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See detailTraite robotisée et pâturage sont-ils compatibles?
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Knapp, Emilie ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2013), 341

Combining automatic milking system and grazing is often considered as impossible. This paper defined the difficulties related to grazing cows milked by a robot and how to manage them.

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See detailOn periodic reference tracking using batch-mode reinforcement learning with application to gene regulatory network control
Sootla, Aivar; Strelkowa, Natajala; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC 2013) (2013, December)

In this paper, we consider the periodic reference tracking problem in the framework of batch-mode reinforcement learning, which studies methods for solving optimal control problems from the sole knowledge ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we consider the periodic reference tracking problem in the framework of batch-mode reinforcement learning, which studies methods for solving optimal control problems from the sole knowledge of a set of trajectories. In particular, we extend an existing batch-mode reinforcement learning algorithm, known as Fitted Q Iteration, to the periodic reference tracking problem. The presented periodic reference tracking algorithm explicitly exploits a priori knowledge of the future values of the reference trajectory and its periodicity. We discuss the properties of our approach and illustrate it on the problem of reference tracking for a synthetic biology gene regulatory network known as the generalised repressilator. This system can produce decaying but long-lived oscillations, which makes it an interesting application for the tracking problem. [less ▲]

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See detailINFLUENCE OF SOLUBLE PROTEINS ON THE ADHERENCE OF PARTICULATE SOILS
Toure, Yetioman ULg; Rouxhet, Paul; Dupont-Gillain, Christine et al

in Malayeri, Reza; Watkinson, Paul A.; Müller-Steinhagen, Hans (Eds.) Proceedings of International Conference on Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning - 2013 (Peer-reviewed) (2013, December)

Adsorbed compounds from food and pharmaceutical mixtures may influence interactions at interfaces and thus fouling and cleaning. In this study, quartz particles (10 to 30µm) were used as a model soil for ... [more ▼]

Adsorbed compounds from food and pharmaceutical mixtures may influence interactions at interfaces and thus fouling and cleaning. In this study, quartz particles (10 to 30µm) were used as a model soil for examining the effect of dissolved proteins on the cleanability of substrates after soiling and drying. Glass and stainless steel pretreated by UV-Ozone (StSteel-UVO) were used as model hydrophilic substrates, while hydrophobic substrates were represented by stainless steel cleaned with ethanol (StSteel-Eth) and polystyrene. BSA and β-LGB were used as proteins. The quartz suspensions used for soiling were prepared in pure water and in a solution of each protein. After soiling and drying, the cleanability was evaluated using a radial-flow cell, with pure water as the cleaning fluid. The presence of proteins in the suspension used for soiling hydrophilic substrates (Glass and StSteel-UVO), decreased the adherence of quartz particles. Its effect was less marked and tended to be opposite for less hydrophilic substrates (StSteel-Eth, Polystyrene). The adherence cannot be explained by a simple relation with the contact angle. Other factors may be the solution surface tension itself and the protein behavior at the interfaces created by drying and by rehydratation during cleaning. When considering the influence of substrate on soiling, it must be kept in mind that high surface energy solids (metals, oxides) are readily contaminated in contact with air and lose their hydrophilicity. This may improve the substrate behavior regarding cleanability with respect to particulate soil. [less ▲]

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See detailGrasshoppers: Food Security & Nutrition
Paul, Aman ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg et al

Scientific conference (2013, December)

Rising economies and rapid urbanization in developing countries, particularly in Asia, are creating shifts in the composition of global food demand, so it is necessary to explore new sources of food with ... [more ▼]

