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See detailDetailed analysis of sputum and systemic inflammation in asthma phenotypes: are paucigranulocytic asthmatics really non-inflammatory?
Demarche, Sophie ULg; SCHLEICH, FLorence ULg; HENKET, Monique ULg et al

in BMC Pulmonary Medicine (2016), 16

BACKGROUND: The technique of induced sputum has allowed to subdivide asthma patients into inflammatory phenotypes according to their level of granulocyte airway infiltration. There are very few studies ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The technique of induced sputum has allowed to subdivide asthma patients into inflammatory phenotypes according to their level of granulocyte airway infiltration. There are very few studies which looked at detailed sputum and blood cell counts in a large cohort of asthmatics divided into inflammatory phenotypes. The purpose of this study was to analyze sputum cell counts, blood leukocytes and systemic inflammatory markers in these phenotypes, and investigate how those groups compared with healthy subjects. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on 833 asthmatics recruited from the University Asthma Clinic of Liege and compared them with 194 healthy subjects. Asthmatics were classified into inflammatory phenotypes. RESULTS: The total non-squamous cell count per gram of sputum was greater in mixed granulocytic and neutrophilic phenotypes as compared to eosinophilic, paucigranulocytic asthma and healthy subjects (p < 0.005). Sputum eosinophils (in absolute values and percentages) were increased in all asthma phenotypes including paucigranulocytic asthma, compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.005). Eosinophilic asthma showed higher absolute sputum neutrophil and lymphocyte counts than healthy subjects (p < 0.005), while neutrophilic asthmatics had a particularly low number of sputum macrophages and epithelial cells. All asthma phenotypes showed an increased blood leukocyte count compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.005), with paucigranulocytic asthmatics having also increased absolute blood eosinophils compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.005). Neutrophilic asthma had raised CRP and fibrinogen while eosinophilic asthma only showed raised fibrinogen compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that a significant eosinophilic inflammation is present across all categories of asthma, and that paucigranulocytic asthma may be seen as a low grade inflammatory disease. [less ▲]

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See detailNew conservative and regenerative treatments for cartilage and tendon lesions
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2016, April 05)

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See detailComment reconnaître les activités spontanées en EMG
WANG, François-Charles ULg

Conference (2016, April 05)

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See detailNovel butanol pretreatment significantly improves delignification and saccharification of different lignocellulosic biomasses
Schmetz, Quentin ULg; Teramura, Hiroshi; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg et al

Conference (2016, April 05)

Organosolv pretreatment using diluted acid and butanol allows the separation of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin into three distinct phases. The butanol process has been investigated on six different ... [more ▼]

Organosolv pretreatment using diluted acid and butanol allows the separation of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin into three distinct phases. The butanol process has been investigated on six different biomasses: tall fescue, sugarbeet pulp, sugarcane bagasse, beech wood, eucalyptus and Japanese cedar. Dilute acid pretreatment has been performed under similar conditions for comparison. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneralized Pascal triangle for binomial coefficients of finite words
Stipulanti, Manon ULg

Poster (2016, April 05)

Abstract. We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on bino- mial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a word appears as a subsequence of another finite ... [more ▼]

Abstract. We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on bino- mial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a word appears as a subsequence of another finite word. Similarly to the Sierpinski gasket that can be built as the limit set, for the Hausdorff distance, of a convergent sequence of normalized compact blocks extracted from Pascal triangle modulo 2, we describe and study the first properties of the subset of [0, 1] × [0, 1] associated with this extended Pascal triangle modulo a prime p. [less ▲]

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See detailCultures alimentaires et appartenances. Une ethnographie dans l’espace de la frontière
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2016, April 04)

« Dis-moi ce que tu manges, je te dirai qui tu es », écrivait déjà en 1826 Brillat-Savarin, en suggérant une approche herméneutique de l’alimentation. La nourriture, en raison de son incorporation, est ... [more ▼]

