunities to create markets for products of differentiated quality produced under multi-purpose farming. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferentiation of swidden agriculture in Northeast Cambodia: Kavet swiddeners, the state and the markets in Kok Lak commune
You, Rithy; Kleinpeter, Vivien; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Until recently, Kavet ethnic minority people traditionally practiced swidden agriculture and accessed natural resources in the uplands as an important, and unchallenged, part of their food system. This ... [more ▼]

Until recently, Kavet ethnic minority people traditionally practiced swidden agriculture and accessed natural resources in the uplands as an important, and unchallenged, part of their food system. This present study aims to trace the historical transformation of land use and tenure practices by Kavet communities in Kok Lak commune in the context of various state-driven and social-economic transformations. At commune level, we look at land use changes along with the migrations associated with these transformations. We also aim to understand how these changes have induced social differentiation between households as it relates to their entitlements, their production activities and their income structure. We examine the transformation in land use prompted by a multiplicity of drivers (demographic, economic, political, institutional and cultural) and in land tenure regimes through a land control matrix that differentiates between two types of rights (the land rights of the users and the rights to manage those rights given to the users). We discovered that the Kavet people have been resilient in protecting and promoting the core of their swidden territories and traditions; however, recent developments (including the establishment of the Virachey National Park (VNP) and market incentives) have considerably fragmented their land uses, cultural values and institutions. Through forced and free migration, some households have adopted new forms of agriculture (e.g. paddy, and annual and perennial non-rice crops) and converted their swidden land into cashew plantations, while others still rely solely on the practice of swidden agriculture as a lifestyle. By reviewing past transformations, by identifying the role swidden agriculture has had and the contribution it has made to the lives of the Kavet people, we recommend that efforts be made to conserve it in recognition of the pivotal role it plays in community development and to adopt better land use planning at local level. But proper consideration should also be given to the Kavet people who do not practice swidden agriculture. [less ▲]

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See detailPathways of change in a coastal resource system: Study from Kampong Trach district, Kampot province
Voe, Pisidh; Touch, Panha; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Over the past several years, Cambodia’s coastal resources system has undergone considerable transformation. The causes have included uncontrolled fishing activities, tourism development, salt and shrimp ... [more ▼]

Over the past several years, Cambodia’s coastal resources system has undergone considerable transformation. The causes have included uncontrolled fishing activities, tourism development, salt and shrimp farming, sand mining, and trade, to name just the most significant. Against this background, this study analyzes pathways of change over the past 15 years in coastal resource systems in two neighboring communities in the Kampong Trach district of Kampot province. The analysis proceeds on two different levels. We first look at change in respect of the cross-scale multiple drivers in the resource system at village level and its effects on the social and ecological components of the marine, intertidal and agricultural areas of the coastal zone. Then, at household level, we examine the diversity of adaptation measures adopted to deal with these changes, and evaluate their impacts on livelihoods. We argue that the degradation of fisheries resources in marine and intertidal zones results from drivers that originate outside and inside the communities, but mostly stems from problems of governance. Despite tangible improvements in rain-fed rice yield, the development of the farming sector is constrained by limited capacity to diversify and intensify production. The adaptation paths to this resources degradation squeeze are multiple. The few households who can afford to enhance or intensify their farming and fishing efforts usually manage to improve their food security status. But in a majority of cases, the adaptation works through a move away from the land and the sea, either through self-employed non-farm and non-fishing activities (local business associated with cross-border trade with Vietnam) or through wage labor. Self-employed activities and demand more capital but represent the main path of improvement in these communities. Wage labor - particularly associated with migration - has become widespread but its potential to improve food security is very limited. Accessing credit and going into debt is another significant way in which people have attempted to adapt either to address chronic food insecurity or to maintain the same level of productivity.The increase of mobility is a central element in adaptation strategy adopted by many who have been affected. This includes: mobility of labor (non-farm, wage and migration); the mobility of capital (e.g. conversion from marine zone fishing to trade); and mobility of landownership (occurring through market-based land concentration). However, we suggest that these processes of adaptation have actually reinforced the wealth disparity that exists between households. It has particularly exacerbated the vulnerability of those who are most dependent on small-scale fisheries. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning towards resilience
Jones, Ronald; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

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See detailSimulation of the elementary evolution operator with the motional states of an ion in an anharmonic trap
Santos, Ludovic; Justum, Yves; Vaeck, Nathalie et al

in The journal of chemical physics (2015), 142

Following a recent proposal of L. Wang and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 064301 (2012), we theoretically illustrate the possibility of using the motional states of a Cd+ ion trapped in a slightly ... [more ▼]