Rising economies and rapid urbanization in developing countries, particularly in Asia, are creating shifts in the composition of global food demand, so it is necessary to explore new sources of food with better nutritional profile. Among the alternative food that exists are the grasshoppers, about 80 species of which are consumed worldwide. Grasshoppers are not only rich source of proteins and lipids but also some important minor component like vitamins and minerals. Apart from being nutritionally superior to most conventional meats their production results in lower emission of greenhouse gases & ammonia, risk of zoonotic infections in humans is much lower, water requirement for production is much less and have higher feed conversion ratio. Edible species of grasshopper in Belgium were identified, attempts were made for the lab rearing of meadow grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus) and fat as well as protein contents of meadow grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus) & long winged conehead (Conocephalus discolor) were investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailGérer la diversité au quotidien Cas pratiques de GRH
Cornet, Annie ULg; Warland, Philippe ULg

Book published by ATELIER DES PRESSES (2013)

CAS PRATIQUES POUR FORMATEURS ET ETUDIANTS

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See detailA giant treated with growth hormone
Rostomyan, Liliya ULg; Potorac, Iulia ULg; CASTERMANS, Emilie ULg et al

in The 3rd ENEA Workshop : Hypopituitarism - Abstract book (2013, December)

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See detailLa cascade des MAP kinases : traitements ciblés en cancérologie cutanée.
PIERARD, Gérald ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg; LEONARD, Boris ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2013), 68(12), 650-654

Résumé : Les «Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases» (MAPK) forment un ensemble coordonné de protéines cellulaires impliquées dans la prolifération, la différenciation, la migration et l’apoptose des cellules ... [more ▼]

Résumé : Les «Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases» (MAPK) forment un ensemble coordonné de protéines cellulaires impliquées dans la prolifération, la différenciation, la migration et l’apoptose des cellules. Elles sont particulièrement activées, par certaines cytokines, hormones, le stress environnemental, ainsi que dans des cancers cutanés. Des agents pharmacologiques ciblés contre la cascade MAPK révolutionnent actuellement la cancérologie cutanée, du moins dans une phase transitoire du processus métastatique. Des traitements combinés sont susceptibles d’améliorer la survie médiane. [less ▲]

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See detailHypopituitarism in pituitary gigantism (results of an international study)
Rostomyan, Liliya ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg; Shah, NS et al

in The 3rd ENEA Workshop : Hypopituitarism - Abstract book (2013, December)

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See detailPhysicochemical properties of lipids extracted from Tenebrio molitor larvae
Danthine, Sabine ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Paul, Aman ULg et al

Poster (2013, December)

Objectives: To determine the physicochemical properties of the oil obtained from Tenebrio molitor Larvae and explore its potential as edible oil. Methodology: Oils obtained from five batches of Tenebrio ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To determine the physicochemical properties of the oil obtained from Tenebrio molitor Larvae and explore its potential as edible oil. Methodology: Oils obtained from five batches of Tenebrio molitor Larvae were investigated. Among the samples, three were produced directly in the lab (3 different productions) and 2 were purchased from a local supplier. In addition to the total lipid content (solvent extraction), both FA (GC) and TAG (HPLC) profiles were determined. Thermal properties by DSC were also estimated. Results and conclusion: The fresh Larvae from the lab contained 52% of total proteins (% dry matter). Their total fat content was around 36% (% dry matter). The commercial samples contained more proteins, but less fat: around 58% of total proteins and 30% of total fat (% dry matter). All the extracted oils contained high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. However, the chemical composition and the thermal properties of the samples varied according to their origin. The level and quality of lipid content offer potential as a substitute of oilseeds. [less ▲]

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See detailA spectral operator-theoretic framework for global stability
Mauroy, Alexandre ULg; Mezic, Igor

in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (2013, December)

The global description of a nonlinear system through the linear Koopman operator leads to an efficient approach to global stability analysis. In the context of stability analysis, not much attention has ... [more ▼]

The global description of a nonlinear system through the linear Koopman operator leads to an efficient approach to global stability analysis. In the context of stability analysis, not much attention has been paid to the use of spectral properties of the operator. This paper provides new results on the relationship between the global stability properties of the system and the spectral properties of the Koopman operator. In particular, the results show that specific eigenfunctions capture the system stability and can be used to recover known notions of classical stability theory (e.g. Lyapunov functions, contracting metrics). Finally, a numerical method is proposed for the global stability analysis of a fixed point and is illustrated with several examples. [less ▲]