« Dis-moi ce que tu manges, je te dirai qui tu es », écrivait déjà en 1826 Brillat-Savarin, en suggérant une approche herméneutique de l’alimentation. La nourriture, en raison de son incorporation, est intimement connectée à la construction symbolique de la subjectivité ; elle a également une implication sociale (Sahlins, 1982), dans la mesure où elle fait l’objet d’un partage selon des règles de commensalité (Douglas, 1972). L’anthropologie de l’alimentation permet aujourd’hui d’éclaircir des processus sociaux plus amples que la consommation de nourriture engage (Mintz and Bois, 2002). Un intérêt particulier est porté sur le rapport entre l’alimentation et les représentations identitaires des groupes culturels ou sociaux. Les membres de ceux-ci se rapportent à des cultures alimentaires de façon active, s’engagent dans un processus d’affirmation d’une identité propre et partagée (Lupton, 1996). Ces dynamiques font aussi l’objet de plusieurs études sur la connexion entre alimentation et migration. Ces études mettent tout d’abord en évidence le fait que, lors d’un déplacement, les individus ou les groupes sont confrontés à des cultures alimentaires différentes, et elles s’engagent alors à vérifier dans quelle mesure cette rencontre défie l’identité individuelle (Spiro, 1955; Crenn, 2004; Cardona, 2004) et quelles pratiques elle engage afin de la préserver (Hage, 1997; Beyers, 2008; Diner et Diner, 2009). Souvent, les discours sur l’intégration des migrants concernent aussi les habitudes alimentaires (voir par exemple De Lesdain, 2002), considérées comme des indices d’une disposition à adhérer aux normes de la société « d’accueil ». Le niveau d’intégration (ou la disposition à s’intégrer) serait établie sur base de l’acculturation alimentaire dans le contexte migratoire (voir aussi Bastenier et Dassetto, 1993). Loin de constituer les extrêmes d’une dichotomie irrésoluble, les cultures alimentaires du pays d’origine et du pays d’accueil des migrants qui se rencontrent grâce – entre autre – à la mobilité de ces derniers, créent un espace de frontière qui est habité par les acteurs eux-mêmes (Agier, 2013). Dans cet espace l’appartenance culturelle est questionnée, elle fait l’objet d’une réflexivité (voir aussi Rodier, 2010), et les habitudes alimentaires prennent également la forme d’une « mise en scène du culturel, favorisant des stratégies ponctuelles d’affirmation identitaire et des rhétoriques du conflit » (Julien, 2010 : 17). Cette contribution veut amener une réflexion à propos des dynamiques qui ont lieu dans l’espace de la frontière ainsi définie, au départ de l’analyse de matériaux ethnographiques concernant les pratiques alimentaires de certaines femmes marocaines résidant en Italie et les discours qui les accompagnent. Dans l’espace de la frontière les appartenances socio-culturelles se définissent et sont négociées grâce également aux choix alimentaires. Le rapport individuel aux interdits alimentaires d’ordre religieux en est une preuve, notamment lorsque ce rapport assume la fonction de « [f]aire barrage à l’altérité […] c’est-à-dire instituer la séparation » (Benkheira 1997: 261) ou, inversement, d’affirmer l’échange social selon des modalités propres. [less ▲]

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See detailEnrichment of Central African logged forests with high-value tree species: testing a new approach to regenerating degraded forests
Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Ligot, Gauthier ULg et al

in International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services and Management (2016)

In natural forests of Central Africa, several studies indicate a dramatic decrease in commercial trees, including species of concern for conservation. Enrichment planting with these species will favor ... [more ▼]

In natural forests of Central Africa, several studies indicate a dramatic decrease in commercial trees, including species of concern for conservation. Enrichment planting with these species will favor both the long-term recovery of their populations and biodiversity conservation in logged forests. In this study, we analyzed the survival and growth of 23 species in plantations. Fourteen 0.2–1.1 ha mixed species plantations consisting of single-species 15 × 15 m blocks were studied for 5 years in a logging concession of southeastern Cameroon. The plantation design considered both species light requirements and sensitivity to damage by pests. To identify the best species for enrichment planting, we assessed both species performance and plantation costs. We also tested for relationships between species traits and species performance. Mean annual diameter growth increments ranged from 1.67 to 42.9 mm. No significant relationship was found between growth and survival. Herbivory by wild Bovidae was the main cause of mortality and should be carefully considered in rehabilitation efforts. We found a significant negative relationship between wood density and maximum growth rate. The other traits tested were not good predictors of species performance in plantations. The two best-performing species, Triplochiton scleroxylon and Terminalia superba, could reach the minimum cutting diameter during a 30-year cutting cycle. Costs were high and mechanized site preparation is suggested to reduce them. Widespread adoption of such plantations will only occur if financial incentives or national regulations for assuring regeneration are implemented. [less ▲]

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See detailAs above, so below? Narrative Salience and Side Effects of National Innovation Systems
Claisse, Frédéric ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg

in Critical Policy Studies (2016)

This article furthers previous attempts at integrating narratology in policy analysis. Embracing an open-ended definition of narrative, it stresses the importance of maintaining distinct narrative levels ... [more ▼]