Following a recent proposal of L. Wang and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 064301 (2012), we theoretically illustrate the possibility of using the motional states of a Cd+ ion trapped in a slightly anharmonic potential to simulate the single-particle time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The simulated wave packet is discretized on a spatial grid and the grid points are mapped on the ion motional states which define the qubit network. The localization probability at each grid point is obtained from the population in the corresponding motional state. The quantum gate is the elementary evolution operator corresponding to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of the simulated system. The corresponding matrix can be estimated by any numerical algorithm. The radio-frequency field able to drive this unitary transformation among the qubit states of the ion is obtained by multi-target optimal control theory. The ion is assumed to be cooled in the ground motional state and the preliminary step consists in initializing the qubits with the amplitudes of the initial simulated wave packet. The time evolution of the localization probability at the grids points is then obtained by successive applications of the gate and reading out the motional state population. The gate field is always identical for a given simulated potential, only the field preparing the initial wave packet has to be optimized for different simulations. We check the stability of the simulation against decoherence due to fluctuating electric fields in the trap electrodes by applying dissipative Lindblad dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailElectricity storage with liquid fuels in a zone powered by 100% variable renewables
Léonard, Grégoire ULg; François-Lavet, Vincent ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on the European Energy Market - EEM15 (2015)

In this work, an electricity zone with 100% renewables is simulated to determine the optimal sizing of generation and storage capacities in such a zone. Using actual wind output data, the model evaluates ... [more ▼]

In this work, an electricity zone with 100% renewables is simulated to determine the optimal sizing of generation and storage capacities in such a zone. Using actual wind output data, the model evaluates the economic viability of a power-to-fuel storage technology that combines water electrolysis, CO2 capture and methanol synthesis. The main advantage of using methanol as an energy carrier is that liquid fuels are suitable for (long-term) energy storage thanks to their high energy density. The levelized electricity cost projection by 2050 equals 83.4 €/MWh in the base case configuration. The effects of storage round-trip efficiency and the storage unit lifetime are quantified and their impacts on the electricity cost discussed. Additional benefits of using methanol as a fuel substitute may be taken into account in further work. [less ▲]

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See detailOsteoporosis in patients taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a focus on fracture outcome
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Endocrine (2015), 48(1), 65-68

Depression is one of the most important mental health problems and a leading cause of disability. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered as first-line therapy for the treatment of ... [more ▼]

Depression is one of the most important mental health problems and a leading cause of disability. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered as first-line therapy for the treatment of depressive symptoms among older adults because of their presumed favorable adverse effect profile. However, they could have deleterious effects on the bone. Evidence from longitudinal, crosssectional, and prospective cohort studies suggests that the use of antidepressants at therapeutic doses is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk. The association between SSRIs use and fracture risk could potentially differ depending on dose, exposure duration, time of exposure, age, or sex. However, the risk of fracture declined rapidly after discontinuation of use of SSRIs. The evidence now seems sufficient to consider adding SSRIs to the list of medications that contribute to osteoporosis. In practice, assessment of risk factor for osteoporosis or fractures could be made taking into account age, gender, duration, and severity of depression, length of SSRI treatments, and other concurrent risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailTrophodynamics of estuarine intertidal harpacticoid copepods based on stable isotope composition and fatty acid profiles
Cnudde, Clio; Moens, Tom; Werbrouck, Eva et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2015), 524

Trophic interactions at the basis of food webs, for instance between meiofauna, primary producers and bacteria, are key drivers of benthic energy fluxes. Yet both qualitative and quantitative information ... [more ▼]

Trophic interactions at the basis of food webs, for instance between meiofauna, primary producers and bacteria, are key drivers of benthic energy fluxes. Yet both qualitative and quantitative information about meiofaunal resource utilization under in situ conditions is scant. By means of natural stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen and of fatty acid (FA) profiles, we examined the variability of in situ resource utilization of a range of harpacticoid copepod species from 5 stations in an estuarine intertidal area. These stations, located in different habitats, differed in sediment granulometry, resource availability, presence/absence of vegetation and other environmental variables, as well as in copepod species composition. Our goal was to describe inter-specific differences among harpacticoid species, as well as spatio-temporal variability within species. Despite differences in resource availability between habitats, δ13C data clearly point at microphytobenthos (MPB) as the major carbon source to the harpacticoid assemblages at all 5 stations. Small differences in carbon isotopic ratios between co-occurring species indicate some degree of resource differentiation, whereas both the δ15N and FA composition suggest that several harpacticoid species obtain MPB carbon indirectly, perhaps through feeding on bacteria or ciliates. For a limited number of species, such as Paraleptastacus spinicauda, clear dietary contributions of suspended particulate matter and bacteria were found, and MPB appeared to have only a small or no contribution. Even in vegetated salt-marsh stations, Spartina anglica detritus did not appear to contribute to copepod diets. The δ13C of Cletodidae were highly depleted, reflecting a contribution of methane-derived carbon. [less ▲]

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