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See detailBioRefine: Recovery of Nutrients from Sewage Sludge, Manure and Digestate by a Combination of Chemical and Biochemical Unit Operations
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Delvigne, Frank ULg; Michels, Evi et al

Poster (2013, December)

At this time, many wastes are exploited through processes that do not really consider applications potentially more profitable. Such wastes contain reusable components, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and ... [more ▼]

At this time, many wastes are exploited through processes that do not really consider applications potentially more profitable. Such wastes contain reusable components, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, whereas heavy metals may also be considered. Their composition depends on input materials, and considerable heterogeneities must be highlighted. Sewage sludge is usually exploited as a fertilizer in agriculture, in energy production or in the field of construction. The main application of manure is agriculture, although considerable amounts of nutrients are lost and cause pollution. Digestate is also used in agriculture, but other alternatives have been proposed, such as combustion. The use of waste in agriculture must respect many legal constraints. Another problematic point is the concentration of heavy metals that is found in those wastes. Consequently, recovery of nutrients and trace elements may be a key solution. Chemical and biochemical engineering propose many unit operations (mechanical operations on fluids, solids, mass and heat transfers, chemical reactions, etc.) that may be used to reach an efficient recovery yield of capital nutrients and trace elements. Here, we propose a methodology which consists in considering the unit operations separately with their own input and output flows, energy and heat consumption, investment, etc. and combining them to simulate industrial processes. The element concentrations and their forms will also be considered using a classification matrix. Combinations of unit operations will lead to reliable processes that should be applied on an industrial scale. This work is supported by the BioRefine Project, a European project in which various member states focus on recovery of inorganics from organic waste streams. We gratefully acknowledge the INTERREG IVB NWE programme, which financed the BioRefine Project (ref. 320J-BIOREFINE). [less ▲]

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See detailPotentiel d'utilisation de la spectrometrie moyen infrarouge pour prédire le rendement fromager du lait et étudier sa variabilité génétique
Colinet, Frédéric ULg; Troch, Thibault ULg; Abbas, O. et al

in 20èmes Rencontres Recherches Ruminants, Paris, les 4 et 5 Décembre 2013 (2013, December)

Fournir une indication rapide, fiable et bon marché du rendement fromager pour un lait donné, sans devoir appliquer des formules (empiriques ou théoriques) à partir des concentrations préalablement ... [more ▼]

Fournir une indication rapide, fiable et bon marché du rendement fromager pour un lait donné, sans devoir appliquer des formules (empiriques ou théoriques) à partir des concentrations préalablement déterminées pour différents constituants du lait, serait un outil utile et économiquement intéressant tant pour les éleveurs que pour l’industrie laitière. En vue d’étudier la variabilité génétique du rendement fromager à l’échelle du cheptel bovin wallon, des méthodes chimiométriques ont été utilisées afin de développer des équations de prédictions basées sur des spectres moyen infrarouge (MIR) pour les rendements fromagers déterminés en laboratoire et exprimés en frais (RdFF) ou en sec (RdFS). Ceux-ci ont été déterminés sur 258 échantillons de lait analysés en spectrométrie MIR. Les équations de prédiction à partir du spectre MIR du lait ont été développées en utilisant la régression des moindres carrés partiels (PLS) avec une validation croisée interne appliquée sur la dérivée première des spectres MIR. Les coefficients de détermination de validation croisée (R²cv) des équations étaient de 0,81 pour les prédictions du RdFF et de 0,82 pour les celles du RdFS. Les rapports des performances sur les variabilités (RPD) étaient égaux à 2,3. Ces résultats peuvent permettre d’envisager une bonne utilité pratique pour leur prédiction respective, notamment dans le cadre de recherches génétiques. Ces équations ont été appliquées sur la base de données spectrales générée dans le cadre du contrôle laitier wallon. Les composantes de la variance ont été estimées séparément pour le RdFF et le RdFS basées sur un modèle animal « contrôles élémentaires » utilisant des régressions aléatoires. Le jeu de données utilisé comportait 51 537 prédictions pour 7 870 vaches primipares Holstein. Les héritabilités journalières moyennes variaient entre 0,31 (au 5ème jour de lactation (JDL)) et 0,59 (au 279ème JDL) pour le RdFF et entre 0,31 (au 5ème JDL) et 0,57 (au 299ème JDL) pour le RdFS. Ces héritabilités journalières modérées à élevées ont indiqué le potentiel de sélection génétique pour ces deux caractères. [less ▲]