This article furthers previous attempts at integrating narratology in policy analysis. Embracing an open-ended definition of narrative, it stresses the importance of maintaining distinct narrative levels and, more generally, of taking into account the pragmatic dimension of narration as an activity, including the often-implicit role and focalization of the policy analyst. Developing a conceptual analogy between storytelling and the exercise of power, it argues for a critical use of practical imagination in ‘cold’ situations of ‘narrative salience’, characterized by the absence of controversy or uncertainty, an uneven distribution of the power of scenarization. These propositions for a ‘revisited’ approach to policy narratives, equidistant from the positivist and post-positivist dichotomy, are tested on the case of ‘narrative salience’ where a particular storyline, national innovation systems, is so dominant that there appears to be no ‘counter-story’. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and validation of analytical methods based on GC-MS/MC Triple Quadrupole instrument for the analysis of POPs in food and feed matrices
Calaprice, Chiara ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

This thesis focused on the development and validation of analytical methods for the de-tection and quantification of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in biological matrices, namely food and feed ... [more ▼]

This thesis focused on the development and validation of analytical methods for the de-tection and quantification of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in biological matrices, namely food and feed samples. POPs are a group of chemical compounds listed after the Stockholm Convention in 2001, with demonstrated toxicity and dangerousness for envi-ronment, animals and humans. In this work of thesis, special attention was reserved to some selected POPs: polychlo-rodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), usually referred to as “dioxins”, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as there is a big concern about these contaminants in Taranto, a city in the Southern Italy very close to Bari, my home town. Taranto, indeed, is characterized by a large industrial area with a steel mill, several incin-erators and a refinery in few kilometre radius (Di Leo et al., 2014). This work has been done in collaboration with the University of Liège (Belgium) where a consolidated exper-tise in the field of POP measurements was available, especially in terms of dioxin anal-yses. In Chapter 1 the main steps, from sample preparation to data elaboration, of a validated confirmatory method for dioxin and PCB detection in food and feed using gas chromatog-raphy coupled to tandem mass spectrometry Triple Quad instrument (GC-MS/MS Triple Quad) have been described. This method was developed at the University of Liège in the framework of the last updates of the EU Regulation that in 2014 allowed confirmatory quantitative analysis of dioxins with Triple Quad. This method was the starting point of this work of thesis, because it was used for all dioxin and PCB quantifications. In Chapter 2 and chapter 3 alternative clean-up approaches for dioxin analysis in fatty food matrices have been developed using different automated systems. These works have been done in the framework of solvent and time saving for high throughput analytical methods in dioxin analysis. In chapter 2, an already existing automated system, DEXTechTM from LCTech GmbH (LCTech GmbH, Bahnweg 41, 84405 Dorfen, Germany) was used for sample clean-up, but a completely new clean-up approach was developed with this. GC-MS/MS Triple Quad instrument, as well as Magnetic Sector High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) instrument were employed for final quantification, to demonstrate the suitability of our newly developed clean-up approaches whatever the instrumental detection. In Chapter 3 PowerPrepTM automated system from Fluid Management System (FMS Inc., 580 Pleasant Street, Watertown, MA 02472, USA) was used and our routine sample clean-up approach was modified in order to enhance the efficiency and to reduce cost and solvent consumption of the analysis. In Chapter 4 the main method for dioxin analysis was adapted for the integration of Dechloranes in the list of the analytes targeted in the regular control for dioxins in food and feed. Dechloranes are a family of 6 organo-chlorinated compounds with structure similar to Mirex, also called Dechlorane, a POP listed in the Stockholm convention. Dechloranes have been found in human blood of people from Europe (Brasseur et al., 2014) and in this work an analytical method for Dechlorane detection was developed and validated to investigate food as a possible route of exposure for humans in Europe, where no production plant has been identified so far. The analytical method was used to analyse 88 food and feed real sample and to give an idea of Dechlorane daily dietary intake. [less ▲]

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See detailSNP development from RADseq data for the non-model species Robinia pseudoacacia L.
Verdu, Cindy; Guichoux, Erwan; Quevauvillers, Samuel et al

Poster (2016, April 04)

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See detailEpisodic memory and aging: The effect of perceptual processing fluency on recognition memory processes
Bastin, Christine ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2016, April 03)

Normal aging is characterized by decreased recollection, but better preserved familiarity. Memory tasks that facilitate the use of familiarity should allow attenuating age-related differences in memory ... [more ▼]

