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See detailLe rôle des rongeurs dans la dispersion des diaspores en milieu forestier (synthèse bibliographique)
Evrard, Quentin ULg; Haurez, Barbara ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2017)

Introduction. Seed dispersal is a key interaction that influences a number of ecological processes that are important to the maintenance of diversity in forest ecosystems. Rodents, mainly considered as ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Seed dispersal is a key interaction that influences a number of ecological processes that are important to the maintenance of diversity in forest ecosystems. Rodents, mainly considered as seed predators, can carry, hide and discard seeds, often transporting them over considerable distances from the parent tree and thus leading to an enhanced germination rate. The role of rodents on forest regeneration therefore depends upon several environmental variables influencing their behavior. Literature. Many publications demonstrate that rodents are mostly seed predators for many species. Nevertheless, because it is hard to define their movement pattern, the role of rodents on regeneration could be underestimated. Through scatter-hoarding, rodents may play a crucial role, particularly in those forests where anthropogenic pressures have led to a reduction in the density of large mammals. However, very few studies have been conducted in African moist forests where defaunation can be high, and the role of rodents has been very poorly studied. Conclusions. To understand the phenomenon, we suggest to further investigate the interactions between seeds and rodents by employing methods that have been commonly used on other continents. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the use of decision-support tools for improved irrigation management: AquaCrop-based applications
Wellens, Joost ULg; Raes, Dirk; Tychon, Bernard ULg

in Elshorbagy, Amin; Kulshreshtha, Suren (Eds.) Current perspectives on irrigation and drainage (2017)

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See detailCrossoads (Fevrier 2017) - chaque mercredi de 18h à20h - rediffusion: samedis de 22h à min
Sacré, Robert ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2017)

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See detailEvaluation of the ruminal function of Belgian dairy cows suspected of subacute ruminal acidosis.
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Knapp, Emilie; Theron, Léonard et al

in Vlaams Diergeneeskundig tijdschrift (2017), 86(1), 16-23

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) has been considered a major pathology in high producing dairy herds for years. These findings were corroborated by several studies in Europe. However, different feeding ... [more ▼]

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) has been considered a major pathology in high producing dairy herds for years. These findings were corroborated by several studies in Europe. However, different feeding practices and herds’ production levels are found in Southern Belgium. This study aimed to ascertain whether dairy cows of several herds from the south of Belgium (Wallonia) with a suspicion of SARA really did present too low ruminal pH values. Twenty-four herds were visited and 172 cows were sampled using an oropharyngeal device to collect ruminal fluid, i.e. Geishauser probe. On the samples, three tests were performed: pH measurement, methylene blue reduction test and microscopic evaluation of protozoa vitality. Based on these analyses, no cows demonstrated pH values lower than 5.5 and, only ten cows could be considered at risk for SARA. By contrast, in eightteen cows, pH values higher than 7.0 were measured and ruminal inactivity was suspected. In this study, ruminal alkalosis appeared to be more frequently observed than SARA. [less ▲]

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See detailMapIT!: a simple and user-friendly MATLAB script to
elaborate elemental distribution images from LA-
ICP-MS data

Sforna, Marie-Catherine ULg; Lugli, Federico

in Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry [=JAAS] (2017)

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See detailTransparency Under Scrutiny. Information disclosure by the Parliamentary Land Investigation Commission in Myanmar
San Thein; Pyae Sone; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

E-print/Working paper (2017)

This case study presents a country-wide quantitative analysis of a Parliamentary Commission established in 2012 in Myanmar to examine ‘land grab’ cases considered and to propose solutions towards ... [more ▼]