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See detailResponding Bodies and Partial Affinities in Human–Animal Worlds
Despret, Vinciane ULg

in Theory, Culture & Society (2013), 30(7/8), 66-91

The aim of this paper is to explore the different manners in which scientists’ bodies are actively engaged when interacting with the animals they observe in the field. Bodies are multiple, as are the ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to explore the different manners in which scientists’ bodies are actively engaged when interacting with the animals they observe in the field. Bodies are multiple, as are the practices that involve them: sharing the same diet, feeling similar affects, acting the same, inhabiting the same world of perceptions, constructing empathic affinities, etc.
Some scientists aim to embody the animals’ experiences. Some are willing to empathetically experience situations “from inside”, while others “undo and redo” their own bodies in order to interact more closely with the animals and to respond to them more cautiously. Still others are faced with the question: what can we do or what are we allowed to do with our bodies when we are with our animals?
All of these practices present a very different version of “embodied empathy”, a concept which describes feeling/seeing/thinking bodies that undo and redo each other, reciprocally though not symmetrically, as partial perspectives that attune themselves to each other. Therefore, empathy is not experiencing with one’s own body what the other experiences, but rather creating the possibilities of an embodied communication. [less ▲]

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See detailDosimétrie vocale chez des enseignantes des niveaux maternel et primaire
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; FINCK, Camille ULg

in Cahiers de l'ASELF (2013), 10(4), 14-29

Objectifs - Cette étude quantifie l’usage vocal professionnel et extra-professionnel chez des enseignantes en différenciant deux niveaux scolaires : le maternel et le primaire. L’objectif est d’identifier ... [more ▼]

Objectifs - Cette étude quantifie l’usage vocal professionnel et extra-professionnel chez des enseignantes en différenciant deux niveaux scolaires : le maternel et le primaire. L’objectif est d’identifier le contexte (professionnel versus extra- professionnel) ainsi que le niveau scolaire (maternel versus primaire) requérant la charge vocale la plus importante. Méthodologie - Le comportement vocal de 21 enseignantes du maternel et de 20 enseignantes du primaire a été accumulé à l’aide d’un dosimètre pendant une semaine de travail (5 jours). Les paramètres analysés sont les suivants : l’intensité vocale, la fréquence fondamentale, la durée de phonation, le nombre de vibrations et la distance parcourue par les plis vocaux. Résultats - Comme attendu, le contexte professionnel est associé à des valeurs significativement plus élevées que le contexte extra-professionnel pour tous les paramètres mesurés. Par ailleurs, la comparaison entre les deux groupes montre des valeurs significativement plus élevées chez les enseignantes du maternel pour le nombre de vibrations et la distance parcourue par les plis vocaux. Conclusions - Le risque de développer des pathologies liées à la charge vocale est principalement associé à l’usage vocal professionnel des enseignantes, et il semble davantage présent chez les institutrices du niveau maternel que chez celles du primaire. [less ▲]

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See detailHD 97658 and its super-Earth: Spitzer transit analysis and seismic modeling of the host star
Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Valencia, Diana et al