Normal aging is characterized by decreased recollection, but better preserved familiarity. Memory tasks that facilitate the use of familiarity should allow attenuating age-related differences in memory. The study tested two hypotheses: (1) can the reliance on familiarity during recognition memory be promoted by increasing the difference in perceptual processing fluency between old and new items; (2) can this manipulation reduce age-related difficulties in episodic memory? Twenty-four young and 24 older adults performed two verbal recognition memory tasks. In the No-Overlap task, target words and new words did not share any letter. Prior exposition to the target words thus induced increased processing fluency of the words and letters, so that fluency difference was a salient and reliable cue to discriminate between old and new words. In the Overlap task, target and new words had letters in common, so fluency cues were less useful. Recollection and familiarity was assessed with the Remember/Know/Guess paradigm. The results showed an age effect on recollection but intact familiarity. Moreover, (1) memory performance was better in the No Overlap than the Overlap task, with a greater hit rate and a smaller false alarm rate associated with familiarity. And, (2) age-related differences in recognition accuracy (hits – false alarms) were significantly attenuated in the No Overlap task compared to the Overlap task. These findings suggest that minimizing the perceptual similarity between targets and distractors, and thus increasing processing fluency differences, allowed to reduce the effect of age on recognition memory performance by facilitating the use of familiarity. [less ▲]

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See detailIterative pruning method of unsupervised clustering for categorical data
Chaichoompu, Kridsadakorn ULg; Tongsima, Sissades; Shaw, Philip James et al

Poster (2016, April 03)

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are commonly used to identify population structures. Iterative pruning Principal Component Analysis (ipPCA) utilizes SNP profiles to assign individuals to ... [more ▼]

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are commonly used to identify population structures. Iterative pruning Principal Component Analysis (ipPCA) utilizes SNP profiles to assign individuals to subpopulations without making assumptions about ancestry. The strategy can be extrapolated to patient samples to identify molecular classes of patients. It is challenging to investigate the utility of substructure detection using profiles based on pre-defined genomic regions-of-interest rather than profiles based on SNPs. Using principles outlined in Fouladi, 2015, we can construct gene-based categorical variables representing different summary gene profiles in a region. These gene-based new constructs no longer have an equal number of unordered category levels. Here, we present C-PCA, an extension of ipPCA to target perform iterative pruning for categorical variables using optimal scaling. It allows performing non-linear principal component analyses to handle possibly non-linearly related variables with different measurement levels. To show the power of C-PCA compared to ipPCA, we simulated 500 individuals and assigned them to two populations of equal size. We considered genetic population distances using Fixation Index from 0.001 to 0.006. For each dataset, we simulated 10,000 independent random SNPs for 100 replicates using the Balding–Nichols model. These were used numerically in ipPCA and as categorical in C-PCA analysis. In conclusion, like ipPCA, we expect C-PCA to perform well in the presence of fine substructures. This paves the way to apply C-PCA to DNA-seq data and input categorical variable derived from genomic regions-of-interest to which common and rare variants are mapped. We foresee additional advantages of C-PCA in this context since region-based categorical variables are likely to be non-linearly associated at the background of underlying gene-gene interaction networks. C-PCA is implemented in R. [less ▲]

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See detailGROMPALA: a membrane-implicit modelling method to screen lipid-interacting molecules
Steinhauer, Sven; Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg; Brasseur, Robert ULg et al

in Software and techniques for Bio-molecular modeling (2016)

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See detailLa violence conjugale : persévérance vs abandon des auteurs masculins lors de leur participation à un groupe de responsabilisation
Di Piazza, Laetitia ULg; Kowal, Cécile; Hodiaumont, Fabienne et al

Poster (2016, April 02)

Le phénomène d'abandon thérapeutique lors de suivi dans le cadre de violence conjugale se trouve au cœur des préoccupations des intervenants venant en aide aux auteurs de ces violences. Ces thérapies en ... [more ▼]