This case study presents a country-wide quantitative analysis of a Parliamentary Commission established in 2012 in Myanmar to examine ‘land grab’ cases considered and to propose solutions towards releasing the land to its original owners, in most cases smallholder farming families. The study analyses the information contained in four reports released to the public, but also aims to elicit information they do not reveal. First of all, the paper suggests the commission has failed to provide detailed information about land grabs by the military. Second, the Commission seems to have targeted urban areas and urbanization projects and has underestimated land grab cases in rural areas. Third, by contrasting the locations of land confiscation cases with those of agro-industrial concessions as of 2011, the paper also shows how the Commission has evaded, rather than tackled, some very critical land confiscation issues driven by these concessions. Eventually, the authors argue for a mechanism that gathers, manages and releases relevant data on land confiscation and redistribution in a manner that allows for full disclosure. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale model of the human cardiovascular system: Description of heart failure and comparison of contractility indices
Kosta, Sarah ULg; Negroni, Jorge; Lascano, Elena et al

in Mathematical Biosciences (2017), 284

A multiscale model of the cardiovascular system is presented. Hemodynamics is described by a lumped parameter model, while heart contraction is described at the cellular scale. An electrophysiological ... [more ▼]

A multiscale model of the cardiovascular system is presented. Hemodynamics is described by a lumped parameter model, while heart contraction is described at the cellular scale. An electrophysiological model and a mechanical model were coupled and adjusted so that the pressure and volume of both ventricles are linked to the force and length of a half-sarcomere. Particular attention was paid to the extreme values of the sarcomere length, which must keep physiological values. This model is able to reproduce healthy behavior, preload variations experiments, and ventricular failure. It also allows to compare the relevance of standard cardiac contractility indices. This study shows that the theoretical gold standard for assessing cardiac contractility, namely the end-systolic elastance, is actually load-dependent and therefore not a reliable index of cardiac contractility. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of an ultra-marathonof 330km on plasma levels of cardiac biomarkers
Le Goff, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Gergelé, Laurent et al

in British Journal of Sports Medicine (2017, February), 51(4), 347

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See detailA specific immune and lymphatic profile characterizes the pre-metastatic state of the sentinel lymph node in patients with early cervical cancer
Balsat, Cédric ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Herfs, Michael ULg et al

in Oncoimmunology (2017), 6(2), 1265718

The lymph node (LN) pre-metastatic niche is faintly characterized in lymphophilic human neoplasia, although LN metastasis is considered as the strongest prognostic marker of patient survival. Due to its ... [more ▼]

The lymph node (LN) pre-metastatic niche is faintly characterized in lymphophilic human neoplasia, although LN metastasis is considered as the strongest prognostic marker of patient survival. Due to its specific dissemination through a complex bilateral pelvic lymphatic system, early cervical cancer is a relevant candidate for investigating the early nodal metastatic process. In the present study, we analyzed in-depth both the lymphatic vasculature and the immune climate of pre-metastatic sentinel LN (SLN), in 48 cases of FIGO stage IB1 cervical neoplasms. An original digital image analysis methodology was used to objectively determine whole slide densities and spatial distributions of immunostained structures. We observed a marked increase in lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and a specific capsular and subcapsular distribution in pre-metastatic SLN when compared with non-sentinel counterparts. Such features persisted in the presence of nodal metastatic colonization. The inflammatory profile attested by CD8+, Foxp3, CD20 and PD-1expression was also significantly increased in pre-metastatic SLN. Remarkably, the densities of CD20+ B cells and PD-1 expressing germinal centers were positively correlated with LVD. All together, these data strongly support the existence of a pre-metastatic dialog between the primary tumor and the first nodal relay. Both lymphatic and immune responses contribute to the elaboration of a specific pre-metastatic microenvironment in human SLN. Moreover, this work provides evidence that, in the context of early cervical cancer, a pre-metastatic lymphangiogenesis occurs within the SLN (pre-metastatic niche) and is associated with a specific humoral immune response. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis and indications on long-term forecasting of the Oceanic Niño Index with wavelet-induced components
Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

in Pure and Applied Geophysics (2017), 174(4), 1815-1826

The present paper provides an analysis and a long-term forecasting scheme of the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) using the continuous wavelet transform. First, it appears that oscillatory components with main ... [more ▼]