Conference (2013, December)

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See detailAnalyse des perspectives de rentabilité de la culture extensive de Jatropha curcas L. dans la zone agroécologique de transition orientale du Sénégal : cas de la communauté rurale de Dialacoto
Terren, Marieke ULg; Cissé, Chérif; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Cahiers d'Etudes et de Recherches Francophones. Agricultures (2013), 22(6), 568-574

The profitability prospects of the three main modes of extensive cultivation of Jatropha curcas L. in the Rural Community of Dialacoto were studied on 24 farms from 2008 to 2012. In the best tended ... [more ▼]

The profitability prospects of the three main modes of extensive cultivation of Jatropha curcas L. in the Rural Community of Dialacoto were studied on 24 farms from 2008 to 2012. In the best tended peasant plantations aged four or five years the dry seed yield obtained in sole cropping was less than 200 kg/ha. Under these conditions, it is very unlikely that the yield achieved in sole cropping exceeds 800 kg/ha in full production. The average yield per meter of live fences older than fifteen years was 0.9 kg/m. Considering the purchase price of jatropha seeds in 2012 in Senegal (65 F CFA/kg – 0.1 euro/kg), and given the bad productivity and the low precocity of the available planting material, the cultivation of jatropha (as a sole crop or in intercropping) is far less profitable than the main cropping system practiced in the region (groundnut/pearl millet/sorghum/cotton rotation with input application). Any improvement in the economic performance of the production of jatropha seeds requires the selection of varieties that are early, hardy and productive. The establishment of living hedges is for the moment the only installation method that can be recommended to farmers. In addition to providing supplementary income related to seed harvest, hedgerows provide different non-monetary benefits appreciated by farmers: land demarcation, soil protection against wind and water erosion, improved soil water balance and windbreak effect favourable to crop development, crop protection against wandering ruminants, and enclosure for the cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailAlfred von Schlieffen : L'homme qui devait gagner la Grande Guerre
Bechet, Christophe ULg

Book published by Argos (2013)

Dans l’imaginaire collectif, les origines du premier conflit mondial sont indissociablement liées au plan de guerre du général allemand Alfred von Schlieffen (1833-1913). Jamais un plan de guerre ne fut ... [more ▼]

Dans l’imaginaire collectif, les origines du premier conflit mondial sont indissociablement liées au plan de guerre du général allemand Alfred von Schlieffen (1833-1913). Jamais un plan de guerre ne fut sans doute autant commenté dans l’historiographie militaire contemporaine ; à tel point que la pensée stratégique réelle de Schlieffen fut rapidement occultée après sa mort par une pléthore d’exégètes, partisans ou détracteurs plus ou moins éclairés du général allemand et de ses idées. Au tournant du troisième millénaire, l’exhumation de documents inexploités dans les archives militaires allemandes a contribué à attirer une nouvelle fois l’attention des historiens sur des aspects jusqu’alors peu connus de la pensée de Schlieffen, notamment sur sa façon si singulière de conduire les Kriegsspiele. Les débats passionnants qui ont découlé de ces découvertes archivistiques ont contribué à rajeunir complètement l’image que l’on se faisait du stratège. En revanche, le revers de la médaille est qu’ils ont complexifié la compréhension de ses écrits et transformer le débat historique autour de sa personne en un dialogue de techniciens. Ainsi, l’étudiant ou le simple amateur, qui souhaiterait aujourd’hui se familiariser avec les réflexions stratégiques du chef du Grand État-major, est forcé de tracer son chemin dans un dédale de publications polémiques, de monographies ou articles scientifiques, qui l’empêcheront d’acquérir rapidement une juste idée du « plan Schlieffen ». L’ambition de ce numéro des Maîtres de la Stratégie est de surmonter ces difficultés heuristiques. Christophe Bechet y synthétise les résultats scientifiques les plus récents au sujet du plan allemand. Il propose par ailleurs au lecteur une approche pédagogique des théories les plus emblématiques du général von Schlieffen. Deux chapitres consacrés à sa vie et sa carrière militaire et un chapitre conclusif relatif à son héritage posthume au sein de l’armée allemande finissent de brosser le portrait du « maître ». Nul doute qu’à l’aube du centenaire du déclenchement de la Première Guerre mondiale, cette synthèse viendra à point nommé pour permettre au plus grand nombre de découvrir le testament stratégique du planificateur de la première guerre de masse. [less ▲]