Le phénomène d'abandon thérapeutique lors de suivi dans le cadre de violence conjugale se trouve au cœur des préoccupations des intervenants venant en aide aux auteurs de ces violences. Ces thérapies en groupe de responsabilisation se caractérisent par un taux d'abandon élevé, avec le risque potentiel de récidive associé. L’objectif de cette étude est d’identifier d’éventuelles caractéristiques intrapsychiques permettant de distinguer les usagers qui terminent leur suivi thérapeutique de ceux qui abandonnent au cours de celui-ci. Pour ce faire, une comparaison au sein de ces deux groupes d’individus (abandon : n=23 ; accomplissement du suivi : n=28) a été réalisée à partir de données sociodémographiques et de variables psychologiques spécifiques évaluées par des questionnaires auto-administrés (TAS-20, BIS-11, BDI, PBI, LEDS). Les résultats statistiques montrent que l’âge, le nombre d’événements stressants vécus au cours des six mois précédents l’évaluation et l’appréciation du soutien à l’autonomie perçu vis-à-vis de leur père sont les seules variables qui diffèrent significativement entre les deux groupes. Les autres dimensions mesurées telles que la dépression, l’alexithymie et l’impulsivité, quant à elles, ne produisent pas de résultats significatifs entre les deux groupes. Il semble donc, en définitive, que les hommes plus jeunes présenteront plus de risque de quitter le programme de façon précoce. Malgré tout, l’ensemble de ces résultats pose un sérieux défi pour les intervenants au sein des services d’aide spécialisés. En effet, si tous les individus qui participent aux groupes de responsabilisation présentent les mêmes caractéristiques intrapsychiques, comment prédire, mais surtout accrocher ceux qui abandonneront le programme ? [less ▲]

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See detailViolence conjugale : l’alexithymie augmente-t-elle le risque de comportement violent ?
Di Piazza, Laetitia ULg

Conference (2016, April 02)

Longtemps ignorée voire minimisée par son caractère privé, la violence conjugale constitue aujourd’hui un délit punissable par la Loi. Durant les trente dernières années, de nombreux auteurs ont axé leurs ... [more ▼]

Longtemps ignorée voire minimisée par son caractère privé, la violence conjugale constitue aujourd’hui un délit punissable par la Loi. Durant les trente dernières années, de nombreux auteurs ont axé leurs recherches sur l’impact de ces violences physiques et/ou psychologiques sur les victimes (épouses, ex-partenaires, enfants). Mais, qu’en est-il des auteurs ? Affirmer que les hommes auteurs de violence conjugale sont violents dans toutes leurs relations, est un mythe. En outre, établir le profil moyen de l’homme auteur de violence conjugale est trop complexe en regard du nombre important de formes de violence possibles. En conséquence, l’objectif de cette étude est d’apprécier la présence de caractéristiques psychologiques spécifiques ainsi que leurs liens, pour constater une éventuelle fragilité qui pourrait expliquer le passage à l’acte violent. Dans cette étude, cinquante-trois hommes ont répondu à des questionnaires d’auto-évaluation mesurant l’alexithymie (TAS-20), la dépression (BDI), ainsi que l’impulsivité (BIS-11). Les résultats montrent que l’alexithymie et la dépression sont significativement associées avec l’engagement dans des comportements violents au sein du couple. En effet, les hommes qui ont participé à l’étude rapportent plus de sentiments dépressifs, et plus de difficulté à nommer et à exprimer leurs émotions que la population générale. En outre, un quart des participants sont caractérisés impulsif. En conclusion, ces premiers constats continuent de suggérer l’existence d’un lien majeur entre le trouble alexithymique et la violence conjugale tel que démontré par l’étude de la Professeure Léveillée en 2013. Cette étude apporte par conséquent des pistes de réflexion ayant un impact clinique significatif sur l’évaluation du risque ainsi que sur l’intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailTout ce qui pousse au potager d'intérieur
Jijakli, Haissam ULg

Article for general public (2016)

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See detailHerschel observations of the nebula M1-67 around the Wolf-Rayet star WR 124
Vamvatira-Nakou, C.; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Royer, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 588

Infrared Herschel imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula M1-67 around the Wolf-Rayet star WR 124 have been obtained along with optical imaging observations. The infrared images reveal a ... [more ▼]

Infrared Herschel imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula M1-67 around the Wolf-Rayet star WR 124 have been obtained along with optical imaging observations. The infrared images reveal a clumpy dusty nebula that extends up to 1 pc. The comparison with the optical images shows that the ionized gas nebula coincides with the dust nebula, the dust and the gas being mixed together. A photodissociation region is revealed from the infrared spectroscopic analysis. The analysis of the infrared spectrum of the nebula, where forbidden emission lines of ionized elements were detected, showed that the nebula consists of mildly processed material with the calculated abundance number ratios being N/O = 1.0 ± 0.5 and C/O = 0.46 ± 0.27. Based on a radiative transfer model, the dust mass of the nebula was estimated to be 0.22 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB] with a population of large grains being necessary to reproduce the observations. The comparison of the mass-loss rate and the abundance ratios to theoretical models of stellar evolution led to the conclusion that the nebular ejection took place during a RSG/YSG evolutionary phase of a central star with an initial mass of 32 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB]. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Based in part on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil apparent conductivity measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments: A case study from Western-Thailand
Rudolph, Sebastian; Wongleecharoen, Chalemchart; Lark, Murray et al

in Geoderma (2016), 267

In experimental trials, the success or failure of agricultural improvements is commonly evaluated on the agronomic response of crops, using proper experimental designs with sufficient statistical power ... [more ▼]