The present paper provides an analysis and a long-term forecasting scheme of the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) using the continuous wavelet transform. First, it appears that oscillatory components with main periods of about 17, 31, 43, 61 and 140 months govern most of the variability of the signal, which is consistent with previous works. Then, this information enables us to derive a simple algorithm to model and forecast ONI. The model is based on the observation that the modes extracted from the signal are generally phased with positive or negative anomalies of ONI (El Niño and La Niña events). Such a feature is exploited to generate locally stationary curves that mimic this behavior and which can be easily extrapolated to form a basic forecast. The wavelet transform is then used again to smooth out the process and finalize the predictions. The skills of the technique described in this paper are assessed through retroactive forecasts of past El Niño and La Niña events and via classic indicators computed as functions of the lead time. The main asset of the proposed model resides in its long-lead prediction skills. Consequently, this approach should prove helpful as a complement to other models for estimating the long-term trends of ONI. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit du justiciable dans le cadre de la loi sur l'internement (y compris "pot-pourri III")
Jacques, Elodie ULg

in Masset, Adrien; Franssen, Vanessa (Eds.) Les droits du justiciable face à la justice pénale (2017)

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See detailApproximate Bayes Optimal Policy Search using Neural Networks
Castronovo, Michaël ULg; François-Lavet, Vincent ULg; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART 2017) (2017, February)

Bayesian Reinforcement Learning (BRL) agents aim to maximise the expected collected rewards obtained when interacting with an unknown Markov Decision Process (MDP) while using some prior knowledge. State ... [more ▼]

Bayesian Reinforcement Learning (BRL) agents aim to maximise the expected collected rewards obtained when interacting with an unknown Markov Decision Process (MDP) while using some prior knowledge. State-of-the-art BRL agents rely on frequent updates of the belief on the MDP, as new observations of the environment are made. This offers theoretical guarantees to converge to an optimum, but is computationally intractable, even on small-scale problems. In this paper, we present a method that circumvents this issue by training a parametric policy able to recommend an action directly from raw observations. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are used to represent this policy, and are trained on the trajectories sampled from the prior. The trained model is then used online, and is able to act on the real MDP at a very low computational cost. Our new algorithm shows strong empirical performance, on a wide range of test problems, and is robust to inaccuracies of the prior distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailLes ASBL et le Tax Shelter : un cadeau empoisonné ?
Garroy, Sabine ULg

in ASBL Actualités (2017)

Une loi du 25 décembre 2016 a étendu le régime du Tax Shelter, réservé jusqu’ici aux « œuvres audiovisuelles », aux œuvres dites « scéniques » (visant ainsi notamment l’opéra, le cirque, le théâtre ou ... [more ▼]

Une loi du 25 décembre 2016 a étendu le régime du Tax Shelter, réservé jusqu’ici aux « œuvres audiovisuelles », aux œuvres dites « scéniques » (visant ainsi notamment l’opéra, le cirque, le théâtre ou encore le ballet). Outre un rappel du système Tax Shelter (I), les spécificités du régime applicable aux « œuvres scéniques » (II) sont présentées. Si les ASBL peuvent s’inscrire dans la dynamique du Tax Shelter en tant que société de production éligible ou intermédiaire, elles seront par conséquent assujetties à l’impôt des sociétés (ci-après : ISOC), et ce, pour une certaine durée ; nous nous demandons enfin si le législateur a réservé, par le biais cette loi de Noël dernier, un si joli présent aux ASBL (III). [less ▲]

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See detailLes commissaires d'Action française
Schmidt, Anne-Catherine ULg

in Audigier, François (Ed.) Histoire des services d'ordre en France du XIXème siècle à nos jours (2017, February)

Les discours et les actes violents des camelots du roi sont bien connus et ont régulièrement été évoqués par l'historiographie. En revanche, l'organisation des commissaires d'Action française, chargés du ... [more ▼]

Les discours et les actes violents des camelots du roi sont bien connus et ont régulièrement été évoqués par l'historiographie. En revanche, l'organisation des commissaires d'Action française, chargés du maintien de l'ordre dans les manifestations, est assez méconnue. Ce papier tente d'y remédier. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction to the Laws of War - Reader (2016-2017)
Deprez, Christophe ULg

Learning material (2017)

This reader gathers introductory pieces of literature on how international law governs situations of armed conflict.

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (3 ULg)