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See detailLa politique étrangère de la Belgique face à la France lors de la crise de la chaise vide (1965-1966). Rôle d’un ‘petit pays’, poids d’une relation bilatérale
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Journal Of European Integration History = Revue d'Histoire de l'Intégration Européenne = Zeitschrift für Geschichte der europaïschen Integration (2013), 19(2), 259-276

Die von Juni 1965 bis Januar 1966 andauernde europäische Krise des leeren Stuhls, ist Gegenstand zahlreicher historischer Forschungsarbeiten. Während dieser Krise stört behindert De Gaulles Frankreich den ... [more ▼]

Die von Juni 1965 bis Januar 1966 andauernde europäische Krise des leeren Stuhls, ist Gegenstand zahlreicher historischer Forschungsarbeiten. Während dieser Krise stört behindert De Gaulles Frankreich den europäischen Einigungsprozess indem es die Pläne der europäischen Kommission durchkreuzt. Belgien, ein „kleines Land” dessen Außenpolitik von Paul-Henri Spaak geleitet wurde, übernahm die Vermittlerrolle zwischen Frankreich und den anderen Ländern des Gemeinsamen Marktes, um das europäische Projekt wieder in Fahrt zu bringen. Oftmals wurde Belgien als Gegner der europäischen Vision de Gaulles hingestellt; die Beziehungen zu Frankreich sind aber komplexer als man denkt. Ihre wahren Züge verdeutlichen sich anhand der Auswertung unveröffentlichter Dokumente, in etwa jener der von Marcel-Henri Jaspar geleiteten belgischen Botschaft in Paris. Diese Studie versucht den Zustand der beidseitige französisch-belgischen Beziehungen abzuwägen, um herauszufinden inwieweit er das Ende der Krise ermöglichte. Sie beweist unter anderem, dass das Königreich durchaus eine eigene Politik entfalten konnte, auch wenn seine Politik sich normalerweise nur innerhalb des Benelux-Verbandes oder des Gemeinsamen Marktes versteht. [less ▲]

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See detailForêts communautaires camerounaises et Plan d’action « Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade » (FLEGT) : quel prix pour la légalité ?
Julve, Cécilia; Eckebil, Tabi Pamela; Nzoyem Saha, Nadège et al

in Bois et Forêts des Tropiques (2013), 317(3), 71-80

Illegal logging is a threat to the world’s tropical forests. To act against overexploitation of timber, the European Union has set up the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade action plan (FLEGT ... [more ▼]

Illegal logging is a threat to the world’s tropical forests. To act against overexploitation of timber, the European Union has set up the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade action plan (FLEGT), which opened the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) negotiating agenda with Cameroon. In 2010, the two parties signed the VPA, committing Cameroon to ensure the legality of timber from all logging concessions sold on external and domestic markets. Community forests (CF) were included in the agreement and must therefore ensure the legality of their timber production. To do that, a specific legality grid has been developed. This was tested in half of active community forests in Cameroon to analyse any gaps between activities as practiced in the field and the legality criteria set out in the legality grid. The result show that no CF fully complied with this grid. The study identified obstacles due to complex procedures and to the excessive costs of compliance. Some criteria not currently met could be complied with through community capacity-building and by amending certain regulations. Under these conditions, community forests could become a source of legal supplies at least for the domestic timber market. [less ▲]

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