In experimental trials, the success or failure of agricultural improvements is commonly evaluated on the agronomic response of crops, using proper experimental designs with sufficient statistical power. Since fine-scale variability of the experimental site can reduce statistical power, efficiency gains in the experimental design can be achieved if this variation is known and used to design blocking, or some proxy variable is used as a covariate. Near-surface geophysical techniques such as electromagnetic induction (EMI), which describes subsurface properties non-invasively by measuring soil apparent conductivity (ECa), may be one source of this information. The motivation of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of EMI-derived ECa measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments. ECa and plant height measurements (the response variable) were taken from an agroforestry experiment in Western Thailand, and their variability was quantified to simulate multiple realizations of ECa and the residuals of the response variable from treatment means. These were combined to produce simulated data from different experimental designs and treatment effects. The simulated data were then used to evaluate the statistical power by detecting three orthogonal contrasts among the treatments in the original experiment. We considered three experimental designs, a simple random design (SR), a complete randomized block design (CRB), and a complete randomized block design with spatially adjusted blocks on plot means of ECa (CRBECa). Using analysis of variance (ANOVA), the smallest effect sizes could be detected with the CRBECa design, which indicates that ECa measurements could be used in the planning phase of an experiment to achieve efficiencies by improved blocking. In contrast, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that substantial power improvements could be gained when ECa was considered as a covariate in the analysis. We therefore recommend that ECa measurements should be used to characterize subsurface variability of experimental sites and to support the statistical analysis of agricultural experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailThat crisis idea! Refugee camps in European borders, from urgent condition to sustainable state
Da Silva, Amanda Carolina ULg

Scientific conference (2016, April 01)

This article aims to explore the transition process of informal camps on the French border to a sustainable state, similarly to « ghettoization ». I observe this issue as a result of a ... [more ▼]

This article aims to explore the transition process of informal camps on the French border to a sustainable state, similarly to « ghettoization ». I observe this issue as a result of a securitizationprocess. I started from the assumption that the ethical and cultural dimensions have particular relevance in this process. This issue requires a transversal analysis, of policies and speeches of actors at local, national and international levels. This is a question of integration policies at the local level more than a question of national or European immigration models. I aim to highlight the local the local level relevance, where the integration is primarily implemented, and therefore local and regional context should matter as much as the national model for the analysis of integration (Martiniello, 2013). In Calais, due to the lack of local immigration policies the civilian population has been pushed to react, they started to build temporary camps, this initiative increased the social exclusion. The civil associations gained more relevance and followers by Facebook, what changes the engagement that pass from local to transnational. In Calais the migratory flow and the informal camps called jungles are known since 1999, until May 2014 these camps around the city center possessed temporary vocation, and were destroyed and rebuilt daily. Therefore, this is also a matter of security speeches. The definition of the context as a crisis situation made possible an agreement between the associations and the government, that amidthe destruction of small camps and concentrated all refugees in a single area, 6.1 kilometers from the city. The political decisions concerning the space occupied by these individuals aimed to make them invisible, placing them far from the city and limiting their access to city services, which by consequence led to the construction of a ghetto. When a situation is defined as a crisis, it passes immediately to the state security sphere, where atypical actions, (as border militarization, mass expulsions, police repression), can be employed to protect the «political community» and eliminate the source of the crisis. This means that in a context defined as a crisis, temporality gains an important dimension, as evokes short term solutions, mobilizing more efforts in building urgency camps than in the areas related to integration. On the other hand the temporary camps, while urgent measures will endure and be normalised, becoming durable spaces of exclusion. The originality of this proposal is to discuss how local policy decisions and non-state actors worked together with a system of temporary camps for the implementation of a complex, semi-permanent exclusion system. This is a matter of contextual perception as a crisis situation, which is designed by production of speeches, and will determine the nature and timeliness of actions and political elaborations. The idea of the refugee crisis is then mobilized to justify emergency actions and security policies; such as closing borders, construction and maintenance of camps as an emergency response. [less ▲]

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